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Maḥlūl

(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term used in Ottoman administrative parlance to mean vacant. It is used in the registers of a grant or office which has been vacated by the previous holder, by death, dismissal, or transfer, and not yet re-allocated. The term is also used more generally for land and other assets left without heir (see also muk̲h̲allafāt ). (Ed.)

al-Ḳummī

(157 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥasan, the author of a local history of the town of Ḳum [ q.v.] in northern Persia, fl. in the 4th/10th century. He is said to have compiled his history originally in Arabic at the instigation of his brother, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī, governor of Ḳum for the Būyids, aiming to gather together and record all the traditions about the arrival of the Arabs in Ḳum and the town’s subsequent history. He dedicated the book to the famous vizier, the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād [see ibn ʿabbād ]. The Arabic original has not survived, but a Persian translation was made by one Ḥasan [b. ʿAlī…

Rābig̲h̲

(368 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Bandar Rābig̲h̲, Rābug̲h̲), a port in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saudi Arabia, in lat. 22° 48ʹ N., and long. 39° 1ʹ E., half-way between D̲j̲udda [ q.v.] and Yanbuʿ. It may perhaps be identified with Ptolemy’s ’Αργα χώμη (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , no. 38). North of Rābig̲h̲ lies al-Abwāʾ [ q.v.], now called al-K̲h̲urayba. the reputed burial place of the Prophet’s mother Āmina [ q.v.]. In the past, the port had no proper harbour. Ships anchored at S̲h̲arm Rābig̲h̲, an inlet about 3 km long, which offered excellent anchorage (Hogarth, Hejaz , 29). From there ca…

Zamzama

(117 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), in early Arabic “the confused noise of distant thunder” (Lane, 1249b), but widely used in the sources for early Islamic history for the priests of the Magians reciting and intoning the Zoroastrian prayers and scriptures, producing (to the Arabs’ ears) an indistinct, droning sound. Thus in al-Ṭabarī, i, 1042, we have the zamzama of the Herbadhs, in 2874 the muzamzim or adherent of Zoroastrianism, and in 2880 zamzama for the Zoroastrian rites and zamāzima for the Magians in general. The term may have passed into Christian Sogdian texts, probably in the early Islamic period, as zmzmʾ

S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲a

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲iyya, the mediaeval Islamic names for a town in the former region of S̲h̲īrwān in eastern Caucasia, from ca. the 4th/10th century capital of the local Yazīdī dynasty of S̲h̲īrwān S̲h̲āhs, by whom it was temporarily re-named Yazīdiyya. For its pre-modern role and then for its post-1917 one, first within the Azerbaijan Republic of the former Soviet Union and now in the independent Republic of Azerbaijan, under its present name of S̲h̲emak̲h̲a, see s̲h̲īrwān and s̲h̲īrwān s̲h̲āhs . (Ed.)

Lālezārī

(172 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Meḥmed Ṭāhir , Ottoman ḳāḍī and author of several theological works, often known as Ḳāḍī Meḥmed. The date of his birth is unknown, but he was born in Istanbul and was presumably connected with the Lālezār quarter near the Fātiḥ Mosque. He became a mollā and a müderris . In 1201/1786-7 he was ḳāḍī at Eyyūb, and then on 30 Muḥarram 1204/20 October 1789 he died at his house in Rumeli Ḥiṣār. None of his extant works has been printed, but these all exist in manuscript in Istanbul libraries. They include a series of theological commentaries, such as the Mīzān al-muḳīm fī maʿrifat al-ḳisṭ…

Ibn Nāṣir

(758 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name, nowadays replaced by al-Nāṣirī , of a Moroccan family who founded the branch of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.] known as Nāṣiriyya and founded its headquarters at the zāwiya of Tamgrūt [ q.v.] in southern Morocco. The numerous biographical sources, published and unedited, as well as a monograph on the family, the Ṭalʿat al-mus̲h̲tarī (Fās 1309) by Aḥmad al-Nāṣirī al-Salāwī, allow its history to be traced easily and allow a genealogical tree to be constructed; the reader will find information on this in the article al-Nāṣiriyya , and there will mer…

Ibn Sanāʾ al-Mulk

(390 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Hibat Allāh b. Abī ’l-Faḍl Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Muʿtamid , known as al-Ḳāḍī al-Saʿīd, Arabic poet of the Ayyūbid period famous mainly for the treatise Dār al-ṭirāz which he devoted to the genre of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ [ q.v.]. He was born in Cairo circa 550/1155, and died there in 608/1211; he was educated by Egyptian teachers and, like his father al-Ḳāḍī al-Ras̲h̲īd, embarked on the career of ḳāḍī ; he worked under the direction of al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil, whom he joined at Damascus and to whom he dedicated some pieces of poetry; he also wrote in praise of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin). …

Ibn ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Miknāsī

(1,083 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿut̲h̲mān , a Moroccan diplomat and vizier of the 12th/18th century, who played a prominent role in the forging of ties between his country and Spain. At the start of his career he followed his father as preacher in one of the mosques of Meknès; here he came to the attention of the Sultan, Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89) who, at a date difficult to determine, took him into his service as a secretary. In 1193/1799, he was …

Ibn ʿUnayn

(449 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Maḥāsin S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Muḥ. b. Naṣr b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ. b. G̲h̲ālib al-Anṣārī , satirical poet born at Damascus on 9 S̲h̲aʿbān 549/19 October 1154, and died there on 20 Rabīʿ I 630/4 January 1233. After receiving a traditional education from the main teachers of Damascus and spending a period in ʿIrāḳ, Ibn ʿUnayn began early to use his lively satire against many different kinds of people; he did not spare even Salāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin), who had just made himself master of the town (570…

Mak̲h̲zen

(5,425 words)

Author(s): Michaux-Bellaire, Ed. | Buret, M.
(a.), from k̲h̲azana, “to shut up, to preserve, to hoard”. The word is believed to have been first used in North Africa as an official term in the second century a. h. applied to an iron chest in which Ibrāhīm b. al-Ag̲h̲lab, emīr of Ifrīḳiya, kept the sums of money raised by taxation and intended for the ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād. At first this term, which in Morocco is now synonymous with the government, was applied more particularly to the financial department, the Treasury. It may be said that the term mak̲h̲zen meaning the Moroccan government and everything more or less connec…

Nāwūsiyya

(164 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Nawūsiyya , the name of an extremist S̲h̲īʿī sect ( rawāfiḍ ) attached to a certain Ibn Nāwūs or Ibn Nawus (sometimes changed into Ibn Mānūs), whose personal name varies according to the sources (ʿAd̲j̲lān, ʿAbd Allāh, Ḥamlān, etc.), or else attached to a place in the vicinity of Hīt called Nāwūsa (see Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 72, 217; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 179: Yāḳūt, s.v.; al-Idrīsī, index; Le Strange, Lands , 64-5). The Nāwūsiyya were characterised by the idea (sometimes attributed to the caliph Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, 138-58/754-75 [ q.v.]) that the imām

ʿAnāḳ

(109 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given by the Arabs to the daughter of Adam, the twin sister of Seth, wife of Cain and mother of ʿŪd̲j̲ [ q.v.]; see Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ (Pellat) index.—In zoology, ʿanāḳ denotes a kind of lynx, the caracal (from the Turkish ḳara ḳulaḳ "black-ear", Persian siyāh gūs̲h̲ ) found in much of Asia and Africa, which is thought to walk in front of the lion and, by its cry, to announce the latter’s approach.—In astronomy, ʿAnāḳ al-Banāt is the ζ of the Great Bear, and ʿAnāḳ al-Arḍ , ϒ Andromedae; see A. Benhamouda, Les Noms arabes des étoiles , in AIEO, Algiers, ix, 1951, 84, 97. (Ed.)

Ibn Ḥayyūs

(253 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Fityān Muḥammad b. Sulṭan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūs al-G̲h̲anawī , Syrian poet of the 5th/11th century. Born at Damascus in Ṣafar 394/December 1003, he seems to have been at first attached to the Banū ʿAmmār [see ʿammār ] of Tripoli in Syria, although he is referred to as being in Aleppo in 429/1037-8; his sympathy with the Fāṭimids of Egypt caused him to fall out of favour with the Banū ʿAmmār, who had become independent, and in 464/1072 he was summoned to Aleppo by the Mirdāsid [ q.v.] Maḥmūd b. Naṣr (457-67/1065-75), in whose praise he began to write. On the death of his patron, he wrote a mart̲…

al-Marwazī

(92 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sukkarī , Arabic poet of Marw, floruit later 4th/10th or early 5th/11th century. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī quotes specimens of his light-hearted and witty poetry, and also of an interesting muzdawad̲j̲a in which he turned Persian proverbs into Arabic rad̲j̲az couplets, a conceit said to be one of his favourite activities. (Ed.) Bibliography T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma, Damascus 1304/1886-7, iv, 22-5, Cairo 1375-7/1956-8, iv, 87-90 C. Barbier de Meynard, Tableau littéraire du Khorassan et de la Transoxiane au IV e siècle de l’hégire, in JA, Ser. 5, i (1853), 205-7.

al-Suwaynī

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Saʿd b. ʿĀlī Bā Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (d. 857/1453), ʿAlawī sayyid of Ḥaḍramawt. He was the student of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAlawī of Tarīm, from the Saḳḳāf branch of the sayyids [see bā ʿalawī ], and in turn the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs, the patron saint of Aden [see ʿadan ], d. 914/1508 [see ʿaydarūs ]. It was this last who was to compose the manāḳib of al-Suwaynī. (Ed.) Bibliography See R.B. Serjeant, The Saiyids of Hadramawt, London 1957.

K̲h̲umayn

(91 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town in the province of Ḳum in modern Iran (lat. 33° 38′ N., long. 50° 03′ E.) some 70 km/42 miles to the south-southeast of Arāk/Sulṭānābād [ q.v.]. It is unmentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers, but now has fame as the birthplace of the Āyatallāh Rūḥ Allāh K̲h̲umaynī (1902-89 [ q.v. in Suppl.]). It is at present administratively in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Maḥallāt. In ca. 1950 it had a population of 7,038, which in 2003 had risen to 59,300. ¶ (Ed.) Bibliography Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, i, 81-2.

K̲h̲unāṣira

(313 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ancient fortified settlement situated some 60 km. to the south-east of Aleppo and 100 km. to the north-east of Ḥamāt, on a route through the desert—on the fringes of which it lies—connecting Aleppo with Bag̲h̲dād. The foundation of the place is attributed to K̲h̲unāsir(a) b. ʿAmr of the Banū Kināna (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 290 and ii, 349), but it is probably older than this. Yāḳūt (s.v.), who cites also al-K̲h̲unāṣir b. ʿAmr, the representative of Abraha al-As̲h̲ram, may be echoing a later legend. In the Umayyad period, this chef-lieu of the kūra of al-Aḥaṣ…

Çakmak

(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…

Īlāf

(678 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḳurʾānic term (CVI, 1-2) which probably refers to economic relations entered into by the Ḳurays̲h̲īs well before the advent of Islam, but which presents problems of reading and interpretation which are not easily solved. In the first place, this Sūra CVI, which is very short and certainly very early (no. 3 in the classification by R. Blachère), begins abruptly, after the basmala , with the words li-īlāfi Ḳurays̲h̲in īlāfihim riḥlata ’l-s̲h̲itāʾi wa ’l-ṣayfi , which may be translated as: “because of the īlāf of the Ḳurays̲h̲īs, [of] their īlāf of the journey of winter and of summer…
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