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(177 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Persian word meaning the song of the nightingale, and hence by extension fame, repute, and loud cries of various kinds. In Turkish usage it is applied more particularly to the call of the muezzin [see ad̲h̲ān ] and to the Muslim war-cry ( Allāhu Akbar and Allāh Allāh ). In the Ottoman Empire it was used of certain ceremonial and public prayers and acclamations, more specifically those of the corps of Janissaries [see yeñi Čeri ]. Such prayers were recited at pay parades and similar occasions, at the beginning of a campaign, when they were accomp…


(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “will”, a term adopted in Ottoman official usage from 1832 to designate decrees and orders issued in the name of the Sultan. The formal procedure was for draft decrees prepared by ministers and officials to be addressed to the Sultan’s chief secretary ( Serkātib-i s̲h̲ahriyārī ), who read them to the Sultan and received and noted his comments. If he approved, the chief secretary then communicated the text to the Grand Vizier, as the Sultan’s will. Under the constitution, the Sultan’s function was limited to giving his assent to the decisions of the government. The term Irāde


(132 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town and fortress, formerly in the native state of Ḥaydarābād, now in the S̲h̲olapur District of Maharas̲h̲tra State of the Indian Union (lat. 18° 16′ N., long 75° 27′ E.) The fortress is attributed, like many of those in the Deccan, to the Bahmanī minister Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.], i.e. to the third quarter of the 9th/15th century, but may well be earlier [see burd̲j̲. III. at vol. I, 1323b]. Parendā was for a short time the capital of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs [ q.v.] after the capture of Aḥmadnagar [ q.v.] by Akbar’s forces in 1014/1605, but was conquered by Awrangzīb when he was gove…


(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ethnic designation stemming from Lamaṭa, a quarter of the Moroccan town of Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, borne in particular by two mystics: 1. Aḥmad al-Ḥabīb b. Muḥammad al-G̲h̲umārī b. Ṣālīḥ al-Ṣiddīḳī (since he traced his genealogy back to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr) al-Ṣid̲j̲ilmāssī , who belonged to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.]; he had numerous pupils, including Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Hilālī [see al-Hilālī in Suppl.] and his cousin through his female relatives, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak (see below). He died in the odour of sanctity at Sid̲j̲ilmāssa on 4 Muḥarram 1165/23 November 1751. Bibliograph…


(74 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, a small settlement on the Ḵh̲awr al-ʿUdayd, a creek on the southeastern coast of the Ḳaṭar [ q.v.] peninsula on the southern Gulf shores (iat 24° 33′ N., long. 51° 30′ E.). It lies in the area of the undefined frontier between Ḳaṭar and Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], one of the constituent shaykhdoms of the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to abū Ẓaby and Ḳaṭar.

Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of three districts of Anatolia in early Ottoman times. 1. In 699/1299-1300, ʿOt̲h̲mān I b. Ertog̲h̲rul gave his commander Ṭorg̲h̲ud Alp [ q.v.] the district of Inegöl just to the east of Bursa. The name Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli appears in the early historians ʿĀs̲h̲i̊k-pas̲h̲a-zāde and Nes̲h̲rī, but disappears by the 10th/16th century. 2. A place in the Tas̲h̲li̊ḳ Silifke area on the southern coast of Anatolia in Ḳaramānid times. 3. A place in the steppe lands of Aḳ S̲h̲ehir and Aḳ Sarāy in the hands of the Ṭorg̲h̲ud Bey family during the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries. (Ed.) Bibliography İA, …


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, patriarch, the form found in Ottoman Turkish (see Redhouse, Turkish and English lexicon, s.v.) for the Patriarchs of the Greek Orthodox and Eastern Christian Churches in the empire, of whom by the 19th century there were seven. It stems from the Arabic form biṭrīḳ/baṭrīḳ [ q.v.] “patricius”, confused with baṭriyark/baṭraḳ “patriarch”, also not infrequently found in mediaeval Arabic usage as faṭrak . See G. Graf, Verzeichnis arabischer kirchliche Termini 2, Louvain 1954, 84; C.E. Bosworth, Christian and Jewish religious dignitaries in Mamlûk Egypt and Syria ..., in IJMES, iii (197…


(239 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or menangkabau, the most numerous of the peoples of the island of Sumatra [ q.v.] in the Indonesian Republic (1980 population estimate, 6 million). They inhabit the Padang highlands of west-central Sumatra, but there are also appreciable numbers of Minangkabau emigrants, including to Negro Sembilan in the Malay peninsula [ q.v.]. Originally under Indonesian cultural and religious influence, as the centre of the Hindu-Malayan empire of Malayu, by the early 17th century much of their land had become Muslim through the influence of the Sultanate of Atjèh [ q.v.] at the northern tip of…


(105 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Banū Nīsān, the name of a family of ruʾasāʾ (pl. of raʾīs [ q.v.]), of a fabulous richness, who held power at Āmid [see diyār bakr ] in the 6th/12th century under the nominal suzerainty of the Inālid [ q.v.] Turcomans. They even placed their name on coins. Their rule came to an end with the conquest of the town by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn [ q.v.], who accused them of having cultivated the friendship of, and even to have provided assistance for, the Assassins [see Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 103, 297 Abū S̲h̲āma, ii, 39 Cl. Cahen, Mouvements populaires, in Arabica, v/3 (1958),…


(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)


(3,976 words)

Author(s): Ed. | D. Sourdel | P. Minganti
, colloquially also Falasṭīn, an Arabic adaptation of the classical Palestine (Greek Παλαιστίνη Latin Palaestina), the land of the Philistines. The name was used by Herodotus (i, 105; ii, 106; iii, 91; iv, 39) and other Greek and Latin authors to designate the Philistine coastlands and sometimes also the territory east of it as far as the Arabian desert. After the suppression of the Jewish revolts in 70 and 132-5 A.D. and the consequent reduction in the Jewish population the name Syria Palaestin…


(923 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Kaye, A.S.
(etymology of this name obscure), a group of Arabs, of nomadic origin, found by early modern times (the 19th century) in the central Sudan belt of Africa, now coming within the countries bordering on Lake Chad, sc. western Chad, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroons and the southeastern tip of Niger. 1. History. Their origin was in Dārfūr and Wādāy [ q.vv.], and they migrated westwards at an unknown date, perhaps as early as the 14th century; in the 17th century they were present in Bagirmi [ q.v.] to the southeast of Lake Chad as that nation took shape. The earliest arrivals…


(146 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), pl. d̲j̲azāʾir , a term which signifies essentially an island and secondarily a peninsula (for example D̲j̲azīrat al-Andalus , Spain; Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab [see al-ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat-]). By extension, This same word is applied also to territories situated between great rivers (see following article) or separated from the rest of a continent by an expanse of desert; it also designates a maritime country (see Asín Palacios, Abenházam de Cordoba , Madrid 1927-32, i, 291 n. 347) and, with or without a following al-nak̲h̲l , an oasis (see Dozy, Suppl ., s.v.). Finally, with the Ismāʿīlīs d…

al-Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir (or al-Muṭahhar) al-Maḳdisī

(504 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Naṣr, the otherwise unknown author of an “historical” encyclopaedia called Kitāb al-Badʾ wa ’l-taʾrīk̲h̲ composed at Bust [ q.v.] around 355/966 at the prompting of an anonymous Sāmānid minister. Cl. Huart had the merit of bringing out of oblivion an eloquent piece of work which witnesses to the interest shown in the history of humanity, probably less in regard to actual events than in regard to culture, by mediaeval Muslims. Huart published, on the basis of an Istanbul ms., the Arabic text of this and a Fren…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. tug̲h̲rul s̲h̲āh , the Sald̲j̲ūḳid, was raised to the throne of Kirmān by the Atabeg Muʾayyad al-Dīn Rayḥān in succession to his father on the latter’s death in 565/1170 but soon afterwards had to make way for his elder brother Arslān S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The two brothers there upon fought with one another with varying success till the death of Bahrām S̲h̲āh in 570/1174-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Afḍal al-Dīn Kirmānī, Badāʾiʿ al-Azmān fī waḳāʾiʿ Kirmān, ed. Muḥammad Mahdī Balzānī, Tehran 1947, 50 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, i, 35 ff. ZDMG, xxxix, 378 ff.


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad b. Sahl al-Sāmarrī , traditionist and man of letters, originally from Surra man raʾā (Sāmarrā; Ziriklī, Aʿlām , vi, 297, makes him a native of Samaria/Sāmira), who was, in particular, the pupil of ʿUmar b. S̲h̲abba [ q.v.]. In 325/937 he went to Damascus and taught there ḥadīt̲h̲ , dying at ʿAsḳalān (at Jaffa, according to Ziriklī) in 327/939 aged ca. 90 years. He left behind several works on ethics and on belles-lettres, one of which has been printed at Cairo in 1350/1931-2, the Kitāb Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāḳ wa-maʿālihā . Othe…


(3,688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Ed.
(a.), the measurement of plane surfaces, also in modern usage, survey, the technique ofsurv eying. In this article, measures of length and area will be considered, those of capacity, volume and weight having been dealt with under makāyīl wamawāzīn . For the technique of surveying, see misāḥa, ʿilm al- . 1. In the central Islamic lands. In pre-modern times, there were a bewildering array of measures for length and superficial area, often with the same name but differing locally in size and extent. As Lane despairingly noted, “of the measures and…


(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya, or Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), a contemptuous term derived from ḥas̲h̲w (“farce” and hence “prolix and useless discourse”) and with the general meaning of “scholars” of little worth, particularly traditionists; this term is sometimes associated with g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ and g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar , and even with raʿāʿ , “the scum of the populace” (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif , 96; tr. Lecomte, 90), and used by some Sunnis of extremist traditionists or those whose researches are of very little value. Fairly close to Nābita [ q.v.] and to Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], it is used, in a narrower se…


(701 words)

Author(s): M. Glünz | Ed.
, the narcissus, in Turkish nergis , in Persian nargis and also ʿabhar (cf. F. Meier, Die schöne Mahsatī , Wiesbaden 1963, i, 251). In classical Arabic, Persian and Turkish poetry the narcissus appears both in descriptions of nature and in erotic poetry. Instances of the narcissus as one of the items of the garden can be found in the exordia of panegyric ḳaṣīdas , in wine and love poetry ( k̲h̲amriyyāt , g̲h̲azaliyyāt ) and, of course, in the specialised genres of garden, flower and spring poetry ( rawḍiyyāt , zahriyyāt , rabīʿiyyāt ). A number of Arab poets, e.g. Ibn al-Muʿtazz and Ibn al-Rūmī [ q.v…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescribe any particular celebration for the first month of the year, except that a voluntary fast-day is recommended on the tenth [see ʿās̲h̲ūrāʾ ]. However, the first ten days of the month are considered as particularly blessed (Lane, Manners and customs, chs. ix, xxiv). The S̲h̲īʿa know several celebrations during this month [see muḥarram ; taʿziya ]. In most Islamic countries, New Year’…
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