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Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, al-barāmika . 1. Origins; to the Bibl . there should be added Le Strange, Lands , 421-2; Barthold, An historical geography of Iran , Princeton 1984, 14-15; R.W. Bulliet, Naw Bahār and the survival of Iranian Buddh…

Fallūd̲j̲a

(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī

(224 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Anṣārī , Andalusian poet, historian and traditionist, born at Granada in 467/1074. He had a profound knowledge of Arabic language and literature, and was a prolific poet, particularly of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt . He was kātib of the amīr Abu Muḥammad Tās̲h̲fīn at Granada; but his fame rests on a history of the Almoravid dynasty entitled Taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla al-lamtūniyya or al-Anwār al-d̲j̲aliyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawla al-murābiṭiyya ; at first ending at the year 530/1135 6, then continued by the author until short…

Körfüz, Körfüs

(305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(the first spelling in e.g. Pīrī Reʾīs and Rās̲h̲id, the second in Pečewī), the Turkish name for the island of Corfu off the coast of Epirus. Pīrī Reʾīs gives a full account of the island, together with a map, in his Baḥriyye (ed. Kahle, Berlin and Leipzig 1926-7, i, 113-16, No. 54). The Ottomans never succeeded in dislodging from Corfu the Venetians, who controlled it from the opening of the 15th century until 1797, but there were two major Turkish attempts to occupy the island. The first took place in Rabīʿ I 944/August 1537 in the reign of Süleymān the Magnificent. The fleet …

Ḳaml

(997 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lice (the individual louse being ḳamla ; some authorities believe that ḳaml applies only to females and that for males the term is ṣuʾāb , pl. ṣiʾbān , although the latter designates rather the nits). The family to which This hemipterous insect belongs has numerous species, but Arabic does not seem to have distinguished between them, for not even the head-louse ( pediculus capitis) and the body-louse ( p. vestimenti) are treated separately. Although the existence of nits which clung to the skin was known of, the louse was thought to be engendered spontaneously i…

D̲j̲arīma

(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also d̲j̲urm , a sin, fault, offence. In Ottoman usage, in the forms d̲j̲erīme and d̲j̲ereme , it denoted fines and penalties (see d̲j̲urm). In the modern laws enacted in Muslim countries it has become a technical term for crime ( d̲j̲urm in Pakistan). For the corresponding Islamic concepts, see ḥadd , and for penal law in general, ʿuḳūba . (Ed.)

Tawrīḳ

(81 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the verbal noun from the form II verb warraḳa , literally, “the act of putting forth leaves, branches”, used as a term of art and architecture in the sense of arabesque, pattern of vegetal adornment and decoration. Al-tawrīḳ was taken into mediaeval Spanish usage as ataurique , whence Pedro de Alcala’s definition pintura de lazos morisca, tavrîq (Dozy and Engelmann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l’Arabe 2 , Leiden 1869, 214). See further, arabesque. (Ed.)

ʿAmal

(2,071 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de | Gardet, L. | Berque, J. | Ed.
(a.). 1. ʿAmal , performance, action, is usually discussed by the speculative theologians and philosophers only in connection with belief [see ʿilm, īmān] or with ʿilm and naẓar . From Hellenistic tradition was known the definition of philosophy as the "knowledge of the nature of things and the doing of good" (cf. Mafātīḥ , ed. van Vloten, 131 f.). Many Muslim thinkers have emphasised the necessity or at least the desirability of this combination (cf. Goldziher, Kitāb Maʿānī al-Nafs , 54*-60*). But it is the intellectualism of the Greek philosophy, in…

Pas̲h̲a Ḳapusu, Wezīr Ḳapusu

(85 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term of ¶ Ottoman administration denoting the building presented by Sultan Meḥemmed IV in 1064/1654 to the Grand Vizier Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a and intended to serve both as an official residence and as an office; after the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] period it became known as the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī [ q.v.] or Sublime Porte, and soon came to house most of the administrative departments of the Dīwān-i̊ Hümāyūn [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography M.Z. Pakalin, Osmanli tarih deyimleri ve terimleri sözlügü, Istanbul 1946-54, ii, 757.

al-Aʿs̲h̲ā

(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the night-blind”, is the surname of a number of early Arab poets (17 in all; see al-Āmidī, al-Muʾtalif , 12 ff.; Ag̲h̲āni , index; L.A., s.v.); each of them is connected with a tribe (Aʿs̲h̲ā Banī Fulān) and, apart from the most celebrated of their number, al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bakr (or the Ḳays) [ q.v.] and al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Hamdān [ q.v.], the following are worthy of note: al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bāhila (ʿĀmir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Riyāḥ) who is included among the aṣḥāb al-marāt̲h̲ī by Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , ed. S̲h̲ākir, 169, 175 (with refs.); see also al-Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa , index; Abu Zayd al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, Ḏj̲a…

Unayf

(91 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Dald̲j̲ab. Ḳunāfa al-Kalbī (full genealogy in al-Tabarī, ii, 204, 428, and see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, i, Table 286, ii, 572), tribal chief of the Kalb in Syria [see kalb b. wabara ], fl. in the early part of the 7th century. His son Baḥdal was the father of Maysūn [ q.v.], wife of the Umayyad caliph Muʿāwiya I and mother of Yazīd I, and a strenuous supporter of the Sufyānid cause. (Ed.) Bibliography See also H. Lammens, Etudes sur le règne du calife Moʿâwia Ier , in MFOB, iii (1908), 150.

Ḳardā and Bāzabdā

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ancient districts of Upper Mesopotamia (al-D̲j̲azīra), often mentioned together. The first place derives its name from Bēth Ḳardū, the land of the Carduci, which became Bāḳardā; according to Yāḳūt, s.v., this form is found “in the books”, but the local people say Ḳardā. The district comprised ca. 200 villages, the most notable being al-D̲j̲ūdī and T̲h̲amānīn, and the district of Faysabūr; it produced mainly corn and barley. The original chef-lieu , Ḳardā, lost its importance and was replaced by Bāsūrīn. Bāzabdā, for its part, is the name of a district…

ʿAlawīs

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Terrasse, H. | Ed.
( ʿalawiyya ), the reigning dynasty in Morocco. Morocco at the advent of the ʿAlawid dynasty. When the ʿAlawid S̲h̲urafāʾ [see s̲h̲arīf ] succeeded in asserting their sovereignty over Morocco, the country was rent by a serious political, social and religious crisis. The great movement of maraboutism and xenophobia for which the growth of Ṣūfism and S̲h̲arīfism and the development of the religious brotherhoods had for long paved the ¶ way, and which had manifested itself as early as the 15th century, the period of incursions by Portuguese and Spanish Christians on…

Čobān-Og̲h̲ullari̊

(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebey s [ q.v.] in Ottoman Anatolia, who controlled the districts ( nāḥiyes ) of Tiyek, Ekbez and Hacılar in the eastern parts of the Amanus Mountains or Gâvur Daği (in the hinterland of Iskenderun [see iskandarūn ] in modern Turkey). They claimed hereditary power in the area from the time of Sultan Murād IV (1032-49/1623-40), when the latter, in the course of his campaign against the Persians in ¶ Bag̲h̲dād, granted these districts to a local shepherd ( ćobān ). By the 19th century, the family was divided into two branches, one controlling…

Ibn al-Wardī

(207 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar , S̲h̲āfiʿī scholar, d. in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 861/September-October ¶ 1457. He is said to be the author of the K̲h̲arīdat al-ʿad̲j̲āʾib wa-farīdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib , a sort of geography and natural history without any scientific value. In spite of the authorities mentioned in the introduction (al-Masʿūdī, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, al-Marrākus̲h̲ī), the K̲h̲arīda is merely a plagiarism of the Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-funūn wa-salwat al-maḥzūn of Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān b. S̲h̲abīb al-Ḥarrānī al-Ḥanbalī, who lived in Egypt circa 732/1332. The work has neverth…

D̲j̲imat

(22 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Malay), an amulet, more particularly a written amulet. The word is of Arabic origin = ʿazīma [see Ḥamāʾil ]. (Ed.)

al-Mug̲h̲ammas

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a valley near to Mecca, a short distance from the road to al-Ṭāʾif, cited, especially in old poetry, because the tomb of Abū Rig̲h̲āl [ q.v.] was traditionally located there. The correct reading of the toponym is not however certain, with variation between al-Mag̲h̲ammas, al-Mug̲h̲ammis and al-Mug̲h̲ammas. The latter form seems to be the most plausible, for it denotes a spot covered with scrub and bushes in which it is possible to hide, and, according to a tradition, it was there that the Prophet would go asid…

Medḥī

(608 words)

Author(s): Ambros, E.G. | Ed.
, the pen name ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) used by a number of Ottoman poets whose poetry is known to date mainly through the samples found in med̲j̲mūʿa s and ted̲h̲kire s. Judging by these, they are all poets of secondary importance at best. Two should be singled out. 1. Maḥmūd Efendi of Gelibolu (Gallipoli), known as Ḳara Maḥmūd (or Ḳara Ḳāḍī-zāde according to Beyānī). A mülāzim of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Abu ’l-Suʿūd Efendi [ q.v.], he first became a müderris . After being dismissed from a position with a daily salary of forty aḳče s, he was appointed in 984/1576 to the S̲h̲āh Ḵh̲ūbān medrese

Wayhind

(103 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, the form found in mediaeval Indo-Muslim sources for a town of northwestern India, in the 12th century geography of Kas̲h̲mīr by Kalhaṇa called Udabhānda, now marked by the settlement of Hund some 9 km/15 miles north-east of Attock [see at́ak ] in Pakistan. It was the capital of the powerful Hindu-S̲h̲āhī dynasty of Indian princes who opposed Sebüktigin and his son Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna in the late 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries, until Maḥmūd finally vanquished Rād̲j̲ā D̲j̲aypāl; for further details, see hindū-s̲h̲āhīs . (Ed.) Bibliography See that for hindu-s̲h̲āhīs, to which s…

Iskandar Ḵh̲ān b. D̲j̲ānī Beg

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ruler in Transoxania, from his capital Buk̲h̲ārā, of the Turco-Mongol S̲h̲ībānid [ q.v.] or Abu ’l-Ḵh̲ayrid dynasty, ruled 968-91/1561-83. Iskandar was in fact a weak and ineffective ruler. Real power was in the hands of his son ʿAbd Allāh, who had shown his ability against rival families in Transoxania as early as 958/1551 and who became the greatest of the S̲h̲ībānids; after his father’s death he was to reign unchallenged for a further sixteen years [see ʿabd allāh b. iskandar ]. For the course of events in these decades, see s̲h̲ībānids and R.D. McChesney, EIr art. Central Asia . vi. In th…
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