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(2,027 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the most important of the four great cities of Ḵh̲urāsān (Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Marw, Herāt and Balk̲h̲), one of the great towns of Īrān in the middle ages. The name goes back to the Persian Nēw-S̲h̲āhpuhr (“Fair S̲h̲āpūr”); in Armenian it is called Niu-S̲h̲apuh, Arab. Naisābūr or Nīsābūr, new Pers. Nēs̲h̲āpūr, pronounced in the time of Yāḳūt: Nīs̲h̲āwūr, now Nīs̲h̲āpūr (Nöldeke, Ṭabarī, p. 59, note 3; G. Hoffmann, Auszüge . . ., p. 61, note 530). The town occasionally bore the official title of honour, Īrāns̲h̲ahr. Nīs̲h̲āpūr was founded by S̲h̲āhpuhr I, son of Ardas̲h̲īr I (Ḥamza al-I…


(2,740 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, Raḥbat Mālik b. Ṭawḳ or Raḥbat al-S̲h̲aʾm, a town on the right bank of the Euphrates, the modern al-Miyādīn. Hardly anything definite is known about the history of the town before the Muslim era. In the middle ages it was usually identified as the Reḥōbōt han-Nāhār of the Bible (Gen. xxxvi. 37) i.e. Reḥōbōt on the river (Euphrates) especially in the Talmud and by the Syriac authors (e. g. Mich. Syr., cf. index, p. 63*; Barhebraeus, Chron. syr., ed. Bedjan, p. 273 and passim), who usually call it Reḥabōt, Raḥabat (M. Hartmann, in Z.D.P.V., xxiii., p. 42, note 1). A. Musil ( The Middle Euphrates, N…


(433 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a river in Syria, now called S̲h̲arīʿat al-Manāḍira (from the Beduin tribe ʿArab al-Manāḍira). It rises in the Ḥawrān, flows west through a deeply cut valley of erosion, the Wādī al-Ramād, which describes a flat curve open to the south, to the G̲h̲awr, where it flows into the Nahr al-Urdunn (the Jordan) below Lake Gennesareth at Ḏj̲isr al-Mud̲j̲āmiʿ. Pliny calls it ( Hist. Nat., v. 74) Hieromix or Hieromices ( Gadara Hieromice praefluente, var. Hieromiace; the now so popular form “ Hieromax” is not recorded). On the 12th Rad̲j̲ab 15 (Aug. 20, 636 a. d.) in the celebrated battle on the Y…


(371 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, 1. a place in Syria. It is situated in the ḥarra of al-Ṣafāʾ on an eminence in the Wādi ’l-S̲h̲ām, which runs from the Ḏj̲ebel al-Drūz (Ḏj̲ebel al-Ḥawrān) to the plain of Ruḥba, at the spot where it joins the Wādi ’l-Saʾūṭ. It ¶ corresponds to the Roman military post of Namara (Waddington, Inscriptions, N°. 2270). Less than a mile S. E. of al-Namāra, Dussaud found the Nabataean-Arab tomb inscription of the “King of all the Arabs”, Maiu ’l-Ḳais bar ʿAmru, i. e. the Lak̲h̲mid Imru ’l-Ḳais b. ʿAmru, of the 7th Keslūl 223 of the era of Boṣrāʾ = Dec. 7,. 328 a. d. (cf. vol. i., p. 382a). Bibliography R. Duss…


(5,384 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Greek Edessa, Syr. Orhāi, Armen. Urhay, Ar. al-Ruhāʾ), an important town in Diyār Muḍar, the ancient Osrhoëne. The origin of the town, which must have existed before the Macedonian conquest, is lost in obscurity. Repeated attempts to prove the existence of the name in Assyrian times (E. Honigmann, Urfa keilinschriftlich nachweisbar?, in Z. A., N. F., v. 1930, p. 301 sq.) have so far failed. The original name was probably ’Ορρόη which has survived in that of the spring Καλλιῤῥόη, which lay below the walls of the town, and in that of the district of Osrho…


(2,688 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, capital of Diyār Muḍar in al-Ḏj̲azīra on the left bank of the Euphrates, shortly before it is joined by the Nahr Balīk̲h̲ (ΒασίλειοΣ, Βίληχα, ΒάλισσоΣ). The town was in antiquity called Kallinikos. Nikephorion is to be located in the same region (Strabo, xvi. 747; Isidores of Charax, in Geogr. Graeci Min., ed. Müller, p. 247; Dio Cass., xl. 13; Pliny, Nat. Hist., v. 86; vi. 119; Ptolemy, Geogr., v. 17; Stephen Byz.); but its usual identification with Kallinikos is certainly wrong and it may be a case of two adjoining towns as with the “black” and “white al-Raḳ…

Rās al-ʿAin

(1,980 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(ʿAin Warda), a town in al-Ḏj̲azīra on the Ḵh̲ābūr. In ancient times it was already known as Resain-Theodosiopolis ( Notitia dignitatum, or. xxxvi. 20) or ‘Ρέσινα (Steph. Byz.), Syriac Rēs̲h̲ ʿAinā. On account of its position at the sources of the Ḵh̲ābūr it has been identified with the road-station Fons Scabora of the Tabula Peutingeriana (fons Chabura in Pliny, Nat. hist., xxxi. 37; xxxii. 16) (E. Herzfeld, Reise im Euphrat u. ¶ Tigris-Gebiet, i. 191; A. Poidebard, La Trace de Rome dans le désert de Syrie, p. 151 sq.). According to Ioannes Malalas (Bonn, p. 345 sq.) in whom the form ‘Ρoφ…

Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad

(366 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an Ortokid. He was the son and successor of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ḳarā-Arslān, lord of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and of a considerable part of Diyār Bakr (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, ed. Tornberg, xi. 217) who, according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (xi. 207), died in 562 (1166—1167) but according to the numismatic evidence may have lived till 570 or 571 (van Berchem, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gött., N. F., vol. IX/iii., 1907, p. 143, note 3). Nūr al-Dīn married the daughter of Sulṭān Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān but when he treated her disgracefully, his father-in-law was very angry and threatened him with war…

Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān

(3,312 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in northern Syria, often called simply al-Maʿarra. It is celebrated as the birthplace of the poet Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad al-Maʿarrī [q. v.]. According to al-Samʿānī ( Kitāb al-Ansāb, reproduced by D. S. Margoliouth, G.M.S., xx., 1912, fol. 536v, l. ¶ 4) the nisba from the place-name was Maʿarnamī to distinguish it from that of Maʿarrat Naṣrīn, Maʿarnasī. The town probably lay on the site of the ancient Arra which is called Κώμη ῎Αῤῥων οἰνοφοροΣ in an inscription. Yaʿḳūbī says that Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān is an old town in ruins. Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw in 438 …


(6,242 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an old city, not far from the upper Euphrates. It lies at the junction of important roads (in antiquity: the Persian royal road and the Euphrates route; in modern times Samsūn-Sīwās-Malaṭya-Diyārbakr and Ḳaisarīya-Albistān-Malaṭya-Ḵh̲arpūt) in a plain, the fertility and richness of which in all kinds of vegetables and fruits was celebrated by the Arab geographers, as in modern times by von Moltke and others, at the northern foot of the Taurus not very far south of Tok̲h̲ma-ṣū (Arab. Naḥr al-Ḳu…


(1,543 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, earlier Anṭarṭūs, frequently Anṭarsūs (by analogy with Ṭarsūs), a town on the Syrian coast; the ancient Antarados opposite the island of Arados (Arabic Ḏj̲azīrat Arwād, also written Arwād̲h̲; now Ruwād). Under the Roman empire, Antarados was called Constantia but the old name remained alongside of this and in the end drove the latter out again. The Muslims took the fortress of Ṭarṭūs under ¶ ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit in 17 (638). The town was destroyed and remained for a lung time uninhabited. Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, fortified it and settled there and in Maraḳīya an…


(529 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(a., plur. of t̲h̲ag̲h̲r, “cleft, opening”), the zone of the fortresses built against the Byzantines in the Syrian and Mesopotamián marches (hence also T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr al-Rūmīya). In Constantinos Porphyrogennetos they are called τὰ Στόμια ( De Cerimon., ed. Bonn, i. 657; cf. Reiske’s note, ii., p. 777 = Migne, Patrol. Graec., cxii., col. 1220, note 38), by the Syrians “the land of Tagrā” (Michael Syrus, ed. Chabot, iii. 20 sq., 467; Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccles., ed. Abbeloos-Lamy, i. 339 sq.). This frontier zone ran from Ṭarsūs [q. v.] in Cilicia along the Taurus on to Malaṭya…


(284 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in the ʿIrāḳ, near al-Kūfa. It is known mainly from the accounts of the battle of Ḳādisīya. From the statements collected by Yāḳūt regarding its position it appears that two different places of this name had later to be distinguished, namely one near Kūfa on the road to Syria, which is several times mentioned in the time of the Caliphs ʿAlī and Muʿāwiya and another, a watering station between al-Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲a and al-ʿAḳaba, 3 mīl from al-Ḥufair, to the right of the road to Mecca. Several encounters took place there during the second battle of Ḳādisīya. According…


(489 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, in French usually Lattaquié or Lattakié, became the capital of the autonomous “gouvernement de Lattaquié (État des Alaouites)”, created on Aug. 31, 1920 by the French mandatory administration; its constitution was promulgated on May 14, 1930 by the Haut-Commissaire. Since that date the town, which under Turkish rule before the World War looked ruined and filthy, has developed into a clean and flourishing town. It has about 25,000 inhabitants including about 18,000 Sunnī Muslims, 400 Orthodox G…

Bīr al-Sabʿ

(134 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
the Arabic name of Beers̲h̲ebaʿ in Southern Palestine. At this place, south of ʿAsḳalān, were the springs which Abraham was said to have dug with his own hands; many legends were current about them. The place has been uninhabited since the xivth century. Numerous Greek inscriptions have been found at the modern Bīr es-Sebaʿ. (E. Honigmann) Bibliography Lord Lindsay’s codex of the Marāṣid in Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, v. 14, 1. 5 ʿAlī al-Harawī, Oxford MS., fol. 46 Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ed. Defrémery and Sanguinetti i. 126 Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, London 1890, p. 402 sq. Robins…


(2,096 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
the ancient Hebron, so called after the “friend of God” (θεοΦιλήΣ), Abraham (see the art. ibrāhīm), a town in South Palestine (also called Ḥabrūn, Ḥabrā or Masd̲j̲id Ibrāhīm). It lay in an exceedingly fertile valley between the heights of the Ḏj̲abal Naṣra (? reading uncertain) noted especially for its richness in fruits. According to a widely disseminated legend, Muḥammad is said to have granted the four districts Ḥabrūn, al-Marṭūm (so Yāḳūt, ii. 194; in Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw, Safar-nama, ed. Kawiani 1923, p. 46, 14: Maṭlūn, varr. Marṭlūn, Marṭūn; in al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, ed…


(745 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the harbour of Anṭākiya, which lay 12 mīl from the Mediterranean. The town owed its rise owing to the gradual silting up of the harbour of Seleucia Pieria which lay a little farther north. Even in the time of Vespasian an attempt had been made, by making a great tunnel through the rock (which still exists and is called al-Gārīs, i. e. the Pers. Čehrīz or Kārīz) to avert the danger of setting up its port from the great trading centre but without permanent success. In the early Muslim period Salūḳīya is still occasionally mentioned (al-Balād̲h̲urī, ed de Goeje, p. 148, 12: Ḥiṣn Salūḳīya; al-Masʿūd…


(1,579 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an Arab people who lived in ancient times in Arabia Petraea. — As early as the seventh century B. C. the Nabayāti are mentioned by Assurbanipal ( Keilinschr. Bibl., ii. 216 sqq.). Whether the Nebayōt̲h̲ of the Old Testament are to be identified with them is uncertain (against the identification: Nöldeke in Schenkel’s Bibellexicon, s. v. Nabatäer; for it amongst others: Musil, Arabia Deserta, New York 1927, p. 492). The Nabataeans were never completely subjected either by the Assyrians, or the Medes, Persians or the Macedonian kings (Diodor. ii. 48). In 312 b.c. Antigonos sent two expe…


(1,170 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī), a town and place of pilgrimage in the ʿIrāḳ 6 miles west of al-Kūfa. It lies on the edge of the desert on a flat barren eminence from which the name al-Nad̲j̲af has been transferred to it (A. Musil, The Middle Euphrates, p. 35). According to the usual tradition, the Imām al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [q. v.] was buried near Kūfa, not far from the dam which protected the city from flooding by the Euphrates at the place where the town of al-Nad̲j̲af later arose (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 760), also called Nad̲j̲af al-Kūfa (Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Lexicon geographicum, ed. …
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