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Bīr al-Sabʿ

(214 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the Arabic name of Beersheba, in southern Palestine. At this place were the springs which Abraham is said to have dug with his own hands; many legends are current about them. The place was uninhabited from the 8th/14th century, but was rebuilt by the Turks in 1319/ 1901 as an administrative centre for the south. This step was no doubt influenced by the dispute with Britain over the Egyptian-Palestinian frontier and by the need for closer surveillance of the southern tribes. In October 1917 a d…

Baḥr al-Rūm

(236 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the Arabic name for the Mediterranean. It took its name from al-Rūm (Bilād al-Rūm), the Roman, i. e. Byzantine, Empire. Other names were also used, such as Baḥr al-Mag̲h̲rib [q. v.]. The name Adria, which originally meant only the Adriatic Sea, became applied in later antiquity to an area which gradually expanded eastwards. For example Jordanes speaks of Rodus totius Atriae insularum metropolis and the Tabula Peutingeriana makes the Adriaticum Pelagus extend to Crete (Partsch, Pauly-Wissowa’s Realenzykl., i., col. 418; A. Ronconi, Per l’onomastica antica dei mari, in Studi italian…

al-Ṭūr

(1,893 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, 1. Ḏj̲abal al-Tūr, more rarely Ṭūr Sīnāʾ, Mount Sinai. The Arab geographers (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, ed. Reinaud, p. 69; al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, transl. Wüstenfeld, in Abh. G. W. Gött., xxv. 100; Maḳrīzī, Gesch. d. Kopten, transl. Wüstenfeld, op. cit., iii. 113; Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iii. 557) explain the name as of Hebrew origin; it occurs once in the Ḳurʾān as Ṭūr Sīnīn (xcv. 2, emended in Ibn al-Faḳīh, B. G. A., v. 104 to Ṭūr Sīnā). The mountain which lay not far from the Red Sea ( Baḥr al-Ḳulzum) was climbed from al-Amn (Elim?), where the children of Israel once encamped. In the…

Mard̲j̲ Dābiḳ

(541 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a battlefield near Dābiḳ [q.v.] on the Nahr al-Ḳuwaiḳ in northern Syria. On the history of the town of Dābiḳ, which was known to the Assyrians as Dabigu (Sachau, Z. A., xii. 47) and is called Δάβεκον by Theophanes ( Chron., ed. de Boor, p. 431, 451 sq.) cf. above vol. i., dābik. For convenience in his campaigns against the Byzantines, Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik moved the headquarters of the Syrian troops from Ḏj̲ābiya to Dābiḳ (Lammens, supra i., d̲j̲ābiya). In 717 with an army under ʿUbaida he set out from Mard̲j̲ Dābiḳ for Asia Minor and on his return died there in Ṣafar…

Rīḥā

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the name of two towns. 1. The Arabs called the Jericho ofthe Bible Rīḥā or Arīḥā (Clermont-Ganneau, in J.A., 1877, i. 498). The town, which was 12 mīl E. of Jerusalem, was reckoned sometimes to the Ḏj̲und of Filasṭīn (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 913, e.g.) and sometimes to the district of al-Balḳāʾ (Yaʿḳūbī, in B. G. A., vii. 113); sometimes however it was called the capital of the province of Jordan (al-Urdunn) or of G̲h̲awr, the broad low lying valley of the Jordan (Nahr al-Urdunn) from which it was 10 mīl distant (Yāḳūt, i. 227). As a result of its warm moist climate and the rich irr…

al-Ramla

(1,716 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, capital of Filasṭīn, 25 miles E. N. E. of Jerusalem. The Umaiyad caliphs liked to choose little country towns, usually places in Palestine, to live in rather than Damascus. Muʿāwiya and after him Marwān and others frequently resided in al-Ṣinnabra on the south bank of the Lake of al-Ṭabarīya, Yazīd I in Hawwārīn, Ad̲h̲riʿāt, ʿAbd al-Malik in al-Ḏj̲ābiya, Walīd in Usais (now Tell Sais S. E. of Damascus) and al-Ḳaryatain and his ¶ sons in al-Ḳaṣtal, Yazīd II also in al-Muwaḳḳar near Fudain or in Bait Raʾs (Lammens, La Bâdia et la Ḥîra sous les Omaiyades, in M.F.O.B., iv., 1910, p. 91—112; A.…

Ortoḳids

(2,024 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Urtuḳids), a Turkmen dynasty, branches of which ruled in Mārdīn, Ḥiṣn Kaifā and Ḵh̲artabirt. When the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān of Damascus, Tutus̲h̲, conquered Jerusalem in 479 he appointed as governor of the town his officer Urtuḳ b. Aksab, who had already served under Maliks̲h̲āh and had taken part in the siege of Āmid in 477. He was succeeded in 484 (1091) by his sons Sukmān and and Īlg̲h̲āzī. After the Holy City had been taken for the Fāṭimids in S̲h̲aʿbān 489 (1096) by al-Afḍal b. Badr al-Ḏj̲amālī, Sukmān went to al-Ruhā and ¶ Īlg̲h̲āzī to his lands in the ʿIrāḳ. In 495 (1101) Sulṭān Mu…

Rūd̲h̲rāwar

(344 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a district in al-Ḏj̲ibāl (Media) south of Mount Alwand, halfway between Hamad̲h̲ān and Nihāwand. According to Ibn al-Faḳīh, it was a valley in the district of Nihāwand, which was three farsak̲h̲s in length and formed one of the most pleasing spots in the Sāsānian empire with its 93 villages all linked up one another by an uninterrupted stretch of orchards and perennial streams. The principal product was a world renowned saffron which was exported through Nihāwand and also through Hamad̲h̲ān. T…

Nīs̲h̲āpūr

(2,027 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the most important of the four great cities of Ḵh̲urāsān (Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Marw, Herāt and Balk̲h̲), one of the great towns of Īrān in the middle ages. The name goes back to the Persian Nēw-S̲h̲āhpuhr (“Fair S̲h̲āpūr”); in Armenian it is called Niu-S̲h̲apuh, Arab. Naisābūr or Nīsābūr, new Pers. Nēs̲h̲āpūr, pronounced in the time of Yāḳūt: Nīs̲h̲āwūr, now Nīs̲h̲āpūr (Nöldeke, Ṭabarī, p. 59, note 3; G. Hoffmann, Auszüge . . ., p. 61, note 530). The town occasionally bore the official title of honour, Īrāns̲h̲ahr. Nīs̲h̲āpūr was founded by S̲h̲āhpuhr I, son of Ardas̲h̲īr I (Ḥamza al-I…

al-Raḥba

(2,740 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, Raḥbat Mālik b. Ṭawḳ or Raḥbat al-S̲h̲aʾm, a town on the right bank of the Euphrates, the modern al-Miyādīn. Hardly anything definite is known about the history of the town before the Muslim era. In the middle ages it was usually identified as the Reḥōbōt han-Nāhār of the Bible (Gen. xxxvi. 37) i.e. Reḥōbōt on the river (Euphrates) especially in the Talmud and by the Syriac authors (e. g. Mich. Syr., cf. index, p. 63*; Barhebraeus, Chron. syr., ed. Bedjan, p. 273 and passim), who usually call it Reḥabōt, Raḥabat (M. Hartmann, in Z.D.P.V., xxiii., p. 42, note 1). A. Musil ( The Middle Euphrates, N…

al-Yarmūk

(433 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a river in Syria, now called S̲h̲arīʿat al-Manāḍira (from the Beduin tribe ʿArab al-Manāḍira). It rises in the Ḥawrān, flows west through a deeply cut valley of erosion, the Wādī al-Ramād, which describes a flat curve open to the south, to the G̲h̲awr, where it flows into the Nahr al-Urdunn (the Jordan) below Lake Gennesareth at Ḏj̲isr al-Mud̲j̲āmiʿ. Pliny calls it ( Hist. Nat., v. 74) Hieromix or Hieromices ( Gadara Hieromice praefluente, var. Hieromiace; the now so popular form “ Hieromax” is not recorded). On the 12th Rad̲j̲ab 15 (Aug. 20, 636 a. d.) in the celebrated battle on the Y…

al-Namāra

(371 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, 1. a place in Syria. It is situated in the ḥarra of al-Ṣafāʾ on an eminence in the Wādi ’l-S̲h̲ām, which runs from the Ḏj̲ebel al-Drūz (Ḏj̲ebel al-Ḥawrān) to the plain of Ruḥba, at the spot where it joins the Wādi ’l-Saʾūṭ. It ¶ corresponds to the Roman military post of Namara (Waddington, Inscriptions, N°. 2270). Less than a mile S. E. of al-Namāra, Dussaud found the Nabataean-Arab tomb inscription of the “King of all the Arabs”, Maiu ’l-Ḳais bar ʿAmru, i. e. the Lak̲h̲mid Imru ’l-Ḳais b. ʿAmru, of the 7th Keslūl 223 of the era of Boṣrāʾ = Dec. 7,. 328 a. d. (cf. vol. i., p. 382a). Bibliography R. Duss…

Orfa

(5,384 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Greek Edessa, Syr. Orhāi, Armen. Urhay, Ar. al-Ruhāʾ), an important town in Diyār Muḍar, the ancient Osrhoëne. The origin of the town, which must have existed before the Macedonian conquest, is lost in obscurity. Repeated attempts to prove the existence of the name in Assyrian times (E. Honigmann, Urfa keilinschriftlich nachweisbar?, in Z. A., N. F., v. 1930, p. 301 sq.) have so far failed. The original name was probably ’Ορρόη which has survived in that of the spring Καλλιῤῥόη, which lay below the walls of the town, and in that of the district of Osrho…

al-Raḳḳa

(2,688 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, capital of Diyār Muḍar in al-Ḏj̲azīra on the left bank of the Euphrates, shortly before it is joined by the Nahr Balīk̲h̲ (ΒασίλειοΣ, Βίληχα, ΒάλισσоΣ). The town was in antiquity called Kallinikos. Nikephorion is to be located in the same region (Strabo, xvi. 747; Isidores of Charax, in Geogr. Graeci Min., ed. Müller, p. 247; Dio Cass., xl. 13; Pliny, Nat. Hist., v. 86; vi. 119; Ptolemy, Geogr., v. 17; Stephen Byz.); but its usual identification with Kallinikos is certainly wrong and it may be a case of two adjoining towns as with the “black” and “white al-Raḳ…

Rās al-ʿAin

(1,980 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(ʿAin Warda), a town in al-Ḏj̲azīra on the Ḵh̲ābūr. In ancient times it was already known as Resain-Theodosiopolis ( Notitia dignitatum, or. xxxvi. 20) or ‘Ρέσινα (Steph. Byz.), Syriac Rēs̲h̲ ʿAinā. On account of its position at the sources of the Ḵh̲ābūr it has been identified with the road-station Fons Scabora of the Tabula Peutingeriana (fons Chabura in Pliny, Nat. hist., xxxi. 37; xxxii. 16) (E. Herzfeld, Reise im Euphrat u. ¶ Tigris-Gebiet, i. 191; A. Poidebard, La Trace de Rome dans le désert de Syrie, p. 151 sq.). According to Ioannes Malalas (Bonn, p. 345 sq.) in whom the form ‘Ρoφ…

Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad

(366 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an Ortokid. He was the son and successor of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ḳarā-Arslān, lord of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and of a considerable part of Diyār Bakr (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, ed. Tornberg, xi. 217) who, according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (xi. 207), died in 562 (1166—1167) but according to the numismatic evidence may have lived till 570 or 571 (van Berchem, Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gött., N. F., vol. IX/iii., 1907, p. 143, note 3). Nūr al-Dīn married the daughter of Sulṭān Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslān but when he treated her disgracefully, his father-in-law was very angry and threatened him with war…

Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān

(3,312 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in northern Syria, often called simply al-Maʿarra. It is celebrated as the birthplace of the poet Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad al-Maʿarrī [q. v.]. According to al-Samʿānī ( Kitāb al-Ansāb, reproduced by D. S. Margoliouth, G.M.S., xx., 1912, fol. 536v, l. ¶ 4) the nisba from the place-name was Maʿarnamī to distinguish it from that of Maʿarrat Naṣrīn, Maʿarnasī. The town probably lay on the site of the ancient Arra which is called Κώμη ῎Αῤῥων οἰνοφοροΣ in an inscription. Yaʿḳūbī says that Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān is an old town in ruins. Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw in 438 …

Malaṭya

(6,242 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an old city, not far from the upper Euphrates. It lies at the junction of important roads (in antiquity: the Persian royal road and the Euphrates route; in modern times Samsūn-Sīwās-Malaṭya-Diyārbakr and Ḳaisarīya-Albistān-Malaṭya-Ḵh̲arpūt) in a plain, the fertility and richness of which in all kinds of vegetables and fruits was celebrated by the Arab geographers, as in modern times by von Moltke and others, at the northern foot of the Taurus not very far south of Tok̲h̲ma-ṣū (Arab. Naḥr al-Ḳu…

Ṭarṭūs

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, earlier Anṭarṭūs, frequently Anṭarsūs (by analogy with Ṭarsūs), a town on the Syrian coast; the ancient Antarados opposite the island of Arados (Arabic Ḏj̲azīrat Arwād, also written Arwād̲h̲; now Ruwād). Under the Roman empire, Antarados was called Constantia but the old name remained alongside of this and in the end drove the latter out again. The Muslims took the fortress of Ṭarṭūs under ¶ ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit in 17 (638). The town was destroyed and remained for a lung time uninhabited. Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, fortified it and settled there and in Maraḳīya an…

al-T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr

(529 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(a., plur. of t̲h̲ag̲h̲r, “cleft, opening”), the zone of the fortresses built against the Byzantines in the Syrian and Mesopotamián marches (hence also T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr al-Rūmīya). In Constantinos Porphyrogennetos they are called τὰ Στόμια ( De Cerimon., ed. Bonn, i. 657; cf. Reiske’s note, ii., p. 777 = Migne, Patrol. Graec., cxii., col. 1220, note 38), by the Syrians “the land of Tagrā” (Michael Syrus, ed. Chabot, iii. 20 sq., 467; Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccles., ed. Abbeloos-Lamy, i. 339 sq.). This frontier zone ran from Ṭarsūs [q. v.] in Cilicia along the Taurus on to Malaṭya…
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