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(1,543 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, earlier Anṭarṭūs, frequently Anṭarsūs (by analogy with Ṭarsūs), a town on the Syrian coast; the ancient Antarados opposite the island of Arados (Arabic Ḏj̲azīrat Arwād, also written Arwād̲h̲; now Ruwād). Under the Roman empire, Antarados was called Constantia but the old name remained alongside of this and in the end drove the latter out again. The Muslims took the fortress of Ṭarṭūs under ¶ ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit in 17 (638). The town was destroyed and remained for a lung time uninhabited. Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, fortified it and settled there and in Maraḳīya an…


(529 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(a., plur. of t̲h̲ag̲h̲r, “cleft, opening”), the zone of the fortresses built against the Byzantines in the Syrian and Mesopotamián marches (hence also T̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr al-Rūmīya). In Constantinos Porphyrogennetos they are called τὰ Στόμια ( De Cerimon., ed. Bonn, i. 657; cf. Reiske’s note, ii., p. 777 = Migne, Patrol. Graec., cxii., col. 1220, note 38), by the Syrians “the land of Tagrā” (Michael Syrus, ed. Chabot, iii. 20 sq., 467; Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccles., ed. Abbeloos-Lamy, i. 339 sq.). This frontier zone ran from Ṭarsūs [q. v.] in Cilicia along the Taurus on to Malaṭya…


(284 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in the ʿIrāḳ, near al-Kūfa. It is known mainly from the accounts of the battle of Ḳādisīya. From the statements collected by Yāḳūt regarding its position it appears that two different places of this name had later to be distinguished, namely one near Kūfa on the road to Syria, which is several times mentioned in the time of the Caliphs ʿAlī and Muʿāwiya and another, a watering station between al-Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲a and al-ʿAḳaba, 3 mīl from al-Ḥufair, to the right of the road to Mecca. Several encounters took place there during the second battle of Ḳādisīya. According…


(489 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, in French usually Lattaquié or Lattakié, became the capital of the autonomous “gouvernement de Lattaquié (État des Alaouites)”, created on Aug. 31, 1920 by the French mandatory administration; its constitution was promulgated on May 14, 1930 by the Haut-Commissaire. Since that date the town, which under Turkish rule before the World War looked ruined and filthy, has developed into a clean and flourishing town. It has about 25,000 inhabitants including about 18,000 Sunnī Muslims, 400 Orthodox G…

Bīr al-Sabʿ

(134 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
the Arabic name of Beers̲h̲ebaʿ in Southern Palestine. At this place, south of ʿAsḳalān, were the springs which Abraham was said to have dug with his own hands; many legends were current about them. The place has been uninhabited since the xivth century. Numerous Greek inscriptions have been found at the modern Bīr es-Sebaʿ. (E. Honigmann) Bibliography Lord Lindsay’s codex of the Marāṣid in Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, v. 14, 1. 5 ʿAlī al-Harawī, Oxford MS., fol. 46 Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ed. Defrémery and Sanguinetti i. 126 Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, London 1890, p. 402 sq. Robins…


(2,096 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
the ancient Hebron, so called after the “friend of God” (θεοΦιλήΣ), Abraham (see the art. ibrāhīm), a town in South Palestine (also called Ḥabrūn, Ḥabrā or Masd̲j̲id Ibrāhīm). It lay in an exceedingly fertile valley between the heights of the Ḏj̲abal Naṣra (? reading uncertain) noted especially for its richness in fruits. According to a widely disseminated legend, Muḥammad is said to have granted the four districts Ḥabrūn, al-Marṭūm (so Yāḳūt, ii. 194; in Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw, Safar-nama, ed. Kawiani 1923, p. 46, 14: Maṭlūn, varr. Marṭlūn, Marṭūn; in al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, ed…


(745 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, the harbour of Anṭākiya, which lay 12 mīl from the Mediterranean. The town owed its rise owing to the gradual silting up of the harbour of Seleucia Pieria which lay a little farther north. Even in the time of Vespasian an attempt had been made, by making a great tunnel through the rock (which still exists and is called al-Gārīs, i. e. the Pers. Čehrīz or Kārīz) to avert the danger of setting up its port from the great trading centre but without permanent success. In the early Muslim period Salūḳīya is still occasionally mentioned (al-Balād̲h̲urī, ed de Goeje, p. 148, 12: Ḥiṣn Salūḳīya; al-Masʿūd…


(1,579 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, an Arab people who lived in ancient times in Arabia Petraea. — As early as the seventh century B. C. the Nabayāti are mentioned by Assurbanipal ( Keilinschr. Bibl., ii. 216 sqq.). Whether the Nebayōt̲h̲ of the Old Testament are to be identified with them is uncertain (against the identification: Nöldeke in Schenkel’s Bibellexicon, s. v. Nabatäer; for it amongst others: Musil, Arabia Deserta, New York 1927, p. 492). The Nabataeans were never completely subjected either by the Assyrians, or the Medes, Persians or the Macedonian kings (Diodor. ii. 48). In 312 b.c. Antigonos sent two expe…


(1,170 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Mas̲h̲had ʿAlī), a town and place of pilgrimage in the ʿIrāḳ 6 miles west of al-Kūfa. It lies on the edge of the desert on a flat barren eminence from which the name al-Nad̲j̲af has been transferred to it (A. Musil, The Middle Euphrates, p. 35). According to the usual tradition, the Imām al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [q. v.] was buried near Kūfa, not far from the dam which protected the city from flooding by the Euphrates at the place where the town of al-Nad̲j̲af later arose (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 760), also called Nad̲j̲af al-Kūfa (Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Lexicon geographicum, ed. …

Mes̲h̲hed Ḥusain

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Kerbelāʾ), a place of pilgrimage west of the Euphrates about 60 miles S.S.W. of Bag̲h̲dād on the edge of the desert (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 249). It lay opposite Ḳaṣr Ibn Hubaira (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, B.G.A., i. 85; cf. al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, ed. de Goeje, p. 287; al-Maḳdisī, B.G.A., iii. 121). The name Kerbelāʾ is probably connected with Aram. Karbelā (Daniel, 3, 21) and Assyr. Karballatu (a kind of headdress) (G. Jacob, Türkische Bibliothek, xi. 35, note 2). It is not mentioned in the pre-Arab period. After the taking of al-Ḥīra, Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd is said to have …

Tell Bās̲h̲ir

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a fortress in Northern Syria, on the Nahr Sād̲j̲ūr near ʿAintāb, two days’ journey north of Aleppo. It lies in a broad plain and according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ was mainly inhabited by Armenian Christians; the Armenians explained its name Tʿlpas̲h̲ar as a translation of the Armenian Tʿil Aveteac, i. e. “hill of the glad tidings ( avetikʿ)” which it formerly bore (Matthēos Uṙhayecʿi, ed. Dulaurier, p. 330, 433 sq.). It had markets and a suburb (probably the modern Tell Bās̲h̲ir Mezraʿasi̊ S. E. of the fortress) and was surrounded by well watered gardens. The town is mentioned as early as Assy…


(2,289 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(al-Mawṣil), the capital of Diyār-Rabīʿa [q. v.] on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Niniveh. Whether the town already existed in antiquity is unknown. E. Herzfeld ( Archäol. Reise, ii. 207, 259) has suggested that Xenophon’s Μέσπιλα reproduces its old name and that we should read ¶ *Μέπσιλα (= Mawṣil); but against this view we have the simple fact that this town lay on the east bank of the Tigris (F. H. Weissbach in Pauly-Wissowa, R. e., xv., col. 1164). The Muslims placed the foundation of the town in mythical antiquity and ascribed it to Rēwand b. Bēwarāsp …


(2,453 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Ruṣāfat al-S̲h̲aʾm, Ruṣāfat His̲h̲ām), a town in the desert in the Syrian Palmyrene, 4 farsak̲h̲s or 25 miles south of the Euphrates. The town already bore this name in the pre-Muḥammadan period. The Assyrian lists of eponyms mention in the years 840, 838, 804, 775, 747, and 737 b. c, a town Ra-ṣap-pa as the residence of the Assyrian governor ( s̲h̲aknu). On a relief stele of Adadnirari IV Raṣappa is mentioned among the lands governed by Urigallu-eres̲h̲ and formed with Ḳatni (now Tell Ḏj̲ellāl on the Ḵh̲ābūr) an administrative district (Unger, Reliefstele Adadnirarī’s III. aus Sabdʾa…


(4,030 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Bambyke, Hierapolis), an ancient city in northern Syria, two days’ journey or 10 farsak̲h̲ N. E. of Ḥalab, about 3 farsak̲h̲s from the Euphrates. It lay in a fertile plain, and had a double wall built by the Greeks. According to Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, there was a very fine church there, built of wood ( B.G. A., vi. 161 sq.). Ps. Dionysios (ed. Chabot, p. 47, 68) mentions a church of the Virgin and another of St. Thomas in Manbid̲j̲. There were no buildings in the neighbourhood of the town (Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw, ed. Schefer, p. 31); Abu ’l-Fidāʾ mentions the …


(1,616 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a sea-port in Northern Syria, the ancient Λαοδίκεια ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ. It was founded by Seleucus I, who called it after his mother Laodike, and towards the end of the Seleucid empire it was a member of the alliance of the four most important Syrian cities, the πόλειΣ ἀδελΦαί, Antiocheia, Apameia, Seleuceia and Laodiceia. In the reign of Justinian I it was made the capital of the newly founded province of Theodorias. When the Arabs under the governor of Ḥimṣ, ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī, advanced on the town, the inhabitants made a determined resistance. ʿUbāda encamp…


(1,408 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
or Yāfa, Joppa, Jaffa, a town on the Mediterranean, the port of Jerusalem. It occurs in the form Y-pw as early as the xvith century b. c. in the list of towns in Palestine taken by Thutmosis III (W. Max Müller, in M. V. A. G., xii., 1907, i., p. 21, N°. 62). In the Amarna tablets and among the Assyrians it was called Yapū or Yappū, in Phoenician inscriptions , in the Bible Yāfō and by the Greeks ’Ιόπη or ’Ιόππη. Yāfā is already the port of Jerusalem in the Bible, to which king Hiram sent in floats the wood destined for the building of the temple. Before the conquest by Sennacherib (701 b. c.) it was subject …


(2,983 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(Tyre), the island city of Phoenicia. From the Amarna period it was one of the richest commercial centres of the Syrian coast and gradually developed into a powerful rival of the adjoining Sidon [q. v.] for dominion over the Phoenician colonies in the west. Its conquest and destruction by Alexander the Great only deprived the flourishing metropolis of its importance for a brief period; but it had one permanent important result, namely that the island city was henceforth connected with the mainla…


(1,515 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
(the Margat, Merghatum of the Crusaders), a fortress near Bāniyās on the coast of Syria. According to the chronicle of Abū G̲h̲ālib Humam b. al-Faḍl al-Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ab al-Maʿarrī (quoted in Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 500) and the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḳilāʿ wa ’l-Ḥuṣūn of Usāma b. Munḳid̲h̲ (in Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, ed. Reinaud and de Mane, p. 255), it was built by the Muslims in 454 (1062). Al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī (ed. Mehren, p. 208) wrongly attributes its foundation to Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd ¶ (vun Berchem, Voyage, p. 304, note 7 where the reference to Ras̲h̲īd [rather Rās̲h̲id] al-Dīn in Le Strange, Palest…


(365 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a village in Northern Syria in the valley of the Ḳaraṣū between the Amanos and the Kurd Dāg̲h̲ not far from Iṣlāḥīye. Near the village is a tell, the ruins of the old Aramaean town of S̲h̲amʾal, the capital of the little North Syrian state of Yaʾdī (Assyr. Yaudi). It was discovered in 1883 by Hamdy Bey, F. v. Luschan and O. Fuchstein and excavated in 1888, 1890—1891, 1894 and 1902 by the Berlin Orientkomitee under the leadership of K. Humann, F. v. Luschan and F. Winter with the co-operation of J. Euting and W. Koldewey. The citadel of S̲h̲amʾal was surrounded by two concentric circular w…


(405 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a town in Central Syria north-east of Damascus. It is mentioned as early as Georgios Kyprios (ed. Gelzer, p. 188, N°. 993) as Μαγλούλων (MSS. μαγλούδων, μαγαιγλούδων) κλίμα in Phoinike Libanesia. Yāḳūt also calls Maʿlūlāʾ an iḳlīm (κλίμα) near Dimas̲h̲ḳ with many villages. The modern Maʿlūla, a village of Christians, is picturesquely situated at the west end of a deep ravine of the Antilebanon, which splits into a western and southern arm. “At the entrance to the northern lies the monastery of Mār Taḳlā built half into the rocks.…
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