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(1,208 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAli , Abu ’l-ʿAbbas, S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh by training and founder of the Rifāʿiyya [ q.v.] dervish order. He was born in Muḥarram 500/September 1106 (or, according to other authorities, in Rad̲j̲ab 512/October-November 1118) at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village of the Baṭāʾiḥ or marshlands of lower ʿIrāḳ [see al-baṭīḥa ] between Baṣra and Wāsiṭ, whence the nisba sometimes given to him of al-Baṭāʾiḥī, and he died at Umm ʿUbayda in the same region on 22 D̲j̲umādā I 578/23 October 1182 (see Ibn K̲h̲allikān, ed. ʿAbbās, i, 171-2, tr. de Slane, i, 152-3). The nisba al-Rifāʿī…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(907 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿḤusayn b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad , a S̲h̲īʿī Arab poet in the time of the Būyids [ q.v.]. Born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 330/941-2, of a family of government officials and secretaries, he completed the traditional studies and was partly trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ (313-84/925-94 [see al-ṣābiʾ ]) who made him take up an administrative career, but he very quickly perceived that his poetic talents could prove more profitable and resigned his post. At first he was connected with the vizier al-Muhallabī [ q.v.] for whom he wrote a panegyric and …


(1,323 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a mystical and gnostic Islamic sect founded amongst the Afg̲h̲āns of the North-West Frontier region, with centres at e.g. Kāṅīgurām and Tīrāh in Wazīristān, by Bāyazīd b. ʿAbd Allāh Anṣārī of Kāṅīgurām ( ca. 931-80/ ca. 1525-73). He claimed to be, if not actually a Mahdī, at least a hādī or guide towards tawḥīd , the Divine Unity, for his followers. He styled himself pīr-i raws̲h̲an “the divinely-illuminated pīr [ q.v.] “, although his orthodox enemies called him pīr-i tārīkī “the pīr of darkness” and his adherents Tārīkiyān “devotees o…


(1,061 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Algerian Order ( ṭarīḳa) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gus̲h̲tulī al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrain, who died 1208 (1793—1794). It is a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatīya and is said to have at one time been called Bakrīya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nefta, in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūzīya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the Founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ait Smāʿīl, part of the confederation Gas̲h̲tula in the Ḳābilīya Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and then in Algiers, he mad…


(618 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Buk̲h̲ārī (717—791 = 1317—1389), founder of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Order. His name, which signifies “painter” is interpreted as “drawing incomparable pictures of the Divine Science” (J. P. Brown, The Darvishes, 2nd ed., p. 142) or more mystically as “holding the form of real perfection in the heart” ( Miftāḥ al-Maʿīya quoted by Ahlwardt, Berlin Catalogue, N°. 2188). The title al-S̲h̲āh which is given him in a dirge cited in the Ras̲h̲aḥāt means “spiritual leader”. The nisba al-Uwaisī implies that his system resembled that of Uwais al-Ḳaranī. His Acta we…


(1,378 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
(sometimes Ibn al-Ḥarīrī in Yāḳūt), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḥarīrī al-Baṣrī , Arabic poet and philologist known principally for his Maḳāmāt . Born in 446/1054, probably to a landed family living at al-Mas̲h̲ān, near Baṣra, where he spent his childhood, he commenced his studies at Baṣra; his biographers agree that he studied under al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, but the latter is said to have died in 444/1052 (see Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xvi, 218; al-Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya , 373; al-Ṣafadī, Nakt , 227), so that there is a discrepancy …


(300 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, abu ’l-ḥasan (or abu ’l-ḳāsim ) ʿalī b. ḥasan b. ʿalī b. abi ’l-ṭayyib , Arab poet and anthologist, a native of Bāk̲h̲arz. After receiving a good education in his father’s house, he studied in particular S̲h̲āfiʿī fiḳh and, at Nīsābūr, attended the lectures of al-D̲j̲uwaynī (ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf [ q.v.], where he made the acquaintance of al-Kundurī [ q.v.]; the latter, when he became wazīr , took him to Bag̲h̲dād as a secretary; previously, he had for some time been an official at Baṣra. Subsequently, he was admitted to the chancellery, an…

Pand̲j̲ Pīr

(868 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Burton-Page, J.
, Pačpiriyā , followers of the Five Saints, Urdu pānč pīr , especially in northern and eastern India, whose myths and legends (there is no real historicity or hagiology about them) are attached to a primitive form of shrine worship with as many Hindū as Muslim adherents (Kipling in Kim , ch. 4, speaks of the “wayside shrines—sometimes Hindu, sometimes Mussulman—which the low caste of both creeds share with beautiful impartiality”. For “caste” among the lower grades of Muslim society see hind. ii, Ethnography). They have no formal organisation, and belong to the general north…


(1,204 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Algerian Ṣūfī order ( ṭarīḳa ) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, who died in 1208/1793-4. It is a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and is said to have at one time been called Bakriyya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nafṭa [ q.v.], in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūziyya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ayt Smāʿīl, part of the Gas̲h̲tula confederation in the Ḳābiliyya D̲j̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and th…


(8,766 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S. | Kratschkowsky, Ign.
C. Arabia under Islām. Both internal and external causes have since the last date (1876) worked changes in the peninsula, the geography of which has been markedly advanced by a number of intrepid explorers, especially St. John Philby, R. E. Cheeseman, Bertram Thomas, D. Van der Meulen and H. Von Wissmann. The regions traversed by the last three of these, the “Empty Quarter” and the independent sulṭānates of Ḥaḍramawt, have indeed been little affected; though even in the latter the motor-car is showi…


(1,352 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(the forms Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī, Tid̲j̲īnī occur also), order founded by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Sālim al-Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī (1150—1230 = 1737—1815). 1. Life of the F…

Abū Ḥaiyān

(973 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-ʿAbbās al-Tawḥīdī (so called either after an ancestor who sold a sort of date called tawḥīd, ¶ or in the sense ,upholder of pure monotheismʿ), jurist, philosopher, Ṣūfī, and compiler of miscellanies, lived in the fourth (10th) century. Little was preserved of his biography, but from documen…

Abū Tammām

(851 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Ḥabīb b. Aws, poet and anthologist, born in 180 or 188 (796 or 804), and his birth-place is said to have been Ḏj̲āsim, a village near Damascus in the direction of Tiberias, died in 228 or 231 (842-843 or 845-846). His father was a Christian named T̲h̲ādūs (Theodosius?), for which name the son, when he became a Muslim, substituted the Arabic Aws, to which he attached a pedigree in the tribe of Ṭaiyʾ, whence he is often called simply the Ṭaiyʾite. Some of his early life was, it is said, spent in Damascus, whe…


(497 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatī Order, named after Sunbul Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf, whose birth-place is variously given as Bolou and Marsuan. His death-date is given in the Ḳāmūs al-ʿAlām as 936 (1529/1530); according however to al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-Nuʿmānīya (transl. Rescher, 1927, p. 224, 225) he died before 929 (1522/1523); and this author, who was a contemporary, mentions him among the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the reign of Bāyazīd II (died 918= 1512), wherein he is followed by the author of the

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) in Bagdad, and indeed the pedigree was shown to be a fabrication of his grandson the ḳāḍī Abū Ṣāliḥ Naṣr, to whom some more fictions may be traced. His mother is said to have been Fāṭima daughter of ʿAbd Allāh al-Ṣawmaʿī both, we are told, saints; and the name of the village where he was born is given as Nīf or Naif, in the district of Gīlān, south of the Caspian. He was sent to Bagdad at the age of eighteen to study, and was there at first supported by his mother. He attended the philology classes of Tibrīzī (d. 502 = 1109), and learned Ḥanbalite (and according to some, S̲h̲āfiʿite) law from a number of s̲h̲aik̲h̲s: in his works he usually quotes traditions from Hibat Allāh b. al-Mubārak and Abū Naṣr Muḥammed b. al-Bannāʾ. Little is known of his life between 488 (1095) and 521 (1127), except that he appears to have gone on pilgrimage during that period, and that he also married, since of his forty-nine children one was born in 508(1114-1115). According to some authorities, he was guardian of the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfa. He learned Ṣūfism of Abū ’l-Ḵh̲air Muḥammed b. Muslim al-Dabbās (d. 525 = 1131)1 a saint of sufficient eminence to be included in S̲h̲aʿrānī’s list; by whose gaze he was converted on the occasion of a visit when one or other of them had caught a falcon (in consequence whereof ʿAbd al-Ḳādir was surnamed al-Bāzi ’l-As̲h̲hab, according to Damīrī). Training by al-Dabbās involved considerable hardship, and it would seem that the other Ṣūfī aspirants resented the intrusion of a jurist amongst them. After a time, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir was considered …

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abu ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, poet of the Būyid period. He belonged to a family which was engaged in the public service, and was himself trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ in secretarial work. He found however that he could earn more by verse, and became an encomiast of the most important among his contemporaries, especially ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār, who appointed him to the office of muḥtasib or censor in Bag̲h̲dād; a most unsuitable appointment, since this poet specialized in obscenity, and indeed against one of the headings in the Paris abridgment of his Dī…

Mewlānā Hunkiār

(158 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawl Order [see mawlawīya]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandg i ār, the equivalent of


(918 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a sect whose name is derived by Samʿānī from the Persian word k̲h̲urram “agreeable”, on the ground that they regarded everything that was agreeable as lawful; but it is more likely to be derived from Ḵh̲urram, a district of Ardabīl, where the sect may have arisen. According to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 186, they came into prominence after the execution of Abū Muslim of Ḵh̲orāsān in 136 a. h., but while some of them denied that he was dead and foretold his return “to spread justice in the world”, others maintained the Imamate of his daughter Fāṭima, whence they got the names Muslimīya and Fāṭimīya. One Sanbad̲h̲ started a rebellion in Ḵh̲orāsān, demanding vengeance for Abū Muslim, but this was suppressed within seventy days. They are next heard of in the reign of Maʾmūn, when Bābak the Ḵh̲urramī rebelled against the Muslim government and entrenched himself in Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ (sometimes in the dual Bad̲h̲d̲h̲ān) “a village between Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān and Arrān”; he maintained himself from 201 till 223, when his fortress was taken by Afs…


(1,634 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿUbāda al-Walīd b. ʿUbaid, Arabic poet and anthologist of the third century (204—284 approximately). His nisba signifies member of the Buḥtur clan of the tribe Ṭaiʾ, whose glories he frequently celebrates. His birthplace was Manbid̲j̲ (or, according to one account a village near Manbid̲j̲ called Zardafna), ¶ and of Manbid̲j̲ he often speaks as his home; here he ultimately acquired property, which seems to have been inherited by his son T̲h̲ābit, who was living there in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī’s trnre. The woman who forms the subject of his erotic prologues in the greater number of cases was one ʿAlwa of Butyās near Ḥalab, daughter of Zuraiḳa; in a poem addressed to al-Fatḥ b. Ḵh̲aḳān (i. 44) he speaks of her (outside the pro…

Dasūḳī or Dusūḳī

(571 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Mad̲j̲d ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (or ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd) (633—676 = 1235-1236—1277-1278), native of Dusūḳ, a village of Lower Egypt in the G̲h̲arbīya District; founder of the Dusūḳī Order. According to the commentator on his Ḥizb (Ḥasan S̲h̲amma, Masarrat al-Ainain bi-S̲h̲arḥ Ḥizb Abi ’l-ʿAinain, Cairo n.d.), his father came from a village Mrḳs (Marcus?) on the opposite bank of the Nile, and was himself ¶ a walī; his mother was daughter of another walī Abu ’l-Fatḥ al-Wāsiṭī. He is said to have studied S̲h̲āfiʿī jurisprudence before he followed the Ṣūfīs, to hav…
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