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(2,425 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Blair, Sheila S.
, a town in the mediaeval Islamic province of northern D̲j̲ibāl some 50 km/32 miles to the southeast of Zand̲j̲ān [ q.v.] (lat. 36° 24′ N., long. 48° 50′ E.). 1. History. Sulṭāniyya was founded towards the end of the 7th/13th century by the Mongol Il K̲h̲ānids and served for a while in the following century as their capital. The older Persian name of the surrounding district was apparently S̲h̲āhrūyāz or S̲h̲ārūyāz/S̲h̲arūbāz (which was to be the site, adjacent to Sulṭāniyya, of the tomb which the Il K̲h̲ānid Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.] built for himself, according to Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū). It was orig…


(1,745 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( banū ʿannāz ), a dynasty (c. 381-511/991-1117) in the frontier region between ʿIrāḳ and Iran, which was one of the manifestations of the period "between the Arabs and the Turks" when, in the wake of the westward expansion of the Būyids, numerous principalities of Iranian origin sprang up in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and Kurdistān. As the rise of the Banū ʿAnnāz was based on the S̲h̲ād̲h̲and̲j̲ān Kurds, the dynasty should be considered as Kurdish, although the Arabic names and titles of the majority of the rulers indicate the Arab links of the ruling fami…


(1,740 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
1. Town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies about 40 miles north of Tabrīz, halfway between it and the Araxes or Aras in lat. 38° 25′ 30″ N. and 45° 46″ E. at an altitude of ca. 4,400 feet/1,360m. (it is 42 miles from Marand to D̲j̲ulfā). The road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy also branches off at Marand. A shorter road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy follows the north bank of Lake Urmiya and crosses the Mis̲h̲owdag̲h̲ range by the pass between Tasūd̲j̲ [ q.v.] and Ḍiyā al-Dīn. Marand, which is surrounded by many gardens, occupies the eastern corner of a rather beau…


(2,255 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in Eastern Transcaucasia. In Armenian it is called S̲h̲akʿē, in Georgian S̲h̲akʿa (and S̲h̲akik̲h̲?); the Arabs write S̲h̲akkay = S̲h̲akʿē (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 123, al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 183, al-Balād̲h̲urī, 206), S̲h̲akkī (Yāḳūt, iii, 311), S̲h̲akkan (Ibn al-Faḳīh, 293, al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 194), S̲h̲akīn (al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ ii, 68-9 = § 500). The usual boundaries of S̲h̲akkī were: on the east, the Gök-čay which separates it from S̲h̲īrwān [ q.v.] proper; on the west, the Alazan (Turk. Ḳani̊ḳ?) and its left tributary the Ḳas̲h̲ḳa-čay, which separ…


(738 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or Bāward , a town and district on the northern slopes of the mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān in an area now belonging to the autonomous Turkoman republic which forms part of the U.S.S.R. The whole oasis region including Nasā [ q.v.], Abīward etc. (known by the Turkish name of Ātāk "foothills") played a great part in ancient times as the first line of defence of Ḵh̲urāsān against the nomads. In the Arsacid period this region was in the ancestral country of the dynasty. Isidore of Charax, par. 13 (at the beginning of the Christian era) mentions between Παρθυηνή (with the…


(2,134 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C. E.
, conventionally Van , the name of a lake and of a town (lat. 38° 28’ N., long. 43° 21’ E.) in what is now the Kurdish region of southeastern Turkey. 1. The lake (modern Tkish., Van Gölü). This is a large stretch of water now spanning the ils of Van and Bitlis. It lies at an altitude of 1,720 m/5,640 feet, with a rise in level during the summer when the snows on the surrounding mountain ranges melt. Its area is 3,737 km2/1,443 sq. miles. Being landlocked, with no outlet, it has a high content of mineral salts, especially sodium carbonate, which makes its water undrinkable, but…


(149 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in Persia, on the eastern (winter) road from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān. By the present-day highway Ābādah lies at 280 km. from S̲h̲īrāz, at 204 km. from Iṣfahān, and by a road branching off eastwards (via Abarḳūh) at 100 km. from Yazd. In the present-day administration (1952) Ābādah is the northernmost district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the province ( astān ) of Fārs. The population is chiefly engaged in agriculture and trade (opium, castor-oil; sesame-oil). Iḳlīd (possibly * kilid "key [to Fārs]") is another small town belonging to Ābādah. The whole…


(15,785 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | V. Minorsky | Calmard, J. | Hourcade, B. | Et al.
, the name of two places in Persia. I. Tihrān, a city of northern Persia. 1. Geographical position. 2. History to 1926. 3. The growth of Tihrān. (a). To ca 1870. (b). Urbanisation, monuments, cultural and socioeconomic life until the time of the Pahlavīs. (c). Since the advent of the Pahlavīs. II. Tihrān, the former name of a village or small town in the modern province of Iṣfahān. I. Tihrān, older form (in use until the earlier 20th century) Ṭihrān (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iv, 51, gives both forms, with Ṭihrān as the head word; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, i…

Ṣamṣām al-Salṭana

(747 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Cronin, Stephanie
, Nad̲j̲af Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, a Bak̲h̲tiyārī chief born about 1846. His father was Ḥusayn Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, more commonly known as Īlk̲h̲ānī, the first Bak̲h̲tiyārī leader to be formally designated Īlk̲h̲ān of all the Bak̲h̲tiyārī by the imperial government in Tehran, and who was poisoned on the orders of prince Ẓill al-Sulṭān, the famous governor-general of Iṣfāhān, who feared his growing power. Ṣamṣām al-Salṭana was Īlbeg of the Bak̲h̲tiyārī in 1903-5 and later Īlk̲h̲ān. He is remembered principally for the part he played as one of the leaders of the Bak̲h̲tiyārī intervention …


(856 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
(the contracted form Rāmiz , Rāmuz is found as early as the 4th/10th century), a town and district in K̲h̲ūzistān [ q.v.] in southwestern Persia. Rām-Hurmuz lies about 55 miles southeast of Ahwāz, 65 miles south-south-east of S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar, and 60 miles north-east of Bihbihān. Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 43, reckons it 17 farsak̲h̲ s from Ahwāz to Rām-Hurmuz and 22 farsak̲h̲s from Rām-Hurmuz to Arrad̲j̲ān. Ḳudāma, 194, who gives a more detailed list of stages, counts it 50 farsak̲h̲s from Wāsiṭ to Baṣra, thence 35 farsak̲h̲s to Ahwāz, thence 20 farsak̲h̲s to Rām-Hurmuz, and then 24 farsak̲h̲s …


(5,903 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Iranian term applied to the country to the north-east of Iran. The form of the name is not earlier than the Middle Persian period. The suffix - ān is used to form both patronymics (Pāpakān) and the names of countries (Gēlān, Dailamān) (cf. Grundr. d. iran. Phil., I/ii., p. 176; Salemann, ibid., I/i., p. 280 expresses doubts as to whether - ān is from the genitive plural - ānām). Three questions are raised by the name Tūrān: 1. its origin, 2. its later acceptation, which identifies Tūrān with “the land of the Turks”, 3. its modern geographical, linguistic and political applications. The Tūra.…


(596 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(better T-čayi̊), a village in the district of Gärmärūd in the province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Türkmän-čai, “the river of the Turkomans”, is really the name of the stream on which the village stands; it comes down from the Čičäkli pass (between Türkmän-čai and Sarāb). It is one of the northern tributaries of the river of Miyāna (S̲h̲ähär-čayi̊) which flows into the Ḳi̊zi̊lüzän (cf. the article safīd-rūd). The village of Türkmän-čai marks a stage on the great Tabrīz-Zand̲j̲ān-Ḳazwīn-Tihrān-Ḵh̲urāsān road. The distances are Tabrīz-Türkmän-čai c. 60 miles; Türkmä…


(993 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. capital of the Persian province of ʿIrāḳ (popularly: ʿArāḳ). The town was founded in 1808 by Yūsuf Ḵh̲ān Gurd̲j̲ī in the S. W. corner of the plain of Farāhān. The town is built very regularly in the shape of a rectangle; its walls (2,000 × 2,666 feet) are each protected by 12 or 18 towers. The inhabitants number 25,000 (Stahl). The province now bearing the name of ʿIrāḳ (ʿArāḳ) must not be confused with the extensive area to which the geographers of the Mongol period gave the name of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī (cf. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 185—186) which included Kirmāns̲h̲ā…

Ahl-I Ḥaḳḳ

(5,008 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “men of God”, a secret religion found especially in Western Persia. If one wished to choose a name for the sect, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ would seem to lack precision for it was in use, for example, among the Ḥurūfīs (cf. Huart, Textes persons relatifs à la secte des Ḥurūfī, in G.M.S., 1909, p. 40), and it resembles Ṣūfī terms like Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳat (this is also used by the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ). In the narrow sense however, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ is the name actually given themselves by the followers of the religion described in the present article. The name ʿAlī-Ilāhī [q. v.] given them by…

Sulṭān Isḥāḳ

(526 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(more frequently S. Sohāḳ, S. Sohāk), an important personage in the beliefs of the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ sect (popularly known as ʿAlī llāhī; q. v.). The first manifestations of God (Ḵh̲āwandigār, ʿAlī, Bābā Ḵh̲os̲h̲īn) correspond to the stages of s̲h̲arīʿa, ṭarīḳa and maʿrifa, but it is the fourth avatar — Sulṭān Sohāk — which marks the highest degree of gnosis, the ḥaḳīḳa [q. v.]. Everything goes to show that Sulṭān Isḥāḳ was a historical personage. The Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ put him in the xivth century. He js said to have been a son of a certain S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿĪsā and Ḵh̲ātūn Dāyira (Dayarāḳ), da…


(345 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
b. bazzāz (Tūklī [?] b. Ismāʿīl), a darwīs̲h̲, author of the Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā, which is a biography of the grand S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn of Ardabīl (650—735= 1252—1334), ancestor of the Ṣafawid dynasty. The book was written in 750 (1350) under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣadr al-Dīn, son of Ṣafī al-Dīn, whom Tawakkul quotes as an authority. Later under S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp I the text of the work was revised by a certain Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ḥusainī. The Persian text was published in Calcutta in 1329 (1911). The Ṣifwat al-Ṣafā is a work of considerable length, about 216,000 words. It is purely hagi…


(439 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Send̲j̲ābī), a Kurd tribe in the Persian province of Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In summer the Sind̲j̲ābī pitch their tents in the plain of Māhīdas̲h̲t and in the district of Ḏj̲wānrū; in winter they move to the lands south of the Alwand (in Kurdish: Halawān from the older Ḥulwān, cf. sarpul), a left bank tributary of the Diyāla which it joins near Ḵh̲āniḳīn. Here the ¶ pasturages of the Sind̲j̲ābī stretch from Sarpul to the mountains of Ag̲h̲-dāg̲h̲, Bāg̲h̲če and Ḳaṭār (south of Ḵh̲āniḳīn) and in the south stretch as far as Ḳala-naft. The delimitation of the Turco-Per…

Tug̲h̲a Tīmūr

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Mongol Ḵh̲ān, whose dynasty ruled in Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān for a century before 808 (1405). The Name. The Ḵh̲ān’s name may be read Tug̲h̲a or Tog̲h̲a. The Ẓafar-nāma transcribes it Ṭg̲h̲y (Tug̲h̲ai?); on a coin published by Fraehn it is spelled Tog̲h̲an (in Mongol character; cf. Howorth, op. cit., iii. 718). Family. Tug̲h̲a Tīmūr b. Suri (Surikuri?) b. Bābā Bahādur was a descendant in the sixth generation from a brother of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān (Ḏj̲uči-Ḳasar, S̲h̲ad̲j̲arat, p. 315, misunderstood by Miles). In 705 (1305) Bābā Bahādur arrived in Ḵh̲orāsān with his tuman (10,000 families) and entered…


(635 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or properly Maʿalt̲h̲āyā, the Arabic name of two villages in the ḳaḍā of Duhūk in the old wilāyet of Mawṣil. They are about 40 miles N. N. W. of Mawṣil at the point where the river of Duhūk (left bank tributary of the Tigris) enters the plain, whence the Aramaic name Maʿallt̲h̲ā > Malt̲h̲ai, “entrance”. The pass of Maʿalt̲h̲āyā giving access to the country to the south of Lake Van must have played an important part in ancient times. Its importance is indicated by the famous bas-reliefs carved on the rock half an hour’s walk to the south of Maʿalt̲h…


(2,340 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( Kangarids or Sallārids ), a dynasty of Daylamī origin which came from Ṭārum [ q.v.] and reigned in the 4th-5th/10th-11th centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, Arrān and Armenia. Its coming to power was one of the manifestations of the great movement of Iranian liberation which formed a kind of interlude between the end of Arab domination and the first Turkish invasions. While in K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania this movement culminated in the rule of the Sāmānids [ q.v.], in western Persia and Mesopotamia its standard-bearers were the Daylamīs and to a smaller extent…
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