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Sāwa

(1,970 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | H. H. Schaeder]
(older Sāwad̲j̲), a town and district in Central Persia. It lies on the direct road from Ḳazwīn to Ḳum (Ḳazwīn-Sāwa: 22 farsak̲h̲; Sāwa-Ḳum: 9 farsak̲h̲). This road practically corresponds with the royal road (S̲h̲āhrāh) described by Mustawfī (Sūmg̲h̲ān [?] -Sagzābād-Sāwa-Iṣfāhān) which was very important when, under the Mongols Arg̲h̲ūn and Uld̲j̲aitū, Sulṭānīya became the capital of Persia. The Ḳazwīn-Sāwa road may yet again resume its old importance for traffic between North Persia and the sou…

S̲h̲ug̲h̲nān

(1,882 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(S̲h̲ig̲h̲nān), a district on the upper Oxus (Pand̲j̲); the part on the left bank now belongs to Afg̲h̲ān Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān [q. v.] and that on the right to the Russian Pamir. The districts of G̲h̲ārān and Rōs̲h̲ān, the one above and the other below S̲h̲ug̲h̲nān are also divided into two by the political frontier. Afg̲h̲ān S̲h̲ug̲h̲nān has fifteen villages with four hundred houses and six thousand inhabitants, its administrative centre is at Yāwurda in the little valley of Udyar. Russian S̲h̲ug̲h̲n…

Lak

(983 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. the most southern group of Kurd tribes in Persia. According to Zain al-ʿĀbidīn their name (Lāk, often Lākk) is explained by the Persian word läk (100,000) which is said to have been the original number of families of Lak. The group is of importance as the Zand dynasty arose from it. The Lak now living in Northern Lūristān are sometimes confused with the Lūr (Zain al-ʿĀbidīn), whom they resemble from the somatic and ethnical point of view. The facts of history however show that the Lak have immigrated to their presen…

Sipihr

(551 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “celestial sphere”, nom de plume ( tak̲h̲alluṣ) of the Persian historian and man ofletters, Mīrzā Muḥammad Taḳī of Kās̲h̲ān. After a studious youth spent in his native town he settled definitely in Ṭihrān, where he found a patron in the poet-laureate ( malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ) of Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān. On his accession (1250 = 1834) Muḥammad S̲h̲āh appointed him his private panegyrist ( maddāḥ-i k̲h̲āṣṣa) and secretary and accountant in the treasury ( muns̲h̲ī wa-mustawfī-i dīwān). The same S̲h̲āh entrusted him with the composition of a universal history. Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh a…

Tiflis

(12,008 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the capital of Georgia and also the eastern part of Georgia (Kharthlia). The Name. In Georgian the town is called Tphilisi or Thbilisi which is usually explained as derived from tphili “hot” (referring to the hot springs of Tiflis), in Armenian Tphk̲h̲is (Tphlis), ¶ in Arabic Taflīs (Balād̲h̲urī: Ṭaflīs). Among similar names we may note the town ΘιλβίΣ or ΘάλβιΣ; mentioned by Ptolemy v., ch. 11 to the N. E. of Abania, i. e. in Dag̲h̲estān and the place called Taflīs to the south of Lake Urmia [cf. Ḳudāma, p. 213: the road running from D…

Teheran

(7,136 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Těhrān), 1. the capital of Persia. The name. The Arab spelling Ṭihrān survived down to the beginning of the xxth century. The Arabs frequently rendered by the initial t of Persian names (aspiration?). The Arab Yāḳūt however admits the pronunciation Tihrān; the Persian Zakarīyā Ḳazwīnī only gives this form. The short i in modern Persian is regularly pronounced like a short e, whence the European transcriptions Teheran etc. (already in Clavijo and della Valle; Chardin: Théran). The pronunciation Tährān is unknown in Persia but the Turks of Constantinople,…

Us̲h̲nū

(831 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Us̲h̲nuh, Us̲h̲nūya), a district and town in Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Us̲h̲nū lies to the south of Urmiya [q. v.] from which it has usually been administered. The district is watered by the upper course of the river Gādir (Gader) which, after traversing the district of Sulduz [q. v.], flows into Lake Urmiya on the S. W. To the south of Us̲h̲nū is the district of Lāhid̲j̲ān which is administered from Sawd̲j̲-Būlāḳ [q. v.]. The town of Us̲h̲nū (710 houses) is situated on the left bank of the Gādir (Čom…

S̲h̲āh-sewan

(2,149 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the name of several groups of Turkish tribes in Persia. The term means in Turkish “those who love the S̲h̲āh”. Persian historians write: s̲h̲āhīsēwan, thus indicating the Turkish accusative ( s̲h̲āhi̊) and the Turkish closed e. History. According to Malcolm, S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (995—1037 = 1587—1628), in order to reduce the turbulent Turkish tribes known as ḳi̊zi̊l-bas̲h̲ (= “red-heads”), who played the part of praetorians, invited the men of all the tribes to enrol themselves in a new body which was called S̲h̲āh-sewan. Entirely devoted to the Ṣafawī f…

K̲h̲aṭāʾī

(818 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, (the “sinner”), pseudonym ( tak̲h̲alluṣ) of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl [q. v.]. Of his Persian po ems we only know so far the single verse quoted in the anthology compiled by his son Sām Mīrzā [q.v.] and some other lines. On the other hand his Turkish Dīwān is known from several manuscripts, although these are rather scarce and differ considerab y. E. G. Browne ( Persian Liter, in Modern Times, p. 12—13) has discovered the curious fact that the founder of the Ṣafawī kingdom wrote mainly in Turkish while his rival Sulṭān Selīm used Persian for his poems. Ḵh̲aṭāʾī is now ri…

Mus̲h̲aʿs̲h̲aʿ

(3,611 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a S̲h̲īʿī Arab dynasty of Ḥawīza [q. v.] in Ḵh̲ūzistān. The town of Ḥawīza (or Ḥuwaiza; Ibn Battūta, ii. 93: ) was situated in E. Long. 31° 25′, Lat. 48° 5′ on the old course of the Kark̲h̲a [q. v.] where the latter turned west. The founder of the dynasty, Saiyid Muḥammad b. Falāḥ, according to the genealogists, was a descendant in the fourteenth generation from the seventh imam Mūsā al-Kāẓim. S. Muḥammad was born at Wāsiṭ and studied at Ḥilla with S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Aḥmad b. Fahd, known for his leanings to mysticism. The ixth (xvth) century is important in the history of the S̲h̲īʿī g̲h̲ulāt (the rising…

Zūn

(399 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Indian(?) deity, of whom there was a famous idol at Zamīn-Dāwar in the country of Zābul, east of Sīstān. In 33 (654—55) ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura, appointed governor of Sīstān, arrived at Dāwar and laid siege to the hill of Zūn (* d̲j̲abal al-Zūn). He entered the sanctuary of Zūn where there was an idol of gold with two rubies for eyes. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān cut off an arm and took away the rubies but left the remainder to the local marzubān, saying that his only object was to show the impotence of the idol (Balād̲h̲urī, p. 394). Marquart found in Chinese sources a mention of the temple of Deva …

S̲h̲akāk

(435 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(S̲h̲akkāk), a Kurdish tribe on the Turco-Persian frontier. In Persia to the west of Lake Urmiya before the war they occupied the cantons of Brādōst, Somāi [q. v.], Čehrīḳ (cf. salmās) and Ḳotūr; in Turkey, the eastern districts of the wilāyet of Wān: Sarāi (Maḥmūdī) and Albaḳ (Bas̲h̲ḳalʿa), i.e. the territory which in the xvith century belonged to the Dumbulī tribe ( S̲h̲araf-nāma, i. 313—314). The name of the tribe is written by Yūsuf Ḍiyā al-Dīn: S̲h̲ikākān and by S̲h̲īrwānī: S̲h̲akāk; Ḵh̲urs̲h̲īd Efendī writes “S̲h̲iḳāḳī or S̲h̲ikākī”. To the south of Lak…

S̲h̲aḳāḳī

(401 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(S̲h̲i̊ḳāg̲h̲i̊), a tribe of Kurdish origin. According to Yūsuf Ḍiyā al-Dīn, the word s̲h̲iḳāḳī means in Kurdish a beast which has a particular disease of the foot. According to the S̲h̲araf-nāma (i. 148), the S̲h̲aḳāḳī were one of the four warrior tribes, ( ʿas̲h̲īrat) in the nāhiya of Finlk of the principality of Ḏj̲azīra. According to the Ottoman sāl-nāma, there were Kurdish S̲h̲aḳāḳī in the nāḥiya of S̲h̲eik̲h̲ler in the ḳaḍā of Ḳillīs in ¶ the wilāyet of Aleppo (cf. Spiegel, Eran. Altertumskunde, i, 744). The nāḥiya S̲h̲aḳāḳ of the Ḏj̲ihānnumā (between Mukus and Ḏj̲ulāmerg) is c…

Rūs

(2,797 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the Russians; at first the Normans, then the founders of the dukedom of Kiev. The Rūs of the west. In his description of Spain Yaʿḳūbī, B.G.A., vii. 354, says that in 229 (843—844) “the Mad̲j̲ūs called Rūs” invaded Seville and committed all kinds of depredations. The name Mad̲j̲ūs [q. v.] is regularly applied to the Normans. The name even passed into the Spanish Primera Crónica General (xiiith century) according to which the Almuiuces were worshippers of fire (!). The origin of this use of mad̲j̲ūs is obscure. Did the Arabs and Spaniards allude to such rites as the cremation o…

Ṭahmūrat̲h̲

(2,545 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādī dynasty in the Persian epic cycle. The name Tak̲h̲mō-urupa ( Avesta), Tak̲h̲mōrup ( Bundahis̲h̲) is compounded of tak̲h̲ma (“strong, courageous”) (cf. Rustam < Rustahm) + urupa (or urupi) (cf. Christensen, p. 140), “a certain animal of the dog family”, cf. Bartholomae, Altir. Wört., p. 1532, who, however, expresses doubts as to the real meaning of the name (Darmesteter, Avesta, ii., p. 583, interprets it “of sturdy shape”; cf. ¶ Sanskrit rūpa?). Later forms are Tak̲h̲mūraf, Tahmūras. The transcription into Arabic characters Ṭahmūrat̲h̲…

Manisa

(799 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Mag̲h̲nisa (> Māʾnisa), in Arabic Mag̲h̲nīsiya, capital of the district of Ṣārūk̲h̲ān in western Anatolia. Mag̲h̲nisa is two hours’ journey distant on the south from the river Gediz or Gedüs (the ancient Hermon; on its course, cf. Tchihatchef, Asie Mineure, ii. [1860], p. 232) on the northern slope of Mount Mag̲h̲nisa-dag̲h̲i̊ or Yamanlar (the ancient Sipylos) which separates it from Smyrna (the distance between the two towns by the Sabunči-beli pass is only 20 miles; by railway 40 miles). In ancient times the town (“Magnesia ad Sipylum”) was mainly noted for the victory …

Māzandarān

(5,600 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Vasmer, R.
, a province to the south of the Caspian Sea bounded on the west by Gīlān, on the east by the province of Āstarābād (q. v., formerly Gurgān). The name. If Gurgān to the Īrānians was the “Land of the Wolves” ( vəhrkāna), the region to its west was peopled by “Māzainian dēws” (Bartholomae, Altir. Wörterbuch, col. 1169 under māzainya daēva). Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta, ii. 373, note 32, thought that Māzandarān was a “comparative of direction” ( *Mazana-tara; cf. s̲h̲ūs̲h̲ and S̲h̲ûs̲h̲tar) but Nöldeke’s hypothesis is the more probable ( Grundr. d. iron. Phil., ii. 178) who thinks that Māz…

Suldūz

(1,819 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Suldūs). 1. A tribe in Mongolia. According to Bérézine the Mongol form of the name would be Suldes (plural of sulda, “good fortune”). L. Ligeti ( Die Herkunft des Volksnamens Kirgis, Körösi-Csoma Archiv, Budapest 1925, i.) sees in the ending of Suld-uz, as in that of Ḳi̊rḳ-i̊z the remains of an ancient Turkish plural suffix (cf. biz, “we”, siz, “you”, etc.) and as a hypothetical singular quotes the name of a Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z clan: Sult, Sultu. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn classes the Suldūz among the dürlükin Mongols, i. e. of “common” origin, in contrast to the “pure” ( nīrūn), who however were descended…

Lur-i Buzurg

(1,852 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of Atābegs which flourished in Eastern and Southern Luristān between 550 (1155) and 827 (1423) the capital of which was Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ (= Mālamīr; q. v.). The eponymous founder of the dynasty, also known as Faḍlawī, was a Kurd chief of Syria named Faḍlōya. His descendants (the Ḏj̲ihān-ārā mentions 9 predecessors of Abū Ṭāhir) migrated from Syria and passing through Maiyafāriḳīn and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān (where they made an alliance with the Amīra Dībād̲j̲ [?] of Gīlān) they arrived about 500 (1006) in the plains north of Us̲h̲turān-Kūh (Luristān). Their (1) chief Abū Ṭāhir (b. ʿA…

Marāg̲h̲a

(5,524 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [q. v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate between the two towns which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (Ḥamd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit…
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