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Kalīm

(311 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, a Persian poet of India of the seventeenth century. His full name was Mīrzā Abū Ṭālib Kalīm of Hamad̲h̲ān. He lived first in Kās̲h̲ān, so that he is also given the nisba Kās̲h̲ānī as well as Hamad̲h̲ānī. In the beginning of the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr (q. v., 1014—1037 = 1605—1627) he came to India to his court. A considerable journey took him in the following years to the ʿIrāḳ, from which he returned in 1028 (1619) to India and lived there henceforth as court-poet of the Mog̲h̲ul Emperors. Under Ḏj̲ahāngīr’s successor S̲h̲āh Ḏ…

Ṣamṣām al-Dawla

(684 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, S̲h̲āhnawār Ḵh̲ān S̲h̲ahīd Ḵh̲wāfī Awrangābādī, an Indian statesman and historian. His early name was ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ Ḥusainī and he belonged to a Saiyid family which had migrated to India from Ḵh̲wāf in Ḵh̲urāsān in the time of Akbar and attained high honour there. He was born in Lahore on Ramaḍān 28, 1111 (March 20, 1700) and while still young moved to Awrangābād [q. v.] where he was appointed Dīwān of Berār by the first independent Niẓām of the Deccan, Āṣaf Ḏj̲āh [q. v.; see also the article ḥaidārābād]. In 1155 (1742) he was involved in the rising attempted by Nāṣir Ḏj̲ang, so…

Sawād

(336 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, a name of the ʿIrāḳ [q.v.]. While the name ʿIrāḳ has been proved to be a Pahlavi loanword (from Ērag, “low land, south land”, occurring in the Turfan fragments, with assimilation to the semantically connected stem ʿrḳ; cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klass. Arab., p. 69; H. H. Schaeder, Isl., xiv. 8—9; J. J. Hess, Zeitschr. f. Semitistik, ii.) sawāa “black land” is the oldest Arabic name for the alluvial land on the Euphrates and Tigris given on account of the contrast to the eye between it and the Arabian desert (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 174,14 sqq.). The name has u…

Sawād

(399 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H.H.
, a name used in early Islamic times for ʿIrāḳ [ q.v.]. While the name ʿIrāḳ has been proved to be a Pahlavi loanword (from Ērag , “low land, south land”, occurring in the Turfan fragments, with assimilation to the semantically connected root ʿrḳ ; cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klass. Arab., Göttingen 1919, 69; H.H. Schaeder, in Isl ., xiv, 8-9; J.J. Hess, in ZS, ii, 219-23) sawād “black land” is the oldest Arabic name for the alluvial land on the Euphrates and Tigris given on account of the co…

Sawād

(387 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H.H.
, autre désignation du ʿIrāḳ [ q.v.] dans les premiers temps de l’Islam. Tandis que le mot ʿIrāḳ vient du moyen-persan (du mot Erag «pays inférieur, pays du sud», attesté dans les fragments de Turfan, avec assimilation à la racine sémantiquement voisine ʿrḳ; cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klass. Arab., Göttingen 1919, 69; H. H. Schaeder, Isl., XIV, 8-9; J. J. Hess, II, 219-23; voir pourtant Nöldeke dans Isl., XIV, 380 sq.) Sawād «le pays noir» est le plus ancien nom arabe de la plaine d’alluvions du Tigre et de l’Euphrate; ce nom repose sur s…

Sāwa

(1,839 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schaeder, H.H.
(older form Sāwad̲j̲, cf. the nisba Sāwad̲j̲ī, found at the side of Sāwī), a town of northern Persia some 125 km/80 miles to the southwest of Tehran (lat. 35° 00′ N., long. 50° 22′ E., altitude 960 m/3,149 feet). It was formerly on the Ḳazwīn-Ḳumm road used in mediaeval times but now replaced by the modern paved roads-system centred on Tehran, and on the main caravan and pilgrimage route from southwestern Persia a…

Samarḳand

(7,362 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H.H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Crowe, Yolande
, an ancient city of Transoxania, the Arabic Māʾ warāʾ al-Nahr [ q.v.], situated on the southern bank of the Zarafs̲h̲ān river or Nahr Ṣug̲h̲d. In early Islamic times it was the first city of the region in extent and populousness, even when, as under the Sāmānids (3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries [ q.v.]), Buk̲h̲ārā [ q.v.] was the administrative capital. Samarḳand’s eminence arose from its position at the intersection of trade routes from India and Afg̲h̲ānistān via Balk̲h̲ and Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.vv.] and from Persia via Marw [see marw al-s̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān ] which then led …

Samarḳand

(7,466 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H.H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Crowe, Yolande
, ancienne ville de Transoxiane, la Mā warāʾ al-Nahr [ q.v.] des Arabes, située sur la rive méridionale de la rivière de Zarafs̲h̲ān, ou Nahr Ṣug̲h̲d. Au début de la période islamique, c’était la première ville de la région pour son extension et sa population, même lorsque Buk̲h̲ārā [ q.v.] en était la capitale administrative, sous les Sāmānides [ q.v.], aux IIIe/Ve/IXe-Xe siècles. L’importance de Samarḳand était due à sa situation à l’intersection des routes commerciales en provenance de l’Inde et de l’Afg̲h̲ānistān par Balk̲h̲ et Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.vv.], et de la Perse par Marw [voir Marw al-…

Sāwa

(1,678 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schaeder, H.H.
(forme ancienne Sāwad̲j̲, cf. la nisba al-Sāwad̲j̲ī, existant à côté de Sāwī), ville de la Perse septentrionale, à quelque 125 km au Sud-ouest de Téhéran (lat. 35° 00’ N., long. 50° 22’ E., altitude 960 m). Elle se trouvait naguère sur la route Ḳazwīn-Ḳumm utilisée au moyen âge, mais actuellement remplacée par le réseau moderne de routes pavées centré sur Téhéran, et sur la principale route de caravanes et de pèlerinage allant de la Perse du Sud-ouest et du bas ʿIrāḳ à Rayy et au Ḵh̲urāsān, Cette dernière également ¶ a été remplacée par la grand route moderne du Ḵh̲ūristān à Arāk, Ḳ…