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Kalīm

(311 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, a Persian poet of India of the seventeenth century. His full name was Mīrzā Abū Ṭālib Kalīm of Hamad̲h̲ān. He lived first in Kās̲h̲ān, so that he is also given the nisba Kās̲h̲ānī as well as Hamad̲h̲ānī. In the beginning of the reign of Ḏj̲ahāngīr (q. v., 1014—1037 = 1605—1627) he came to India to his court. A considerable journey took him in the following years to the ʿIrāḳ, from which he returned in 1028 (1619) to India and lived there henceforth as court-poet of the Mog̲h̲ul Emperors. Under Ḏj̲ahāngīr’s successor S̲h̲āh Ḏ…

Ṣamṣām al-Dawla

(684 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, S̲h̲āhnawār Ḵh̲ān S̲h̲ahīd Ḵh̲wāfī Awrangābādī, an Indian statesman and historian. His early name was ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ Ḥusainī and he belonged to a Saiyid family which had migrated to India from Ḵh̲wāf in Ḵh̲urāsān in the time of Akbar and attained high honour there. He was born in Lahore on Ramaḍān 28, 1111 (March 20, 1700) and while still young moved to Awrangābād [q. v.] where he was appointed Dīwān of Berār by the first independent Niẓām of the Deccan, Āṣaf Ḏj̲āh [q. v.; see also the article ḥaidārābād]. In 1155 (1742) he was involved in the rising attempted by Nāṣir Ḏj̲ang, so…

Sawād

(336 words)

Author(s): Schaeder, H. H.
, a name of the ʿIrāḳ [q.v.]. While the name ʿIrāḳ has been proved to be a Pahlavi loanword (from Ērag, “low land, south land”, occurring in the Turfan fragments, with assimilation to the semantically connected stem ʿrḳ; cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klass. Arab., p. 69; H. H. Schaeder, Isl., xiv. 8—9; J. J. Hess, Zeitschr. f. Semitistik, ii.) sawāa “black land” is the oldest Arabic name for the alluvial land on the Euphrates and Tigris given on account of the contrast to the eye between it and the Arabian desert (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, iii. 174,14 sqq.). The name has u…