(i) Arab countries.
Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl.
mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as
mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science,
mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of
mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas
q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…