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Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…

Mustas̲h̲riḳūn

(20,198 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J.
(a.), orientalists, those who study the Orient. A. Terminology Mustas̲h̲riḳ (not yet mentioned in Lane) is the active participle of the Xth form of the root s̲h̲-r-ḳ and means either “people studying/seeking for the East/Orient” or “people becoming (like) Easterners/Orientals”, Orient and Orientals tending to have a somewhat more emotional connotation than East and Easterners. The word mustas̲h̲riḳūn consequently conveys a broader scope of meaning than the present-day Western term “Orientalists”, i.e. “scholars specialised in Ori…

Kulliyya

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J.
(a. lit. “completeness”; Turkish: fakülte ; Persian: dānis̲h̲kada ) acquired in the 19th century the technical meaning of faculty as a unit of teaching and learning, mostly at the university level, according to branches of learning. Islamic education in masd̲j̲idt madras a or k̲h̲ānaḳāh did not know of a division into kulliyyāt , which presupposes institutionalised specialisation. So it was only in 1930 that al-Azhar in Cairo was reorganised according to three kulliyyāt of higher studies: uṣūl al-dīn , s̲h̲arīʿa , and al-dirāsāt al-ʿarabiyya . Nad̲j̲af in Irāq, as a centre of S̲h̲ī ʿī It…

Kulliyya

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J.
(a.), «totalité», a pris au XIXe siècle le sens technique de «Faculté» en tant qu’unité d’enseignement et de recherche au niveau universitaire (turc: fakülte; persan: dānis̲h̲kada). L’éducation islamique dispensée au masd̲j̲id, à la madrasa ou au k̲h̲ānḳāh [ q.vv.] ne connaissait pas la division en kulliyyāt, qui suppose une spécialisation institutionalisée, et c’est seulement en 1930 que l’Université d’al-Azhar fut réorganisée et divisée en trois kulliyyāt d’études supérieures: uṣūl al-dīn, s̲h̲arīʿa et dirāsāt ʿarabiyya. En Irak, Nad̲j̲af, qui est le centre de l’en…

Mustas̲h̲riḳūn

(20,615 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J.
(a.), orientalistes, ceux qui étudient l’Orient. — I. Terminologie. Mustas̲h̲riḳ (pas encore mentionné dans Lane) est le participe actif de Xe forme de la racine s̲h̲.r.ḳ et signifie aussi bien «personne étudiant ou cherchant à connaître l’Est/l’Orient», que «personnes s’assimilant aux populations de l’Est/orientales», Orient et oriental ayant une connotation notablement plus affective qu’Est et population de l’Est. Le mot mustas̲h̲riḳ véhicule donc un éventail de significations plus large que le terme «orientaliste» dans son emploi occidental contempora…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(10,583 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Réd.
(A.), Académie. I. — Pays arabes. Mad̲j̲maʿ pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ(A.), «lieu de réunion, de rassemblement», a pris, dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, un sens technique dans les expressions mad̲j̲maʿʿilmī «Académie des sciences» et mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a «Académie de langue [arabe]». Il y a un rapport étroit entre les deux sortes de mad̲j̲maʿ, car la recherche de la science s’effectue dans une langue arabe rendue propre à l’exprimer. Alors que mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] était le terme courant dans la civilisation arabe pour désigner (le lieu où se tenait) une réunion littéraire …