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ʿAbd al-Malik

(232 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen,, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī, a cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s reign ʿAbd al-Malik undertook several expeditions against the Byzantines. Such campaigns took place under his command in the years 174 (790-791) and 181 (797-798), according to some authorities also in 175 (791-792), whilst others state that in the latter year not ʿAbd al-Malik himself, but his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān held the command. Besides this he was governor of Medina for some time …


(471 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
The theory, generally accepted by European historians, of the solemn transfer of the caliphate by al-Mutawakkil, the last Egyptian ʿAbbāsid, to the Ottoman Sulṭān Selīm is devoid of any foundation and has been definitely relegated to the realm of legend by Barthold ( M. I., St. Petersburg 1912, i. 203—226, 345—400; see also Becker, Barthold’s Studien fiber Kalif und Sulṭān, in Isl., vi. 250—412) It owes its dissemination to a Stambul Armenian in Swedish service, Mouradgea d’Ohsson, who published it in his Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman, Paris 1788—1824, i. 232 and 269 sq.; cf. also…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…


(807 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abu Isḥaḳ Muḥammad, an ʿAbbāsid caliph, born in 179(795—796) or 180 (796—7), the son of Hārūn al-Rag̲h̲īd and a slave-girl named Mārida. In the reign of his brother al-Maʾmūn [q. v.] he took part in the fighting against the Byzantines in Asia Minor and received the governorship of Egypt. After the death of al-Maʾmūn in Rad̲j̲ab 218 (Aug. 833) he ascended the throne and was soon afterwards acknowledged even by his nephew al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn [q. v.] whom the troops had proclaimed caliph a…


(780 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yazīd b. Nuʿaim al-S̲h̲aibānī, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī leader. He belonged to the region of al-Mawṣil, to which his family had migrated from the oasis of al-Laṣaf in the Kūfa desert, and was born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 25 (Sept./Oct. 646) or 26 (Sept./Oct. 647). In the beginning of 76 (695) he joined Ṣāliḥ b. Musarraḥ, the leader of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs in Dārā between Naṣībīn and Mārdīn and when the latter was slain on 17th Ḏj̲umādā I (2 Sept. 695) in battle against the troops of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [q. v.] under al-Ḥārit̲h̲. b. ʿUmaira al-Hamdānī at the village of al-Mudabbad…

al-Muṭīʿ Li ’llāh

(505 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Faḍl , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 334-63/946-74, son of al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.] by a Ṣaḳlabī slave concubine called Mas̲h̲ʿala, brother of al-Rāḍī and of al-Muttaḳī [ q.vv.]. Al-Muṭīʿ was a bitter enemy of al-Mustakfī [ q.v.] and therefore went into hiding on the latter’s accession, and after Muʿizz al-Dawla [ q.v.] had become the real ruler, al-Muṭīʿ is said to have taken refuge with him and incited him against al-Mustakfī. After the deposition of the latter in D̲j̲umādā II or S̲h̲aʿbān 334/January or March 946) al-Muṭīʿ was recognis…


(161 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿāzib b. al-ḥārit̲h̲ al-awsī al-anṣārī , a Companion of the Prophet. He was too young to take part in the Battle of Badr, but he accompanied Muḥammad on numerous other expeditions and later took part in the wars of conquest; he brought Rayy and Ḳazwīn under Muslim dominion. He later espoused the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and fought under his banner at the Battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal], at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], and at al-Nahrawān [ q.v.]; the famous ḥadīt̲h̲ of G̲h̲adīr Ḵh̲umm [ q.v.] was related on his authority. After his retirement to Kūfa, he lost his sight towards the end…

ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās

(239 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
was the ancestor of the ʿAbbāsids. According to Muslim tradition, ʿAlī was born in the year 40/661, the very same night in which the caliph ʿAlī was assassinated; but there are also other statements concerning the year of his birth. His mother was called Zurʿa bint Mis̲h̲raḥ. His grandfather al-ʿAbbās was the uncle of the Prophet, and on account of his high birth and his personal gifts ʿAlī attained to great distinction. He was looked upon as the handsomest and most pious Ḳurays̲h̲ite of his tim…

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Maʾmūn

(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, pretender to the throne under al-Muʿtaṣim. His father, the caliph al-Maʾmūn, appointed him in 213/828-9 a governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district, and he then showed great bravery in fighting the Byzantines. On the death of al-Maʾmūn in 218/833, his brother, Abū Isḥāḳ Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi-’llāh, by choice of the deceased, ascended the throne of the ʿAbbāsids. The army which al-Maʾmūn had collected against the Greeks, however, proclaimed al-ʿAbbās caliph, although he h…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(280 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph ʿUmar II. In the year 126/744 ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127/Oct. 744, but was expelled by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar, whereupon he transferred his propaganda to other parts. When Marwān transferred to …


(241 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. maʿrūr , a Companion of the Prophet. Among the seventy-five proselytes who appeared at the ʿAḳaba in the summer of 622 at the pilgrims’ festival to enter into alliance with the Prophet, the aged S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr of Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ was one of the most important, and when Muḥammad declared he wished to make a compact with them that they should protect him as they would their wives and children, al-Barāʾ seized his hand, promised him protection in the name of all pre…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥanẓala

(320 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Pellat, Ch.
b. Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī , one of the leaders of the revolution that broke out in Medīna against the caliph Yazīd I. Posthumous son of a Companion killed at Uḥud and surnamed G̲h̲asīl al-Malāʾika, ʿAbd Allāh is also known as Ibn al-G̲h̲asīl. In 62/682 he took part in the deputation sent to Damascus by the governor of Medina, ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Muḥammad, to bring about a reconciliation between the malcontents of Medina and the Umayyads. Yazīd showed special consideration for the envoys, but they, nevertheles…

Abān b. ʿUt̲h̲mān

(203 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAffān , governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsiyya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umāda I 36/Nov. 656; on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Madīna. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then dismissed and his place was taken by His̲h̲ām b. Ismāʿīl. Abān owes his celebrity not so ¶ much to his activity as an…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī

(478 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Moscati, S.
, uncle of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbd Allāh was one of the most active participants in the struggle of the ʿAbbāsids against the last Umayyad caliph, Marwān II. He was commander-in-chief in the decisive battle at the Greater Zāb, where Marwān lost his crown, and when the latter took to flight, ʿAbd Allāh pursued him, quickly captured Damascus and marched on to Palestine, whence he had the fugitive caliph pursued to Egypt. He was even more implacable than …

ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ Bi ’llāh

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E. | van Donzel, E.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Hārūn b. al-Muʿtaṣim , ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was given the name Hārūn after his grandfather Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd; his mother was a Greek slave called Ḳarāṭīs. On the day that his father al-Muʿtaṣim bi ’llāh [ q.v.] died (18 Rabīʿ I 227/5 January 842), al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ was proclaimed his successor. Before al-Muʿtaṣim’s death, an alleged descendant of the Umayyads, named Abū Ḥarb, usually called al-Mubarḳaʿ [ q.v.] “the veiled one” from the veil that he always wore, had provoked a dangerous rising in Palestine, and Rad̲j̲āʾ b. Ayyūb al-Ḥiḍārī, whom al-Muʿta…


(2,044 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Humphreys, R.S.
, the name of two Ayyūbid sultans. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Dāwūd b. al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam , born in D̲j̲umādā I 603/December 1205) in Damascus. After the death of his father at the end of D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 624/November 1227 Dāwūd succeeded him on the throne of Damascus and the Mamlūk ʿIzz al-Dīn Aybak acted as regent. Dāwūd’s uncle however, covetous of territory, did not leave him long in peace. Al-Malik al-Kāmil [ q.v.] first of all claimed the fortress of al-S̲h̲awbak [ q.v.], and when it was refused him he occupied Jerusalem, Nābulus and other places (625/1228). In t…

S̲h̲ams al-Dawla

(488 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Ḥasan, Būyid prince and ruler in Hamad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] 387-412/997-1021. After the death of Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.], the amīr s proclaimed as his successor in Rayy his four-year-old son Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla [ q.v.] under the guardianship of his mother Sayyida and gave the governorship of Hamad̲h̲ān and Kirmāns̲h̲āhān to S̲h̲ams al-Dawla, who was also a minor. When Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla grew up, he sought to overthrow his mother and with this object made an arrangement with the vizier al-K̲h̲aṭīr Abū ʿAlī b. ʿAlī …


(846 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
bi-llāh , Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 289-95/902-8, son of al-Muʿtaḍid and a Turkish slave concubine named Čiček (Arabic D̲j̲īd̲j̲ak). In 281/894-5 he was appointed by his father governor of al-Rayy and several towns in the neighbourhood, and five years later he was made governor of Mesopotamia and took up his quarters in ¶ al-Raḳḳa. After the death of al-Muʿtaḍid on 22 Rabīʿ II 289/5 April 902, he ascended the throne and at once won the good-will of the people by his liberality, by destroying the subter…


(373 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Musayyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān , member of the Arab ʿUḳaylid dynasty of ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra (d. 391/1000). After the death in 386/996 or 387/997 of the ʿUḳaylid amīr Abu ’l-D̲h̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musayyib, a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder, but al-Muḳallad wrote to the Būyid amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. in Suppl.] and promised him an annual tribute, and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town…
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