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Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its pri…

Consabura

(75 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Arevaci

(62 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Aeso

(66 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the  Lacetani, modern Isona, part of the conventus Tarraconensis (Plin. HN 3,23) and enrolled in the tribus Quirina, minted coins with the Iberian legend E-S-O [1. II,63; MLI, 32]. An episcopus ecclesiae Aesonensis took part in the sixth Council of Toledo (Conc. 6; Fuentes Históricas Aragonenses 9,294). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives y Escudero, La moneda hispánica, 1926. Tovar 3, 1989, 451.

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]).…

Lacobriga

(186 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were three towns of this Celtic [1] name. [German version] [1] Town in the north of Palantia In the territory of the Vaccaei, north of Palantia in northern Spain ([2]; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,49; It. Ant. 395,1; 449,3; 454,1). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …

Damania

(117 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (name on Iberian coins [1. no. 86]: dmaniu) was an oppidum stipendiarium of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24) and part of the tribe of the Sedetani or Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62); Hübner [2] presumes here that there were two different tribes while Schulten sees both as one (cf. [3. 229]). In spite of i…

Gigurri

(161 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Georres, Giorres). In Valdeorras on the upper Sil (Province of Orense) the inscription ILS I 2079 was found on which a Roman soldier with the Celtic epithet (according to [2. 1089]) Reburrus is called Gigurrus Calubrigensis. Calubriga is the (according to [1. 705]) Celtic name of an unknown town (assumptions in this…

Corduba

(334 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Limes | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome The modern Córdoba on the bank of the Guadalquivir ( Baetis), which is navigable from C. to its mouth; the city lies at the centre of a region of highly fertile soils. C. also owes its significance to favourable transport links, the old

Dertosa

(295 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars In the 6th cent. BC the rich trading city of Tyrichae lay on the mouth of the Ebro (Avien. Ora maritima 498-503). A ‘very rich’ city is again mentioned there for 215 BC: Hibera (Liv. 23,28,10). It is doubtless identical with the later Hibera Iulia Ilercavonia (for the tribe Ilercavones see [4. 1092]) D. (according to [1. 1269], Iberian, according to [2. 63; 3. 4, 233f.], Ligurian). According to Livy, Hibera lay on the southern bank and this is consistent with the favour…

Salmantica

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Hispania, Iberia City of the Vaccaei (Pol. 3,14,1; 3,14,3: Ἑλμαντική/ Helmantikḗ; Liv. 21,5,6: Hermandica; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,48: Σαλμαντίς/ Salmantís; Ptol. 2,5,9: Σαλμάντικα/ Salmántika; It. Ant. 434,4: Salmatice; CIL II 857; 859; 870: S.), modern Salamanca. Conquered by Hannibal [4] in 220 BC to secure a grain supply for his army. Roman municipium on the army road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Asturica Augusta. A Roman bridge over the Tormes still stands there today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, A…

Barcino(na)

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula The present-day Barcelona was an Iberian settlement of the  Lacetani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6, 18). During the Civil War, B. was on Caesar's side. B. received the name Faventia Julia Augusta Pia (or Paterna?) Immunis. B. reached its highest peak during Roman imperial times. The city attained its special significance not least because of its bishops -- under the  Visigoths, when the decline of Tarraco started. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 438-440 R. W…

Olisippo

(189 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni City on the right bank at the mouth of the Tagus (Tejo) in Lusitania,…

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin. HN 3,21; Just. Epit. 44,1,2) believed - the other way around [1. 307-315]. [German version] [1] Modern Ebro Modern Ebro. All sources agree that the ancient I., with its trib…

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira), Latin Gades, modern Cádiz). The date of its foundation is linked to the foundations of Utica and Carthage; according to literary sources, it is estimated for c. 1100 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,2; Iust. 44,5,2; Mela 3,46; Plin. HN 16,216; cf. [3. 5-12;…

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spain at the confluence of the rivers Duero, Merdancho and Tera on a hill (Muela de Garray, 67 m above river level), 6 km from Soria (Castilla la Vieja plateau). It had been settled since the …

Medobriga

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (or Medubriga; Celtic [1. 526] ‘Castle of Medus’). Town in Lusitania ( Lusitani), captured in 48 BC by Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, together with the Herminius mons (the modern Sierra de la Estrella), to which the inhabitants had fled (Bell. Alex. 48,2). According to CIL II 760, the

Clunia

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae The important ruins of C. lie c. 40 km north-west of Uxama Argaela (now Osma near Coruña del Conde; CIL II p. 382). On Augustan coins the name is spelled Clounioq, later C. [2. 111ff.) and is probably Celtic ([1. 131]; a different view in [3. 1048]). C. played a part in the revolt by  Sertorius (75 BC: Liv. Per. 92; 72 BC: Exsuperantius 8; Flor. 2,10,9), in that of 55 BC (Cass. Dio 39,54) and that of  Galba in AD 68 (Suet. Galba 9,2;…

Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Inscriptions: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Possibly already mentioned in Avien. 475. I. repeatedly played a role in Roman military history, especially in Caesar's battles with Pompey's legates. Augustus raised I. to the status of municipium (coins, Plin. HN 3,24). It is still mentioned several times in Ausonius (e.g. com…
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