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Pufendorf, Samuel

(350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Baron; Jan 8, 1632, Dorfchemnitz – Oct 26, 1694, Berlin). After attending the Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650), Pufendorf studied in Leipzig and Jena from 1650 to 1658. He then took a position in Copenhagen as private tutor in the household of the Swedish ambassador Peter Julius Coyet. During months of Danish imprisonment in 1658, he wrote his Elementorum jurisprudentiae universalis libri duo, dedicated to the elector Palatine Charles Louis, which was published in 1660. This work earned him a call to Heidelberg as the first German profe…

Saumur, Huguenot Academy

(401 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The establishment, rise, and heyday of the Saumur academy are closely associated with the name of P. Duplessis-Mornay. In March of 1593, the governor of Saumur received from King Henry IV a decree empowering him to found an academy; this and the Edict of Nantes in 1598 (Huguenots: I, 1) created the conditions for establishing a Calvinist training center in that city, which was one of the safe havens for Huguenots. The Academy comprised a collège, a faculty of arts, and a faculty of theology, with chairs in rhetoric, ancient languages, mathematics, philos…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he convened the first s…

Fleury, Claude

(208 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1640, Paris – Jul 14, 1723, Paris). After attending the Jesuit college in Clermont, Fleury studied law and became parliamentary advocate in 1658. In 1667, he began to study theology under the influence of J.-B. Bossuet and was ordained priest on Jun 8, 1669. From 1672 to 1680, he was the tutor of the princes of Conti, and from 1680 to 1683 of the count of Vermandois, a legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Fleury participated alongside F…

Jurieu, Pierre

(339 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1637, Mer, Département Loir-et-Cher – Jan 11, 1713, Rotterdam). The son of a Reformed pastor and grandson of the theologian ¶ P. Du Moulin studied in Saumur, Sedan, and England, where he was ordained according to the Anglican rite. In 1660 – after a Calvinist ordination – he succeeded his father in Mer; in 1674, he became professor of theology and Hebrew in Sedan. After the dissolution of the academy in 1681, Jurieu, who had become suspect because of his pamphlet, “La politique du clergé de Fra…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Bucanus, Wilhelm

(148 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (du Buc, Guillaume; born Rouen, died Lausanne, 1603). After 23 years as a pastor and superintendent in Yverdon, Bucanus was appointed professor of theology at Lausanne in 1591. He died before he could accept an appointment to the academy at Saumur. His importance for French Protestantism comes from his Institutiones, planned as a textbook, which expounds the teaching of Calvinistic orthodoxy. They were circulated posthumously through an English translation, expanded by the addition of a tract on The Practise of Papists against Protestant Princes; because of …

Major, Georg

(384 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Maier, Meyer; Apr 25, 1502, Nuremberg – Nov 28, 1574, Wittenberg). After studying at Wittenberg, Major succeeded C. Cruciger as rector of the Johannisschule in Magdeburg. In 1537 he returned to Wittenberg as preacher at the Schlosskirche. Appointed to the Wittenberg consistory in 1542, in 1545 he took over the professorship of J. Jonas on the theological faculty, having received his Dr.theol. from Luther at the end of 1544. In 1546 he was one of the participants in the Colloquy o…

Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg count of Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), begun by G. Farel. The introduction of the Württemberg church order of 1536 and then the order of 1559 created difficulties, since Tossanus and his colleagues favored the Swiss Reformation. Negotiations le…

Languet, Hubert

(185 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1518, Vitteaux, France - Sep 30, 1581, Antwerp, Belgium), studied law in Poitiers and earned a doctorate in Padua. He was won over to the Reformation after reading Melanchthon's Loci communes, whereupon he went to Wittenberg in 1549 to meet the praeceptor. The latter's recommendation to the councilor of Electoral Saxony, Ulrich von Mordeisen, enabled him to enter the service of August I, Elector of Saxony (until 1577). Diplomatic missions led him, among other places, to Paris and to the imperial court in Vienna. He was …

Huguenots

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene | Butler, Jon | Weber, Édith
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Music I. Church History 1. Europe The term Huguenot – whose etymology is unclear, although it probably traces back to the French eyguenot (cf. Ger. Eidgenossen) attested since 1520 – surfaces in relation to the Amboise conspiracy in 1560 and soon also found entry – in addition to the otherwise customary designation of French Protestants as adherents of the “supposedly reformed religion” ( religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.) – into official texts. As early as the 1520s and 1530s, under the influence of the biblical humanism…

Staffort Book

(190 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1599). The Staffort Book is witness to the change of confessional allegiance of Margrave Ernst Friedrich v. Baden-Durlach, one of the three sons of Margrave Charles II, on whose behalf the guardians Louis, elector palatine, Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg, and Duke Louis of Württemberg had signed the Formula of Concord after the margrave’s death. The book, printed at Schloß Staffort near Durlach, consisted – in its larger version – of a rejection of the Formula of Concord…

Camisards

(559 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The Camisards were Protestants in southern France who, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686 (Huguenots), secretly formed armed bands in the Cévennes region, the “desert,” to fight for the freedom and rights of their suppressed church in the face of harsh persecution. The term “Camisard” probably derives from the camisia (“shirt”) worn over their clothing during night raids, which were therefore called camisades. The movement, which at times appeared fanatical, survived until 1711; especially when its followers were being pu…

Dupin, Louis Ellies

(172 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Jun 17, 1657, Paris – Jun 6, 1719, Paris) received his Dr.Theol. from the Sorbonne in 1684 and became professor at the Collège Royal in Paris. His signature to the “Cas de conscience” in sympathy with Jansenism in 1703 cost him his chair and brought him expulsion to Châtellerault. He recanted (1704) and was thus able to return to Paris, but not to his chair. In …

Du Cange, Charles Dufresne

(186 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1610, Amiens – Oct 23, 1688, Paris). After a humanist education at the Jesuit college in Amiens and law studies at the University of Orléans, Du Cange became a parliamentary advocate in Paris in 1631, but soon returned to Amiens. ¶ There he purchased the office of trésorier in 1645, which allowed him to devote himself to his historical and philosophical studies. He continued these in Paris in 1668 after an outbreak of the plague in Amiens. As an aut…

Bochart, Samuel

(146 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (May 30, 1599, Rouen – May 16, 1667, Caen) studied philosophy in Sedan and theology in Saumur as well as in Leiden, where he devoted himself to Arabic. From 1625 he was a pastor in Caen. His dispute with the Jesuit François Véron (Sep 22 – Oct 3, 1628) and the publication of the proceedings made him well known, and the release of his Geographia sacra even more so. An invitation to the court of Christina of Sweden in 1652 gave him the opportunity to evaluate the Arabic manuscripts of the royal library for his Hierozoicon. In 1661 he got into contr…

Duplessis-Mornay, Philippe

(292 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Philippe de Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis-Marly, Baron de La Forêt-sur-Sèvre; Nov 5, 1549, Buhy-en-Vexin – Nov 11, 1623, La Forêt-sur-Sèvre). After his studies – with P. Ramus and others – Duplessis-Mornay traveled through western Europe (1568–1572), on the basis of which he published a report in which he set out France's need for an anti-H…

Amyraut, Moïse

(212 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Sep 1596, Bourgueil, Touraine – Jan 8, 1664, Saumur) studied law at Poitiers and theology at Saumur (1618–1621). In 1626, after a brief stay in London and an initial pastorate at St. Aignan, he became pastor and in 1633 professor at Saumur. His doctrine of hypothetical universalism ( Traité de la prédestination) provoked violent controversy. It is based on the principle that God wills the salvation of all, insofar as they have faith. God's will, however, is frustrated by hum…

Jacquelot (Jaquelot), Isaac

(207 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1647, Vassy – Oct 20, 1708, Berlin). Jacquelot succeeded his father as Protestant minister in Vassy; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (France: III, 1; Huguenots), he took refuge in Heidelberg. In 1686 he became pastor of the French congregation in The Hague. His Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690) brought him into conflict with P. Jurieu, so that he withdrew to Basel. In 1702 he was called to Berlin by Frederick I; he served as court chaplain there until his death. In his writings, he argued with suc…

Huet (Huetius), Pierre Daniel

(233 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1620, Caen – Jan 26, 1721, Paris). Huet was the early orphaned son of a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. After attending the Jesuit College he studied law in Caen. He shared an interest in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and geography with S. Bochart, whom he accompanied to the Swedish court in 1652. In 1668, he published a manuscript by Origen on the Gospel of Matthew, which he had discovered there. But he had already returned to Paris by 1653. In 1662, he founded an academ…
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