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Crinis

(62 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Κρῖνις). Stoic logician, author of an ‘Art of the Dialectic’ (Διαλεκτικὴ τέχνη; cf. Diog. Laert. 7,62; 68; 71; 76). An allusion in the Epict. Dissertationes 3,2,15 dates his active phase to the period after  Archedemus [2] of Tarsus (late 2nd cent. BC) and his death before the philosophical career of Epictetus (early 2nd cent. AD). Inwood, Brad (Toronto)

Epictetus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Ἐπίκτητος;

Sphaerus

(104 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Σφαῖρος/ Sphaîros) of Borysthenes. Stoic philosopher of the third cent. BC, student of Zeno [2] of Citium and later of Cleanthes. He was active at the court of Ptolemy II in Alexandria (Diog. Laert. 7,185). Anecdotes (Diog. Laert. 7,177, Athenaeus 354e) reveal his interest in epistemology; he distinguished cataleptic and plausible ( eúlogon) presentations. Plutarch (Cleomenes 2, 11) portrays him as a teacher of Cleomenes [6] and an adviser on the revived Spartan agōgḗ . Diogenes Laertius lists nearly 30 book titles (on physics, ethics, politics, epistemology and dialectic), let…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29).…

Persaeus

(232 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Περσαῖος; Persaîos). [German version] [1] Father of Hecate Father of Hecate (H. Hom. 2,24), P. corresponds to Perses [1]. Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) [German version] [2] From Citium, Stoic philosopher, 4th/3rd cent. BC P. from Citium. Stoic philosopher, born c. 307/6 BC in Citium on Cyprus. Details of his biography in Diog. Laert. 7,36 and Philodemus' History of the Stoa

Stoicism

(2,473 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] I. History Stoicism was an intellectual movement rooted in an Athenian school of philosophy founded by Zeno [2] of Citium in the late 4th cent. BC; it took its name from the place where Zeno's lessons were held, the Stoá Poikílē ('painted collonade', Stoa [1]), and developed most significantly by its next two leaders, Cleanthes [2] of Assus and Chrysippus [2] of Soli. It flourished primarily within the context of the school at Athens until the sack of the city by Roman forces in 86 BC; besides Athens, Rhodes was also an important centre of activity in the 2nd cent. BC. By the Augustan Period its activities were more dispersed, and it became a central part of Greco-Roman intellectual life generally. Important Stoic philosophers of the Imperial Period are Musonius [1] Rufus ( c. AD 3…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops fr…

Dardanus

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Harrauer, Christine (Vienna) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δάρδανος; Dárdanos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus Son of Zeus, who of all his mortal sons loved this one the most (Hom. Il. 20,215; 304), and either a mortal mother or the Atlantid Electra/Elektryone (Hes. fr. 177/80 MW; Hellanic. FGrH 4 F 23). Eponymous hero of the  Dardani, who lived on Mt Ida, and in Homer are linked with the Trojans and frequently synonymous with them. D. is the progenitor of the Trojan ruling dynasty. Possibly mentioned in the Ilioupersis, he originates from Arcadia, where he is supposed to have been born in a cave (Ilioupersis fr. 1 PEG I; Str. 8…

Cleanthes

(515 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεάνθης; Kleánthēs). [German version] [1] Painter from Corinth One of the earliest painters from Corinth, mentioned in Plin. HN 35,15f.; his name stands for the origin of the genera ( prima pictura). C. was considered the inventor of line art, creating his work from outlines and filling them in. Stylistic comparisons with vase painting of …

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes ) of dialectics (29 A 10 and A 1 DK, cf. 29 A 2 DK). The judgment is understandable insofar as, in this text, Z. was pursuing – but not, as the young Socrates remarks [2] in the

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he h…

Blossius

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
Italian-Oscan gentilicium (Schulze 423 ThIL 2,2054f.). Cicero mentions a respected B. family from Campania (Leg. agr. 2,93), whose members in Capua are known to have been opponents of Rome in 216 and 210 BC (Liv. 23,7,8f.;27,3,4f.). [German version] [1] Latin poet and advocate, 5th cent. AD see Dracontius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] of Cumae Politician and philosopher, died 128 BC An Italian po…

Mnesarchus

(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cu…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tiran…

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/350 to after 292 BC; first emerged as one of the public prosecutors in the trial of Harpalus (324/3; Din. 1,1; 1,20; [1. 125-127]). His motion to grant posthumous honour to Lycurgus [9] (307/6: Syll.3 326; [2. 51-56]) attests to a strong commitment to democracy. The same tendency is evident in his active advocacy of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes (more than 20 motions for honours are attested), for which, however, S. met with increasing hostility (Ath. 13,596 f; Plut. Demetrius 11; 12,1; 24; 26; Diod. Sic. 20,46,2). After the battle of Ipsus (301), S. probably temporarily lost influence, but re-emerges in 294/3 as a petitioner (IG II/III2 649). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography 1 I. Worthington, A Histor…

Hecaton

(222 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] of Rhodes. Pupil of  Panaetius and influential Stoic of the 1st cent. BC.  Diogenes [17] Laertius used H.'s writings for his account of Stoic ethics. The views of H. he cites correspond to old Stoic orthodoxy. Among the (mostly extensive) works often quoted by Diogenes are the Chreíai (which he draws on as the source for biographical and anecdotal information about Stoics and Cynics), and the treatises ‘Final Ends’, ‘Virtues’, ‘Goods’, ‘Emotions’, ‘Stoic Paradoxes’. Cicero mentions at least 6 books of ‘On duty’ (περὶ καθήκοντ…

Chaeremon

(358 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Χαιρήμων; Chairḗmōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, middle of the 4th cent. BC Tragedian; mentioned by the comedy writers Eubulus (Ath. 2,43c) and Ephippus (Juv. fr. 9 Kock in Ath. 11,482b), which locates him in the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Performed again 276-19 at the Naïa in Dodona (DID B 11,13); titles: Alphesiboea, ‘Achilles killer of Thersites (Apulian vase, Boston 03.804 [1. 166]), Dionysus, Thyestes, Io, The Centaur, The Minyae, Odysseus, Oeneus and more than 40 fragments. Aristot. Rhet. 3,12,1413b8) counts him among those writers whose plays are full…
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