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Xenetus

(63 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξένετος; Xénetos). Prominent citizen of Locri [2] in Lower Italy. In a double wedding in 398 BC Dionysius [1] I of Syracuse married both X.' daughter Doris and the Syracusan Aristomache, bestowing his favour on both women equally. Later he held X.' wife responsible for Aristomache's infertility and had her killed (Diod. 14,44,6-45,1; Plut. Dion 3,3-6). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Anticlides

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀντικλείδης; Antikleídēs). [German version] [from Athens] Historian (around 300 BC) ‘More antiquarian than actual historian’ (Jacoby). Lived at the beginning of the era of the Diadochi, c. 300 BC and was probably influenced by the Peripatetics (fr. 15-16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Work Perì Alexándrou, Deliaká, Nóstoi (FGrH 140 with comm.)

Philochorus

(352 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιλόχορος/ Philóchoros). P. of Athens, son of Cycnus, born c. 340 BC, the last and most eminent Atthidographer ( Atthís ). His works - a short biography in the Suda lists 21 works (FGrH 328 T 1); six more are known from other evidence - comprise the entire breadth of the history, literature and religion of Athens. The variety of themes, the unadorned style and the systematic method of collection betray peripatetic influence (Peripatos) and make him 'the first scholar among the Att…

Sophaenetus

(205 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σοφαίνετος/ Sophaínetos). From Stymphalus; despite his advanced age one of the leaders of Cyrus [3] the Younger's mercenaries in his struggle with his brother Artaxerxes [2] II (Xen. An. 5,3,1; 6,5,13): He recruited mercenaries among the Greeks (1,1,11; 1,2,1) and took 1000 hoplites to Cyrus in Sardis or Celaenae (1,2,3 or 1,2,9). On the return journey he led a convoy of ships from Trapezus to Cerasus (5,3,1), but because of his casual attention of finances had to pay a fine (5,8,1). Only Stephanus [7] from Byzantium mentions an Anábasis Kýrou by S. (F 1-4). It is he…

Terillus

(87 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τήριλλος; Tḗrillos). Son of Crinippus, tyrant of Himera, was deposed by Theron c. 483 BC. A call for help by T. and his father-in-law Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium led in 480 to an invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians under Hamilcar [1], a guest-friend of T.; Hamilcar and his army were decisively defeated by Gelon [1] and Theron at Himera (Hdt. 7,165-167). Of the later fate of T. nothing is known. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 134, 156.

Xenodicus

(195 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ξενόδικος; Xenódikos). [German version] [1] Uncle of the tyrant Theron of Acragas Son of the Emmenid Telemachus and uncle of Theron of Acragas. His sons Hippocrates and Capys rebelled against Theron in 476 BC, who defeated them at Himera, whereupon they settled in Sicanian Camicus (schol. Pind. P. 6,5a and O. 2,173f-g). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 135. [German version] [2] From Acragas, second half of the 4th cent. BC X. (also Xenodocus) from Acragas (both forms of the name can be found in Diod. 20,31,4; 32,2; 56…

Charax

(136 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάραξ; Chárax). A. Claudius C. from Pergamum; Greek historian. He lived during the 2nd cent. AD under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, was a priest and in AD 147 consul. C. wrote a universal history in 40 books, covering especially Greek and -- from book 12 -- Roman history up to the period of ‘Nero and his successors’ (Suda s.v. = T 1). The work was later summarized and used by Stephanus of Byzantium under the title Chroniká. The fragments relate mostly to mythological times, as it was mainly for his euhemeristic and allegorical interpretation…

Phylarchus

(390 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] P. from Athens or Naucratis (FGrH 81 T 1), Greek historian of the 3rd cent. BC, one of the main representatives of 'tragic' or 'mimetic' historiography (II C) [1. 93-108; 2. 95-102; 222 note 22]. P. wrote Historíai in 28 books, extending from the death of Pyrrhus (272 BC) to the death of king Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta (220/119 BC) (FGrH 81 T 1). 60 fragments survive (FGrH 81 with comm.). His work continues that of Duris of Samos (see historiography II C) and Hieronymus [6] of Cardia. Polybius [2] (Pol. 2,56-63 =…

Promathidas

(78 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Προμαθίδας; Promathídas). Greek local historian from Heraclea [7] on the Pontus. As a source for Apollonius [2] of Rhodes (cf. FGrH 430 T 1) he can be dated before c. 250 BC; he was also probably used by Nymphis and Memnon [5]. Some fragments of his work Heraclea, about the mythical era, survive. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 430 with comm.  P. Desideri, Studi di storiografia eracleota, in: Studi Classici e Orientali 16, 1967, 366-416.

Xenion

(88 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενίων; Xeníōn). Author of an historical treatise on Crete, Κρητικά ( Krētiká ) or Περὶ Κρήτης ( Perì Krḗtēs ). Pol. 6,45,1, where X. should probably be read instead of Xenophon [2] as the informant on the Cretan constitution, can probably be added to the fragments in FGrH 460 cf. [1]. It would result in X.'s being dated 'before Polybius', i.e. before the end of the 3rd cent. BC. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, Ein neues Fragment des Historikers X., in: Hermes 82, 1954, 498 f.

Hereas

(95 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡρέας; Hēréas). From Megara, author of Megariká, evidently more recent than Dieuchidas. The current view is that the fragments in Plutarch's Theseus and Solon derive ultimately from the Megariká (via Ister and Hermippus!) or another (anti-Athenian) work by H. He is probably identical with the theoros mentioned in IG VII 39 (beginning of 3 BC), but highly unlikely to be Heragoras, another author of Megariká as has been commonly assumed since [1.8]. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Comm. gramm. 1880/1881. Fragments: FGrH 486…

Pasiphilus

(77 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πασίφιλος; Pasíphilos). General of Agathocles [2], for whom he took Messana in 312/11 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,102,1-3). When Deinocrates [1] and Philonides occupied Galeria at Exiles' Point, P. retook the castle (Diod. Sic. 19,104,1-2). At the end of the African campaign in 306/5 he desserted to Deinocrates [2] (Diod. Sic. 20,77,1-2), and was murdered but a year later in Gela (Diod. Sic. 20,90,2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, Agathokles, in: CAH 7,1, 1984, 384-405.

Ephorus

(711 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἔφορος; Éphoros) from Cyme in Asia Minor; Greek universal historian, lived c. 400-330. On the basis of his style, in antiquity he was held to be a student of Isocrates. He was a contemporary of Theopompus (FGrH 70 T 3-5; 8; 28), and was said to have refused Alexander's invitation to accompany him on his campaign in 334 BC (T 6). Works: Epichṓrios lógos (‘History of our homeland’): an encomium to Cyme, which E. even made the homeland of Homer (F 1). ‘On inventions’: to be assigned to the realm of ‘sophist polyhistory’ (cf. Ed. Schwartz), it c…

Zoippus

(108 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζώιππος/ Zṓippos) from Syracuse. Husband of Heraclea, the daughter of Hieron [2] II. On the latter's initiative he, Adranodorus and others were appointed guardians of the young king Hieronymus [3] (Liv. 24,4-5). By turning towards Carthage he brought about a reorientation of Syracuse's former Rome-friendly policy (Pol. 7,2,1). At the report of the death of Hieronymus in 214 BC, while he was on a diplomatic mission to Ptolemaeus [I 7] IV Philopator in Alexandria [1], he never again returned to Syracuse (Liv. 24,26,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. de Sens…

Six hundred

(238 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] ( tò tōn hexakosíōn synédrion). From the death of Timoleon in 337 BC until Agathocles' [2] coup d'état in 316 the oligarchy of the Six Hundred played a prominent part in the politics of Syracusae. Owing to the disparate sources, the origins, competence, composition and statutory status of the SH are unclear (cf. summary in [1]). Diodorus [18] (19,5,6), for instance, describes the SH sometimes as a regular constitutional body and sometimes as a political faction (Hetairia [2]), which h…

Aristocritus

(47 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστόκριτος; Aristókritos, of Miletus?). Dating uncertain but before Parthenius (1st cent. BC). Wrote 1 book Peri Miletou: urban history or periegesis. Identification with the author of the book ‘Against Heracleodorus’ according to Jacoby is ‘entirely doubtful’ (FGrH 493 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Cleidemus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλείδημος; Kleídēmos, also Cleitodemus, Κλειτόδημος; Kleitódēmos). From Athens, according to Pausanias (10,15,5 = FGrH 323 T 1) the earliest Atthidographer (  Atthis ). C. wrote c. 350 BC an Atthís in at least 4 books, which is also quoted in the Protogonía (‘History of the First-Born People’) and was distinguished by dramatic vividness according to Plutarch (Mor. 345E). It extended from the mythological creation of the world to the  Peloponnesian war: the last event recorded was in 415 BC (F 10). C., himself an exēgētḗs (‘interpreter’) of sacred law, also wrote an Exēg…

Androtion

(230 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀνδροτίων; Androtíōn). From Athens, author of an Athenian local history, student of  Isocrates. As the only one among the  Atthidographers also politically active: he began his career in 387 BC (T 3), occupied a military commanding role in the Social War (T 7) and was in 355/4 a member of a delegation to  Mausolus, which was to clear the way for the Persian war (T 8). As a moderate democrat already in 355/4 and 353/2 fought by  Demosthenes (or. 22 bzw. 24), he was finally banned to Megara in 343/2 (T 14). There arose his Atthis, which in eight books reaches back to the myt…

Hellenica Oxyrhynchia

(604 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Two series of papyrus fragments, both 2nd cent. AD.: P Oxy. 842 = PLond., year of discovery 1906, ed. by Grenfell and Hunt (who called the anonymous author P. = Papyrus) and PSI 1304 = PFlor., year of discovery 1942, belonging to one and the same work of history from the first half of the 4th cent. BC and comprising a total of c. 20 pages of Greek history (with gaps!). There is also possibly another new fragment, cf. [1]. Contents: events in the Ionian-Decelean war ( Decelea), particularly the naval battle of Notium in 407/6 (= PFlor.). Political atmosphere…

Adranodorus

(116 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀδρανόδωρος; Adranódōros). Son-in-law of Hieron II of Syracuse. In 215 BC (with others) made guardian of Hieronymus, the 15-year-old grandson and successor of Hieron II, he was responsible for the radical turning of Syracusian politics to the Carthaginians. After the death of Hieronymus in 214, he secured Ortygia and received the office of   strategos . His plan to attain leadership of Syracuse, which was supported by his wife Demarete, led in the same year to his murder in the city hall of Syracuse (Pol. 7,2,1; 5,4 f.; Liv. 24,4,3 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliogra…
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