Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān


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S (Sūrat al-Anbiyāʾ)

(930 words)

Sūrat al-Anbiyāʾ  Sūrat al-Anbiyāʾ   Narratives   Ritual and the Qurʾān  1   Expeditions and Battles   Last Judgment  2   Belief and Unbelief   Remembrance  2-3   Magic  3   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Magic   Muḥammad   Whisper  3-4   Provocation  4   Ears   Pairs and Pairing  5   Agriculture and Vegetation   Divination   Dreams and Sleep   Foretelling in the Qurʾān   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Literature and the Qurʾān   Muḥammad   Poetry and Poets   Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān   Prophets and Prophethood   Provocation   Revelation and Inspiration   R…

Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān

(9,912 words)

Author(s): Bellamy, James A.
Introduction Anyone who writes on textual criticism should begin with definitions. So let it be ¶ said from the outset that textual criticism has nothing to do with the criticism of music, art or literature. In simplest terms, textual criticism is the correction of errors in texts. Classical scholars are, however, a bit more sophisticated. A. E. Housman (Application, 67) defines textual criticism as the “science of discovering error in texts and the art of removing it.” But he goes on to say that it is not an exact science, so perhaps we might be just…

H (Ha-Amen - Hebrew)

(1,442 words)

Ha-Amen  Hāmān al-Ḥabash, Muḥammad  Politics and the Qurʾān al-Ḥabash(a) see Abyssinia Ḥabīb (carpenter in Antioch)  Narratives  Parable Ḥabīb b. Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa  Trinity Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān al-Aʿẓamī  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān Ḥabrūn see Hebron Ḥacī Özbek  Mosque Hackspan, Theodor (d. 1659)  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Hadad (Aramaic god)  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Ḥadaqān  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Ḥadath  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Haddad, Y.Y.  Angel  Nature as Signs  Religion al-Hādī ilā l-Ḥaqq  Numismatics Ḥaḍramawt  …

Prophets and Prophethood

(11,066 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Those individuals who receive divine revelation and their collective vocation. In Arabic (as in Hebrew), the word for “prophet” is nabī, plural nabiyyūn and anbiyāʾ. These forms occur seventy-five ¶ times, apart from the term nubuwwa, “prophethood,” which occurs five times. Much more prevalent, however, is the term rasūl (pl. rusul) which denotes a “messenger” (q.v.) or “apostle” (of God). Messengers are mentioned more than 300 times. A messenger is also referred to as mursal, which, together with its plural form (mursalūn), occurs more than thirty times. The form risāla (pl. risālāt)…

Reciters of the Qurʾān

(4,440 words)

Author(s): Melchert, Christopher | Afsaruddin, Asma
Those entrusted with the oral recitation of qurʾānic passages, or the entire text. The term “reciter” (Ar. sing. qāriʾ and muqriʾ) in its basic, general signification refers to one who reads or recites. With reference to reciters of the Qurʾān, the plural qurrāʾ is much more common than muqriʾūn. In a broad sense, the term qurrāʾ is used in various sources to refer both to professional reciters, namely those who accepted payment for their recitation and were often employed by the state, and to pious, non-professional ones who did not seek to make a …

Q (-qāf- - q-d-s - q-r-d)

(477 words)

q-d-s    muqaddas    Names of the Prophet    Profane and Sacred    Sacred Precincts    qudsī    Garden    Names of the Prophet    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    qudus    Holy Spirit    Profane and Sacred   q-d-w    iqtidāʾ    Fear   q-d-ḥ    qidḥ, pl. aqdāḥ    Gambling    Soothsayer   q-dh-f    maqdhūf    Flogging    qadhafa    Fear    qadhf    Flogging    Gossip    Law and the Qurʾān    Witnessing and Testifying   q-dh-r    qadhir    Contamination   q-f-l    qufl, pl. aqfāl    Instruments   q-f-r    qaf[f]ūr    Camphor    qāfūr    Camphor   q-f-w    qaffā    Prophets and Prophethood    q…

S (Sūrat Maryam)

(899 words)

Sūrat Maryam  Sūrat Maryam   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Creation   Gender   Jesus   Left Hand and Right Hand   Mary   Material Culture and the Qurʾān   Mysterious Letters   Names of the Qurʾān   Narratives   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Women and the Qurʾān   Zechariah  1   Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  1-7   Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  1-22   Christians and Christianity  2   Rhetoric and the Qurʾān   Zechariah  2-7   Patriarchy  2-15   Mary   Zechariah  2-33   Trial  2-40   Narratives  2-58   Zechariah  2-63   Narratives  2-74   Narratives…

Age of Ignorance

(3,137 words)

Author(s): Shepard, William E.
This phrase is a common translation of the Arabic word jāhiliyya used by Muslims to refer to the historical period in west-central Arabia covering the centuries immediately prior to the mission of Muḥammad, a period characterized by ignorance of the divine truth. To the original audience of the Qurʾān, however, it almost certainly referred primarily to the moral condition of those individuals and their society which led them to oppose the mission of the Prophet (see opposition to muḥammad ) and only secondarily, if at all, to a defined historical epoch. It is also possible…

Sex and Sexuality

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Stewart, Devin J.
The act by which humans procreate, and the sum total of those attributes that cause an individual to be physically attractive to another. While the Qurʾān does criticize lust for women as an example of man's infatuation with worldly pleasures (cf. q 3:14), it does not categorically condemn sex as a cause of evil and attachment to the world. The Qurʾān does recognize sex as ¶ an important feature of the natural world and subjects it to legislation in a number of passages (see law and the qurʾān ). It accepts sex as a natural and regular part of human existence, specifically authoriz…


(1,386 words)

Author(s): Erder, Yoram
A qurʾānic prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) blessed with the virtues of piety (q.v.) and patience (see trust and patience ). There is no doubt that his uniqueness is the result of his ascent to a high station by the hand of God ( q 19:56-7; 21:85). Muslim tradition claims that he ascended to heaven while still alive and there he was awarded eternal life and a permanent home in the fourth heaven, although some traditions place him in the sixth heaven (see heaven and sky ). Indeed, the prophet Muḥammad meets him in heaven during his nocturnal journey ( isrāʾ, see ascension ). Other traditions…

Dhū l-Kifl

(1,059 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
An enigmatic figure, whose name appears in the Qurʾān in two places: “And [remember] Ismāʿīl (see ishmael ) and Idrīs (q.v.) and Dhū l-Kifl, all of them were patient” ( q 21:85); “And call to mind Ismāʿīl and Alyasaʿ and Dhū l-Kifl and all of the best” ( q 38:48). In some exegetical works, it is held that Dhū l-Kifl was a prophet since he is mentioned alongside other prophets (see prophets and prophethood ). Most exegetes, however, deny his prophethood, confining themselves to repeating the qurʾānic statement that he belonged to ¶ those who were patient and the best. A person named Dhū l- Kifl is u…

Ritual Purity

(5,782 words)

Author(s): Lowry, Joseph E.
A state of heightened cleanliness, symbolic or actual, associated with persons, activities and objects in the context of ritual worship (q.v.; see also cleanliness and ablution; contamination). The Qurʾān imposes a specific, two-tiered requirement of ritual cleansing before prayer (q.v.) and this is its most direct and detailed — and perhaps its only — regulation of ritual purity in the narrow sense. More general notions of purity and impurity extend, however, to a fairly wide array of persons, objects and activities in …

A (Antioch - Arab(s) [al-ʿarab])

(580 words)

Antioch  Monasticism and Monks  Narratives  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Rass  Syria Antiochus  Expeditions and Battles  People of the Ditch Antiochus IV  Antichrist Antiquity, Late  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Antoun, Richard  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Anṣārī of Herat see Anṣārī al-Harawī, ʿAbdallāh (d. 481/1089) Apartheid  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Aphraates (Aphrahat)  Creation Aphrodito  Aqṣā Mosque Apollo  Springs and Fountains Apollonius  Agriculture and Vegetation Apostle  Apostle  Illiteracy  Informants Aqaba [ʿAqaba]  Arabic Script  Archaeo…

S (-sīn- - s-n-m - s-t-t)

(559 words)

s-n-m    tasnīm    Springs and Fountains    Water   s-n-n    masnūn    Adam and Eve    ṣalṣāl min ḥamaʾ masnūn    sanna    Cain and Abel    Politics and the Qurʾān    sinn    Teeth    sunna, pl. sunan    Abrogation    Apostasy    Barēlwīs    Children of Israel    Circumcision    Companions of the Prophet    Consecration of Animals    Creeds    Divination    Economics    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Everyday Life, Qurʾān In    Foreign Vocabulary    Freedom and Predestination    Heresy    History and the Qurʾān    Islam    Jihād    Khārijīs    Law and the Qurʾān    Medicine …

S (Sherkat, Sh. - Sinai)

(829 words)

Sherkat, Sh.  Women and the Qurʾān al-Shiblī, Abū Bakr (d. 334/946)  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Ḥabash al-Suhrawardī see al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Ḥabash (d. 578/1191) Shihāb al-Dīn al-Būnī see al-Būnī, Shihāb al-Dīn (d. 622/1225) Shihāb al-Dīn al-ālūsī see al-ālūsī, Maḥmūd Shihāb al-Dīn (d. 1854) Shillong (East Pakistan)  Printing of the Qurʾān al-Shinqīṭī, Shurayḥ al-Khuzāʿī (d. 1913)  Vengeance al-Shīrāzī (d. 1050/1641)  Philosophy and the Qurʾān Shiqq  Soothsayer Shukrī Muṣṭafā  Cave Shukrī ʿAyyād  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Early Modern a…


(4,840 words)

Author(s): Heck, Paul L.
Extraction of a part of communal wealth for its social redistribution and for its use in maintaining governing authority (q.v.), its various institutions, and public works. The Qurʾān offers no trace of the fiscal system first developed under ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (r. 2-12/634-44), in substance a reformulation of Byzantine and Sasanian models (see Jeffery, For. vocab. and relevant ei 2 articles — e.g. Cahen, Djizya; Zysow, ¶ Zakāt; Cahen, Kharādj — for discussion of the foreign origins of taxation terminology in the Qurʾān; see also foreign vocabulary ). That fiscal system was a pro…

B (Bektashiyya (Ṣūfī order) - Bishr b. al-Muʿtamir (d. ca. 210/825))

(736 words)

Bektashiyya (Ṣūfī order)  African Americans  Magic  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān Belial  Antichrist Bell, R.  Afternoon  Apocalypse  Baptism  Book  Cain and Abel  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Clay  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān  Death and the Dead  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Fātiḥa  Impeccability  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Muḥammad  Mysterious Letters  Narratives  Night of Power  Pit  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān  Revision and Alteration  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān  Theolo…

A (Arabian(s) - Philosophy and the Qurʾān)

(689 words)

Arabian(s)  Messenger  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  The Collection of the Qurʾān Arabic (language)  African Literature  Agriculture and Vegetation  Ambiguous  Arabic Language  Arabic Script  Arabs  Ark  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Authority  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān   Classical (CA)   Arabic Language   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Money   Moon   Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Readings of the Qurʾān   Slaves and Slavery   Tabl…

Short Titles

(5,218 words)

Abbott, Studies II N. Abbott, Studies in Arabic literary papyri. II. Qurʾānic commentary and tradition, Chicago, 1967 ʿAbd al-Bāqī Muḥammad Fuʾād ʿAbd al-Bāqī, al-Muʿjam al-mufahras li-alfāẓ al-Qurʾān al-karīm, Cairo, 1945 ʿAbd al-Jabbār, Mutashābih ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. Aḥmad al-Asadābādī al-Qāḍī al-Hamadhānī, Mutashābih al-QurʾānʿAdnān M. Zarzūr, 2 vols., Cairo, 1969 ʿAbd al-Jabbār, Tanzīh ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. Aḥmad al-Asadābādī al-Qāḍī al-Hamadhānī, Tanzīh al-Qurʾān ʿan al-maṭāʿin, Beirut, 1966 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, ʿAṣrī ʿĀʾisha ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-Qurʾān wa-l-tafsīr al-ʿaṣ…

G (Gabriel [Jibrīl] - Ginat, J.)

(672 words)

Gabriel [Jibrīl]  Abraham  Air and Wind  Angel  Apocalypse  Ascension  Belief and Unbelief  Bilqīs  Book  Calf of Gold  Cave  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Cleanliness and Ablution  Dog  Ethics and the Qurʾān  Everyday Life, Qurʾān In  Faith  Foreign Vocabulary  Foretelling in the Qurʾān  Gabriel  Heavenly Book  Holy Spirit  Informants  Intercession  Jesus  Jews and Judaism  Kaʿba  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Last Judgment  Lot  Mary  Michael  Miracles  Musaylima  Muḥammad  Night of Power  Noah  Noon  Nāmūs  Paradise  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Prayer  Profane and Sacred  …
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