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Interest

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent. In economics (see III below), this mutual commitment between the conferral…

Israel

(10,133 words)

Author(s): Gutmann, Emanuel | Knauf, Ernst Axel | Otto, Eckart | Niehr, Herbert | Kessler, Rainer | Et al.
[German Version] I. The State of Israel – II. History – III. Society I. The State of Israel The formal full name, State of Israel (Heb. Medinat Yisrael), calls attention to the spatial divergence between the political entity and the geographical and historical Erets Israel (Land of Israel, Palestine and its linguistic equivalents). Israel is located in southwest Asia, on the southern stretch of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. In its northern half, inland from the shore, is the coastal area and further east are the hills, from n…

Slavery

(4,377 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General The word slavery denotes a social structure (including its normative legal and ethical standards) in which certain individuals are considered and treated as objects. A slave owner has the right to decide what the slaves do, as well as where and how they live; the owner also has an absolute right of disposition over their bodies and lives and the right to sell them like any other property. The far-reaching implications of this definition distinguish slavery from other forms of unfreedom such as debt servitude, serfdom, and bondage. Slavery was widespread in a…

Micah/Book of Micah

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Rainer
[Ge…

Zins

(3,316 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum BegriffDer Begriff Z. geht zurück auf cens…

Sklaverei

(4,188 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias | Kessler, Rainer | Harrill, J. Albert | Luker, Ralph E. | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. AllgemeinUnter S. wird eine soziale Struktur (einschließlich deren rechtlichen und ethischen Normvorgaben) verstanden, in deren Rahmen (bestimmte) Menschen als Sachen verstanden und behandelt werden. Das beinhaltet außer dem Bestimmungsrecht über Tätigkeit, Aufenthalt, persönliche Verhältnisse etc. des Sklaven insbes. auch die absolute Verfügungsgewalt des Eigentümers über Leib und Leben des Sklaven sowie das Recht, diesen wie eine Sache zu veräußern. Diese implikationsreiche …