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(478 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] (literally 'volunteers'). In the early Republic, all Roman citizens of the first four wealth classes (Liv. 1,42,4-43,13), who volunteered for military service outside of the annual muster or after the age for compulsory military service of 17 to 46 (Gell. NA 10,28,1; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,43,3; Liv. 3,57,9; 10,25,1 f.) were voluntarii . In the 3rd cent. BC, when the regular service period was fulfilled with 16 campaigns for the infantry and with 10 for the cavalry (Pol. 6,19,2; Liv. 32,3,2-7), military service continued to be imp…


(158 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] (plural tubicines). Roman brass instrument player who would sound a fanfare ( tuba) in cults and in the military (Varro, Ling. 5,117; Liv. 1,43,7; Veg. Mil. 2,7,8; 3,5,6). In legions and auxilia , tubicines were considered, together with the cornicines and the bucinatores , as immunes (Dig. 50,6,7). Burial stelae for tubicines provide assured depictions of the tuba (CIL III 782 = ILS 2352; CIL X 7884). On the other hand, the tubicen Sibbaeus (CIL XIII 7042) is evidently wielding a double flute ( tibiae), whereas the instrument of the bucinator Aurelius Surus (AE 1976,…


(196 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] In the Roman military sphere one of the tactical lower ranks ( p rincipales ) with one-and-a-half pay ( sesquiplicarii; Soldiers'pay II.). A tesserarius was responsible for conveying to the men passwords and orders in writing on a tablet ( tessera;Veg. Mil. 2,7,5); this function is recorded from the time of Polybius (6,34,7-12; cf. Liv. 27,46,1; 28,14,7). Under the Principate, there is evidence of tesserarii as a service rank in infantry units until Gallienus (AE 1936,55): both for the legions (CIL VI 2672 = ILS 2054; AE 1997,1252) and auxili…


(121 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] was the name applied to the some 8000 slaves that the Senate recruited on a voluntary basis after the Roman defeat at Cannae in 216 BC (Hannibal [4]) (Liv. 22,57,11 f.; Fest. 511; Macrob. Sat. 1,11,30); after the victory over Hanno at Beneventum in 214 BC the volones were ceremonially given their freedom (Liv. 24,14-16). A comparable recruitment of non-free men is attributed to Marcus [2] Aurelius (SHA Aur. 21,6). In both cases libertas (Freedom) and civitas were held in prospect, whereas on other occasions of deployment of slaves in…


(293 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] The velites were a light infantry unit that opend the battle in front of the formation of the manipular army similar to the rorarii of earlier times (Liv. 8,8,8; 8,9,14). Equipped with leather helmets, round shields. short swords and seven lances ( hasta [1]; Pol. 6,21,9-22,4; Liv. 38,21,13), it was their job to demoralize the enemy by throwing a volley of javelins and then, after the 'skirmish' ( velitatio), to retreat behind their own lines (Pol. 2,30,1-5; 3,65,5-7; Liv.). The speed at which they surged ahead was essential, since the object was …


(297 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] According to Varro, a tactical unit of Roman legionary cavalry, consisting of 30 equites (Cavalry) and three decuriones [4], one of whom was in command of the turma (Varro Ling. 5,91; Pol. 6,20,9; 6,25,1 f.; Veg. Mil. 2,14,1 f.). By the 3rd cent. BC, the mounted contingents of the socii predominated (225 BC: Pol. 2,24,3-16; FGrH 809 F 16), whose turmae occasionally bore the name of their geographic origin ( t. Lucana: Liv. 22,42,4; t. Fregellana: Liv. 37,34,6); they used to fight on the wings ( alae) in conjunction with the legions (Pol. 6,26,7-9; Liv. 31,21…


(713 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] [1] T., M. Tullius Cicero's secretary, 1st cent. BC Born in the house of Cicero's (= Cic.) grandfather in Arpinum as son of a prisoner of war, therefore as a slave, in 103 BC (according to [3] in 80 BC). T. was made a freedman by his master Cic., who was not much older than he, only in 53 (cf. Cic. Fam. 16,16,1). He was a valuable help to his master in all possible ways, as the latter repeatedly emphasized (for instance, in Cic. Fam. 16,4,3 in 50 BC). T. accompanied Cic. to Cilicia in 51, …


(336 words)

Author(s): Schumacher, Leonhard | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Military term Soldier of the Roman manipular army in the third line of the legion in battle formation (Pol. 6,21,7-10). The triarii were armed with gladius (Sword), scutum (Shield) and hasta [1] (Pol. 6,23,16). The integration of the triarii from the phalanx into manipular tactics had the purpose of stabilizing combat effectiveness. After that, the qualification was no longer based on the census but on age and battle experience instead (Liv. 8,8,3-13). The battalions were referred to as 'pillars' ( pili), the triarii as a whole as pilani (Varro Ling. 5,89). Their…