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Labībī

(471 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
, pseudonyme d’un poète persan qui vécut à la fin du IVe/Xe siècle et au début du Ve/XIe. Son nom réel et presque tous les événements de sa vie sont inconnus. Le Tard̲j̲umān al-balāg̲h̲a a conservé une élégie de Labībī sur la mort de Farrūk̲h̲ī [ q.v.], ce qui signifie que le premier était probablement encore en vie en 429/1037-8. Une ḳasīda qui lui est attribuée par ʿAwfī est adressée à un mamdūḥ du nom d’Abù l-Muẓaffar, identifié dans cette source à un frère cadet du sultan Mahmūd de G̲h̲aznā, mais il est plus vraisemblable qu’il s’agit d’un membre des Āl-i Muḥtād…

al-Kirmānī

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
, Ḥamīd al-dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh, important dāʿī des Fāṭimides sous le règne d’al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh (386-411/996-1021), et auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur la théorie de l’imāmat et la philosophie ismāʿīlienne. De la vie d’al-Kirmāni, on ne connaît que les grandes lignes grâce à ce qu’il en dit dans ses propres écrits; quelques détails supplémentaires peuvent être tirés de sources ismāʿīliennes inédites, comme l’a fait notamment Muṣṭafā G̲h̲ālib (introd. à la Rāḥat al-ʿaḳl, 41 sq.) qui ne les précise cependant pas. Sa nisba indique qu’il est originaire de la province iranien…

Mahsatī

(485 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
(interprétation la plus probable des consonnes mhsty pour lesquelles d’autres lectures, comme Mahistī, Mahsitī ou Mihistī, ont été proposées; voir F. Meier, 43 sqq.) poétesse persane dont la personnalité historique est difficile à saisir. Elle doit avoir vécu à une époque située entre le début du Ve/XIe siècle et le milieu du VIe/XIIe. Les sources les plus anciennes la placent dans l’entourage de Maḥmūd de G̲h̲azna ou du sultan sald̲j̲ūḳide Sand̲j̲ar ou encore d’un roi légendaire de Gand̲j̲a en Ad̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. Le qualificatif de dabīr ou dabīra est souvent lié à son nom, mais …

Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ

(943 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
(a.) «roi des poètes», titre honorifique donné (également sous d’autres formes) à un poète lauréat persan. C’était la plus haute distinction qui pût être décernée à un poète par un protecteur royal. Comme d’autres titres honorifiques [voir Laḳab…

Sabk-ī Hindī

(1,703 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
(p.), le style indien, est le troisième terme d’une classification de la littérature persane en trois périodes stylistiques. Les autres termes, sabk-i k̲h̲urāsānī (appelé à l’origine sabk-i turkistānī) et sabk-i ʿīrāḳī, s’appliquent respectivement aux régions orientale et occidentale de la Perse médiévale. La conception sous-jacente à cette terminologie implique que le glissement du centre de l’activité littéraire d’une région à l’autre, récurrent depuis le IVe/Xe siècle, s’accompagnait d’une évolution stylistique, notamment en poésie. En gros, il s’est agi d’un passage progressif de la langue poétique des premiers temps, plutôt simple et harmonieuse, à une écriture plus complexe, souvent qualifiée de «baroque» [voir aussi …

Maḥmūd b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Yaḥyā S̲h̲abistarī

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
(ou S̲h̲abustarī, selon des écrivains modernes en azéri), s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd al-dīn, mystique et écrivain persan. Il naquit à S̲h̲abistar, petite ville proche de la rive Nord-est du Lac d’Urmiya, à une date inconnue, qui pourrait cependant être fixée aux alentours de 686/1287-8 si l’on admet qu’il mourut à 33 ans ainsi que le mentionne une inscription figurant sur une pierre tombale érigée au XIX…

S̲h̲ams-i Ḳays

(970 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the familiar form of the name of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳays Rāzī, author of the oldest Persian work on poetics, al-Muʿd̲j̲am fī maʿāyīr as̲h̲ʿār al-ʿad̲j̲am , which covers the full range of traditional literary scholarship. Facts about his life are only to be found in his own statements, mostly in the introduction to his sole surviving work (

Nizārī Ḳuhistānī

(747 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm Saʿd al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. Muḥammad, Persian poet, born 645/1247-8 in Bīrd̲j̲and [ q.v.], where he died in 720/1320-1. The name Nizārī was not only his nomde-guerre as a poet, but also seems to indicate the loyalty of his family to Nizār [ q.v.], the pretender to the Fāṭimid imāmate in the late 5th/11th century whose claim was supported by most Persian Ismāʿilīs. Reliable facts concerning his life can only be deduced from his own works. According to Borodin, followed by Rypka, he would have been attached to the court of the Kart [ q.v.

S̲h̲emʿī

(777 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of a Turkish translator and commentator of Persian literary works who flourished in the second half of the 10th/16th century. In his own works and in most of the biographical sources only this name is mentioned. B. Dorn, referring to “two manuscripts” of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, asserted that he was properly called Muṣṭafā Darwīs̲h̲. Even more uncertain is the name S̲h̲emʿ-Allāh Perzennī which Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir attributed to him; this was based perhaps on the confusion with another S̲h̲emʿī, a Ṣūfī poet from the town of Prizren [

Ḳahramān-Nāma

(858 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Dāstān-i Ḳahramān , a popular romance in prose, several versions of which are known in both Persian and Turkish. It belongs to a series of prose works which develop themes from the Iranian epic tradition, embellishing them with fabulous touches borrowed from folk literature. Like the Hūs̲h̲ang-nāma , the Ṭahmūrat̲h̲-nāma and the Ḳiṣṣa-i Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd . the story takes place in the earliest period of the legendary history of Iran, the times of the pis̲h̲dādīyān . The central hero is Kahramān, nicknamed Ḳātil, “the slayer”. His name is in fact a c…

Muṣannifak

(313 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Bisṭāmī (or al-Harawī), Persian scholar and theologian, was born in 803/1400-1 at S̲h̲āhrūd near Bisṭām as a descendant of the famous theologian Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī [ q.v.]. The nickname muṣannifak (“the little writer”) was probably given to him “in allusion to his youthful productivity as a writer” (Storey). He studied at Harāt and continued to live in Eastern Persia until 848/1444 when he travelled to Anatolia. While he was teaching at Ḳonya, his hearing d…

al-Kirmānī

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh , was a prominent dāʿī of the Fāṭimids during the reign of al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh (386-411/996-1021) as well as the author of many works on the theory of the Imāmate and on Ismāʿīlī philosophy. …

Sanāʾī

(2,348 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Mad̲j̲dūd b. Ādam al-G̲h̲aznawī, Persian poet. In early sources already the kunya Abu ’l-Mad̲j̲d is sometimes added to his name. As a pen name he used Sanāʾī, only rarely Mad̲j̲dūd or Mad̲j̲dūd Sanaʾī. The former name could have been derived from Sanāʾ al-Milla, one of the

Takī Awḥadī

(447 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-Awḥadī, Persian anthologist, lexicographer and poet. He was born at Iṣfahān on 3 Muḥarram 973/31 January 1565, into a family with a Ṣūfī tradition from Balyān in Fārs. One of his paternal ancestors was the 5th/11th-century S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū ʿAlī al-Daḳḳāḳ. During his adolescence he studied in S̲h̲īrāz, where he presented his early poems to a circle of poets and was encouraged by ʿUrfī [

Labībī

(454 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the pen-name of a Persian poet who lived at the end of the 4th/11th and the beginning of the 5th/12th century. His personal name as well as almost any other particulars of his life are unknown. The Tard̲j̲umān al-balāg̲h̲a has preserved an elegy by Labībī on the death of Farruk̲h̲ī [ q.v.], which means that the former was probably still alive in 429/1037-8. A ḳaṣīda attributed to him by ʿAwfī is addressed to a mamdūḥ by the name of Abu ’l-Muẓaffar, who in that source is identified with a younger brother of the G̲h̲aznavid Sultan Maḥmūd. But it i…

Rind

(809 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.), a word applied in Persian with a contemptuous connotation to “a knave, a rogue, a drunkard” or “a debauchee”; in the terminology of poets and mystics it acquired the positive meaning of “one whose exterior is liable to censure, but who at heart is sound” (Steingass, s.v., after the

K̲h̲araḳānī

(2,262 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad , Persian mystic who died on the 10th Muḥarram 425/5th December 1033 at the age of 73. The nisba refers to the village of K̲h̲araḳān situated in the mountains to the north of Bisṭām on the road to Astarābād (modern Gurgān). There are several variants for the vocalisation of this place-name even in the early sources for the life of this mystic. This confusion may very well be the result of the existence of other place names with the same consonant outline, such as K̲h̲a…

Sām

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, legendary ruler of Sīstān [ q.v.] and vassal of the Kayānids, the epic kings of Īrān, was, according to al-T̲h̲aʿālibī and Firdawsī, the son of Narīmān, the father of Zāl-Dastān and the grandfather of Rustam [ q.v.]. This pedigree is the outcome of a long development spanning the entire history of the Iranian epic. In the Avesta, Sāma is the name of a clan to which T̲h̲rīta, “the third man who pressed the Haoma”, belonged as well as his sons Urvāk̲h̲s̲h̲aya and Kərəsāspa (Yasna 9. 10). Kərəsāspa (Persian Kars̲h̲āsp or Gars̲h̲āsp)…

ʿUnṣurī

(1,275 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan Aḥmad, Persian poet at the G̲h̲aznawid court during the early 5th/11th century. The external information about his life is mosdy anecdotal. It is said that he was born at Balk̲h̲, became an orphan at an early age and in his youth earned a living as a merchant. A story, told in some sources, about a robbery during one of his travels was mistakingly associated with him (cf. Storey-de Blois, v/1, 234-5). His career as a poet began under the patronage of the Amīr Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Naṣr (d. 412/1021-2), the military governor ( sipahsālār ) of his brother ¶ Sultan Maḥmūd [ q.v.] in K̲h…

S̲h̲ifāʾī Iṣfahānī

(526 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥasan, Persian physician and poet of the Ṣafawid period. He was born in 956/1549 (Gulčīn-i Maʿānī) or 966/1558-9 (Ṣafā) at Iṣfahān. His nom-de-plume refers to the medical profession, which was a tradition of his family. He was also a student of speculative mysticism, but he achieved his greatest fame as a poet. His literary work consists of g̲h̲azals and ḳaṣīdas , written respectively in the style of Bābā Fig̲h̲ānī and K̲h̲āḳānī (cf. Rypka, 300), as well as poems in several other forms, including a series of mat̲h̲nawīs . His best known poem is the didactic mat̲h̲nawī …
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