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Hagnonides

(119 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἁγνωνίδης; Hagnōnídēs). Son of Nicoxenus of Pergase. In 325/4 BC claimant in a naval document (IG II2 1629a 14f.). Accused in the Harpalus affair by Dinarchus (Hyp. in Demosthenem 40; Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho, 10f.). After the defeat of Athens in 322, the banished H. was able to stay in the Peloponnese through the mediation of Phocion. Later however H. instigated the latter's execution (May 318; Plut. Phocion 33-37; Nepos Phocion 3,3). Attested as the claimant again in 318/7 (IG II2…

Nicippus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νίκιππος/ Níkippos). Messenian oligarch, who enforced neutrality as éphoros ( éphoroi ) against a popular majority, when Philippus V sought to win Messene to his Hellenic League against Aetolia in 220 BC. Because Messene was also the reason for the involvement of the league, Polybius denounced this position (4,31,2f.; 32,1; 36,8) [1. 424f.]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 B. Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten, vol. 2, 1899.

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-6) [1]. Under his rule, Thebes concluded an alliance with Athens in 395 BC and (supplied w…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149

Polybius

(3,367 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Moritz, Anja (Potsdam)
(Πολύβιος; Polýbios). [German version] [1] (Physician) see Polybus [6] Physician, see Polybus [6] Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Greek historian, 3rd/2nd. cent. BC Greek historian. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life Son of Lycortas, the leading statesman of the Achaean League (Achaea with map), from Megalopolis. He was born before 199 BC (as hípparchos, i.e. holder of the second highest office within the Achae…

Nicarete

(74 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικαρέτη/ Nikarétē). Daughter of a prominent family from Megara. Student of the philosopher Stilpo (Ath. 13,596e). The sources present her as a courtesan of Stilpo (Diog. Laert. 2,114 acc. to Onetor) and of the orator Stephanus (Ath. 13,593f). Her love for Stilpo earned her ridicule from the comedian Crates [1] (Diog. Laert. 2,118). The association with Stephanus is believed to be based on mistaken identity (with Neaera [6]).…

Machaerion

(115 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαχαιρίων; Machairíōn). Name of the Spartan (or Mantinaean) who is said to have killed Epaminondas in the battle of Mantinaea (in 362 BC) (Paus. 8,11,5; the Athenian Gryllus [2], who is also mentioned there, is ruled out as the perpetrator as he had, according to Ephorus, already fallen in battle: FGrH 70 F 85). According to Diodorus (15,86), Epaminondas was killed ‘with a spear’ (

Lysander

(988 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λύσανδρος; Lýsandros). [German version] [1] Spartan fleet commander, end of the 5th cent. BC Spartiate, son of Aristocritus. Reports that the family, which traces its family tree back to Hercules and was connected to king Libys of Cyrene through hospitality (Diod. Sic. 14,13,5-6; Paus. 6,3,14), was impoverished (Plut. Lysander = Lys. 2,1) and that L. was considered a móthax (foster-brother of a citizen's boy, móthakes ) (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 43; Ael. VH 12,43), appear to be based on deliberate defamation. L. became fleet commander ( naúarchos) of the Spartan fleet in Rhodes ( Pe…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), …

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs

Cratesipolis

(97 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κρατησίπολις; Kratēsípolis). Wife of Alexander [8], married before 314 BC. After her husband was murdered in 314, she succeeded in establishing herself in the area he ruled, the centres of Corinth and Sicyon (Diod. Sic. 19,67) and maintained power with the aid of  Polyperchon (Diod. Sic. 19,74). In 308, C. handed the rule of her cities to Ptolemy I (Diod. Sic. 20,37), outwitting the mercenaries on Acrocor…

Mantitheus

(317 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Μαντίθεος; Mantítheos). [German version] [1] Athenian counciller ca. 415 BC Athenian, involved in the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the) while a councillor in 415 BC (And. 1,43,4), fled to Sparta and then, like Alcibiades [3], to Asia Minor, where they were arrested at Sardes. They escaped to Clazomenae in 411 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,10). In 409, M. was named as one of a delegation to the Persian King (Xen. Hell. 1,3,13), and in 408 he was entrusted with the supervision (see Epimeletai) of the Athenian conquests on the Hellespont, while Alcibiades returned to Athens. Dreyer, Boris…

Cedon

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Κήδων; Kḗdōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the Peisistratids Athenian, possibly of the  Alcmaeonid family, attempted in vain before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the  Peisistratids. This glorious deed was later commemorated at symposia with a  scolion (Aristot. Ath. pol. 20,5). …

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC …

Leaena

(162 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λέαινα; Léaina). [German version] [1] Hetaera of Aristogiton [1], 6th cent. BC Legendary hetaera of Aristogeiton [1]. After the murder of Hipparchus [1], Hippias [1] allegedly raped and killed her (Paus. 1,23,1f.; Plut. Mor. 505E; Ath. 596f; Cic. fr. 8,12 Merguet). In another version, she bit off her tongu…

Gelon

(506 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων). [English version] [1] Größter sizilischer Tyrann vor Dionysios I., um 491-478 v. Chr. Sohn des Deinomenes aus Gela, größter sizilischer Tyrann vor Dionysios I., Regierungszeit ca. 491-478 v.Chr. Zuerst Leibwächter, später Reiteroberst des Hippokrates von Gela, usurpierte er nach dessen Tod 491 die Tyrannis über Gela und brachte die ostsizilische archḗ seines Vorgängers, die Gela, Kamarina, Kallipolis, Leontinoi, Katane, Naxos und zahlreiche Sikelergemeinden umfaßte, in seine Gewalt (Hdt. 7,154). Um 485 von den nach Kasmenai vertriebenen…
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