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Tecmessa

(108 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τέκμησσα/ Tékmēssa, Latin Tecmessa). Phrygian princess, given to Ajax [1] as a prize (Hom. Il. 1,138). With her he fathers Eurysaces. In Soph.  Aj. the character of T. is developed for the first time, he…

Oreithyia

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] …

Polyxena

(391 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολυξένη/ Polyxénē, Latin Polyxena). Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe. In the Cypria (PEG I fr. 34) she is killed by Odysseus and Diomedes [1] and buried by Neoptolemus [1]. Another tradition tells of her being sacrificed by the Greeks on Achilles’ [1] grave (Iliupersis argumentum PEG I p. 89; Hyg. Fab. 110; Apollod. epit. 5,23), because his spirit demands the sacrifice (Eur. Hec. 37-41; 107-115; Ov. Met. 13,441-448; Quint. Smyrn 14,234-245) and threatens to prevent the Greek fleet from retur…

Themisto

(137 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Θεμιστώ; Themistṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus, third wife of Athamas (Herodoros 31 F 38 FGrH; Apollod. 1,84; Ath. 13,560d; Nonn. Dion. 9,305-307; Tzetz. Lykophr. 22), who is the father of her several children. Her predecessors were Nephele [1] and Ino. When the latter returns, T., tries to kill her children (Hyg. Fab. 4,239, otherwise in Fab. 1). By means of a change of clothing Ino causes T. to kill her own children, whereupon T. takes her own life. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Ancestor of the Arcadians Daught…

Electra

(491 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἠλέκτρα; Ēléktra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The daughter of  Oceanus and  Tethys; wife of Thaumas, mother of  Iris and the  harpies Aello and Ocypete (Hes. Theog. 265ff.; 349; Hom. H. 2,418; Apollod. 1,10). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo The daughter of  Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo (Apollod. 2,19; Hyg. Fab. 170). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Daughter of Atlas and Pleione The daughter of  Atlas and Pleione. One of the  Pleiades. E.'s place of birth is the Cyl…

Penelope

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνελόπη/ Pēnelópē, Homeric: Πηνελόπεια/ Pēnelópeia, Latin Penelope, Penelopa). Wife of Odysseus. From antiquity, her name has been interpreted in two ways: according to one, P. means 'weaveress', in reference to the typical female activity which plays such a central role in the Odyssey, while according to the other, her name is derived from pēnélops ('duck'), with the explanation that she had allegedly been thrown into the sea by her parents and had been saved by ducks. For an etymological explanation of P.'s name, see [1]. P. was the daughter of the Arcadian ki…

Alcestis

(207 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἄλκηστις; Alkēstis). Daughter of  Pelias and Anaxibie (Hom. Il. 2,714). Her participation in the supposed rejuvenation of Pelias (Diod. Sic. 4,52,2; 53,2; Hyg. Fab. 24) does not fit with A.'s hand being asked of Pelias by  Admetus of Pherae -- which with Apollo's help was successful. Admetus can only escape the death he is to suffer, according to later sources (Apollod. 1,105) because of a neglected sacrifice, if someone dies in his place. Only A. declares herself prepared to do t…

Danae

(243 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δανάη; Danáē). Mythical daughter of  Acrisius, the king of Argus, and Euridice or Aganippe (Hom. Il. 14,319f.; Hes. fr. 129; 135MW; Hyg. Fab. 63). She was imprisoned by her father to keep her from any contact with the outside world following a pronouncement by the oracle that he would be killed by his grandson. Zeus approached D. in the form of a shower of gold and she became pregnant with  Perseus (Pind. Pyth. 10,44f.; 12,9ff.; Soph. Ant. 944ff.; Isocr. 10,59; Ov. Met. 4,610f.). …

Molpadia

(114 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Μολπαδία; Molpadía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1]. Together with her sister Rhoeo, she was charged with guarding the wine, which had just been invented. However, they fell asleep and pigs overturned the jug. Out of fear, the sisters leapt into the sea. Apollo rescued them and took M. as Hemithea to Castabus in the Carian Chersonesus of Knidos (Diod. 5,62f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Amazon Amazon who killed Antiope [2], who was fighting alongside Theseus, after which sh…

Eriphyle

(138 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἐριφύλη; Eriphýlē). Daughter of Talaus; sister of  Adrastus and wife of the seer  Amphiaraus in Argus, who were reconciled after a feud and were willing to submit to E.'s judgement in case of future quarrels. Amphiaraus, in anticipation of his death, refused to take part in Adrastus' campaign against Thebes. Bribed by  Polyneices with Harmonia's necklace, E. forced him to participate. He instructed his sons to avenge him regarding E. (Hom. Od. 11,326f.; Stat. Theb. 4,187-213; Apol…

Ismene

(210 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἰσμήνη; Ismḗnē). [German version] [1] Theban heroine Theban heroine, who because of her romantic connection with  Periclymenus incurs the wrath of Athene and is killed by  Tydeus (Mimn. Fr. 21 IEG; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 95). In the 5th cent. BC she was integrated into the Oedipus myth by the tragedians: as the daughter of  Oedipus and  Jocasta or  Eurygane, as the sister of  Antigone [3],  Eteocles [1] and  Polynices, she survives with Antigone the attack of the Seven Against Thebes (Aeschyl. Sept. 861f…

Nausicaa

(287 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ναυσικάα; Nausikáa). Young daughter of the Phaeacian royal couple Alcinous [1] und Arete [1]. Athena causes her to go with her serving maids to wash and picnic at the mouth of the river, where she comes across Odysseus, who had been washed ashore at this spot after being shipwrecked. Naked and exhausted, he appeals to her for help. In contrast to her companions, who run off in fright, she listens to him and gives him food, clothes, oil for anointing himself, and precise instructio…

Aethra

(161 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αἴθρα; Aíthra). Daughter of Pittheus king of Troezen, mother of  Theseus by  Aegeus or Poseidon (Bacchyl. 17,33 ff. SM; Apollod. 3,208; 216; Hyg. Fab. 37). The variant at Paus. 2,33,1 explains the founding of temples of Athena Apaturia on the island Sphaerea by A. Theseus entrusts  Helen to A. who had been abducted by him. When the  Dioscuri release her, A. is taken as a slave and she later reaches Troy with Helen (Hom. Il. 3,144; Alcm. fr. 21 PMGF; Plut. Theseus 16b; Apollod. 3,…

Hippolyte

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη; Hippolýtē). [German version] [1] Amazon, daughter of Ares  Amazon in the myth of Heracles and Theseus, daughter of  Ares and of Otrere. Heracles was ordered by  Eurystheus to rob H. of the belt of Ares (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. Fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). According to some sources, he kills H. in the process (Eur. HF 407ff.). In conflicting versions of the myth of Theseus, H.,  Antiope [2] or  Glauce [3] appear as the wife of Theseus (Isoc. Or. 12,193; Plut. These…

Philomeleides

(61 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Φιλομηλείδης; Philomēleídēs). Mythical king of the island of Lesbos, who challenged those sailing by to a wrestling match. Odysseus defeated him, according to Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 in the fight, but according to Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 150 by deceit together with Diomedes [1]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. P., RE 19, 2519f.

Alope

(122 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλόπη; Alópē). Daughter of king  Cercyon of Eleusis (Pherec. FGrH 3 F147), loved by Poseidon, to whom she bears  Hippothoon. She abandons the child; it is suckled by a mare and is found by shepherds, who bring the dispute about the valuable identification marks before the king. He recognizes the marks, locks A. up, and lets her starve. The child is abandoned a second time, again nurtured by the mare and brought up by shepherds. Poseidon transforms A. into a spring (Hyg. Fab. 187; …

Clytaemnestra

(349 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Κλυταιμήστρα; Klytaimḗstra, earlier form of the name Klytaimnestra/Κλυταιμνήστρα; Lat. Clytaem(n)estra). Daughter of  Tyndareos and  Leda, sister of  Helena [1] and the  Dioscuri, wife of  Agamemnon, who killed her first husband  Tantalus, son of  Thyestes. She had several children by Agamemnon:  Chrysothemis [2],  Laodice [I 2] or  Electra [4],  Iphianassa [2] or  Iphigenia and  Orestes. Labouring under Aphrodite's curse of infidelity (Hes. fr. 176; Stesich. fr. 223 PMG) and afte…

Hecabe

(713 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑκάβη/ Hekábē, Lat. Hecuba). Wife of the Trojan king  Priamus, mother of numerous children (Hom. Il. 24,496; Eur. Hec. 421), among them  Hector,  Paris/Alexander,  Cassandra,  Polyxene and  Troilus. Her parentage is unclear, in Hom. Il. 16,718f. she is the daughter of king  Dymas [1], in Eur. Hec. 3 of king Cisseus (cf. also Hyg. Fab. 91; 111; 243), and in Apollod. 3,148 of Sangarius. Her mother is mentioned in Suet. Tib. 70,3. In Homer, at Hector's urging, she goes to Athena's te…

Clymene

(225 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κλυμένη; Klyménē, Clymene). [German version] [1] Mother of Atlas [2]  Oceanid, wife of  Iapetus, who by her fathered  Atlas [2],  Prometheus and Epimetheus (Hes. Theog. 351; 507ff.; Hyg. Fab. praef. 11,31). In Euripides (Phaethon 1ff.; 45ff. Diggle; cf. also Ov. Met. 1,750ff.; Hyg. Fab. 152a; 154; 156) she is the mother of  Phaethon. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Nereid  Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,47; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8), who according to Pausanias (2,18,1) had with  Dictys [1] an altar in Athens as saviour of Perseu…

Laothoe

(84 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαοθόη; Laothóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thespius Daughter of Thespius, by Heracles [1] mother of Antiphus (Apollod. 2,163). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Lover of Apollo Lover of Apollo, by whom she bears Thestor, grandmother of Calchas (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 108). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Concubine of Priamus Concubine of Priamus, by whom she bears Lycaon and Polydorus (Hom. Il. 21,34f., 85-96; 22,46-48). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography O. Scherling, s.v. L. (1)-(3), RE 12, 761.
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