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Epictetus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Ἐπίκτητος; Epíktētos). [German version] [1] Attic red-figured vase painter, c. 520-490 BC Early Attic red-figured vase painter ( c. 520-490 BC); signed many of his vases as painter and collaborated with various potters (early on with Andocides,  Nicosthenes, Pamphaeus and Hischylos, later with Python and Pistoxenus). Possibly a pupil of  Psiax, E. mainly decorated bowls but also several plates, some of which rank with his best works. E. signed one of these plates as painter and potter. Amongst his early works ar…

Mnesarchus

(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cutter (Diog. Laert. 8,1; Apul. Flor. 15; cf. Porph. Vita Pythagorica 1; [1]), sometimes as a merchant from the Tyrrhenian island of Lemnos who had settled on Samos (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29a = Porph. ibid…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tirannidi archaiche in Sicilia e Magna Grecia, 1994, 11-20. [German version] [2] Trierarch at Salamis In 480, at the battle of Salamis, P. …

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/…

Sphaerus

(104 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Σφαῖρος/ Sphaîros) of Borysthenes. Stoic philosopher of the third cent. BC, student of Zeno [2] of Citium and later of Cleanthes. He was active at the court of Ptolemy II in Alexandria (Diog. Laert. 7,185). Anecdotes (Diog. Laert. 7,177, Athenaeus 354e) reveal his interest in epistemology; he distinguished cataleptic and plausible ( eúlogon) presentations. Plutarch (Cleomenes 2, 11) portrays him as a teacher of Cleomenes [6] and an adviser on the revived Spartan agōgḗ . Diogenes Laertius lists nearly 30 book titles (on physics, ethic…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Persaeus

(232 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Περσαῖος; Persaîos). [German version] [1] Father of Hecate Father of Hecate (H. Hom. 2,24), P. corresponds to Perses [1]. Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) [German version] [2] From Citium, Stoic philosopher, 4th/3rd cent. BC P. from Citium. Stoic philosopher, born c. 307/6 BC in Citium on Cyprus. Details of his biography in Diog. Laert. 7,36 and Philodemus' History of the Stoa (coll. 12-14 Dorandi); cf. also SVF I 435-462. In Athens P. was a favoured pupil of the Stoa founder Zeno of Citium. As Zeno's faithful follower P. was sent in his stead to the court of An…

Hecaton

(222 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] of Rhodes. Pupil of  Panaetius and influential Stoic of the 1st cent. BC.  Diogenes [17] Laertius used H.'s writings for his account of Stoic ethics. The views of H. he cites correspond to old Stoic orthodoxy. Among the (mostly extensive) works often quoted by Diogenes are the Chreíai (which he draws on as the source for biographical and anecdotal information about Stoics and Cynics), and the treatises ‘Final Ends’, ‘Virtues’, ‘Goods’, ‘Emotions’, ‘Stoic Paradoxes’. Cicero mentions at least 6 books of ‘On duty’ (περὶ καθήκοντ…

Chaeremon

(358 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Χαιρήμων; Chairḗmōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, middle of the 4th cent. BC Tragedian; mentioned by the comedy writers Eubulus (Ath. 2,43c) and Ephippus (Juv. fr. 9 Kock in Ath. 11,482b), which locates him in the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Performed again 276-19 at the Naïa in Dodona (DID B 11,13); titles: Alphesiboea, ‘Achilles killer of Thersites (Apulian vase, Boston 03.804 [1. 166]), Dionysus, Thyestes, Io, The Centaur, The Minyae, Odysseus, Oeneus and more than 40 fragments. Aristot. Rhet. 3,12,1413b8) counts him among those writers whose plays are full…

Medius

(333 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Dynast of Larisa, conqueror of Pharsalus 395 BC (Μήδιος/ Mḗdios in MSS; better Μήδειος/ Mḗdeios, in epigraphy). Dynast of Larisa [3], of the Aleuadae family, successor of Aristippus; in 395 BC he joined the newly formed anti-Spartan alliance in the fight against the tyrant Lycophron [2] of Pherae and captured Pharsalus, which housed a Spartan garrison (Diod. Sic. 14,82,5f.; cf. Aristot. Hist. an. 618b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 191. [German version] [2] Hetairos of Alexander the Great and author of a work about him Son of Oxyth…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Herillus

(236 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Ἥριλλος; Hḗrillos) of Carthage (Calchedon). Stoic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, a student of  Zeno of Citium. He developed a form of  Stoicism that resembled that of Ariston of Chios because of its emphasis on ethics. After the tendency represented by Cleanthes and Chrysippus had prevailed in this school, H.'s approach was considered to differ from Zeno's. Diogenes Laertius' biography of H. contains a list of work titles, which mostly appear to refer to ethical themes (However,…

Poseidonius

(2,115 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ποσειδώνιος/ Poseidṓnios). [German version] [1] Doctor, end of the 4th cent. BC Doctor at the end of the 4th cent. BC, who wrote about mental illnesses and about ephiáltēs, a feeling of suffocation (cf. demons V. C.; Aet. 6,12). P. was taken by Philostorgius (Historia Ecclesiastica 8,10) to be the source for the assertion that insanity is not the result of demonic affliction, but has a physical cause in the form of an imbalance in the bodily fluids (Humoral theory). Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Alexandrian grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC,…

Crinis

(62 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Κρῖνις). Stoic logician, author of an ‘Art of the Dialectic’ (Διαλεκτικὴ τέχνη; cf. Diog. Laert. 7,62; 68; 71; 76). An allusion in the Epict. Dissertationes 3,2,15 dates his active phase to the period after  Archedemus [2] of Tarsus (late 2nd cent. BC) and his death before the philosophical career of Epictetus (early 2nd cent. AD). Inwood, Brad (Toronto)

Persaios

(213 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Περσαῖος). [English version] [1] Vater der Hekate Vater der Hekate (Hom. h. 2,24), P. entspricht Perses [1]. Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) [English version] [2] aus Kition, stoischer Philosoph, 4./3. Jh. v. Chr. P. aus Kition. Stoischer Philosoph, geb. ca 307/6 v.Chr. in Kition/Zypern. Einzelheiten zur Biographie bei Diog. Laert. 7,36 und Philodemos' ‘Gesch. der Stoa (coll. 12-14 Dorandi); vgl. auch SVF I 435-462. P. war in Athen ein bevorzugter Schüler des Stoa-Gründers Zenon von Kition. Als dessen treuer Anhänger wurde P. an seine…

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…

Ethik

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[English version] A. Hintergrund E. ist in der Ant. die Beschäftigung mit derjenigen charakterlichen Verfassung, deren Besitz für den Menschen am besten ist. Die Überlegungen dazu begannen mit dem homer. Ideal, ‘ein Redner von Worten zu sein und ein Täter von Taten’ (Hom. Il. 9,443, Übers. W. Schadewaldt). Das kritische Nachdenken über den Charakter machte im 5. Jh. v.Chr. Fortschritte, oft in einem großen polit. Zusammenhang eingebettet. Die frühesten Unt. zum Charakter des Menschen konzentrierten …

Medios

(286 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[English version] [1] Dynast von Larisa, Eroberer von Pharsalos 395 v.Chr. (Μήδιος in Hss.; besser Medeios, Μήδειος, inschr.). Dynast von Larisa [3], aus der Familie der Aleuadai, Nachfolger des Aristippos; schloß sich im J. 395 v.Chr. im Kampf gegen den Tyrannen Lykophron [2] von Pherai der neugegründeten antispartanischen Allianz an und eroberte Pharsalos, in dem eine spartan. Besatzung lag (Diod. 14,82,5f.; vgl. Aristot. hist. an. 618b). Beck, Hans (Köln) Bibliography H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 191. [English version] [2] Hetairos von Alexander d.Gr. und Verf. einer …

Hekaton

(226 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[English version] von Rhodos. Schüler des Panaitios und einflußreicher Stoiker des 1. Jh. v.Chr. Diogenes [17] Laertios hat H.s Schriften für seine Darstellung der stoischen Ethik benutzt. Die von ihm angeführten Auffassungen des H. entsprechen altstoischer Orthodoxie. Unter den von Diogenes oft zitierten (meist umfangreichen) Werken finden sich die Chreíai (die er als Quelle biographischer und anekdotischer Informationen über Stoiker und Kyniker heranzieht), und die Abh. ‘Über das Lebensziel, ‘Über die Tugenden, ‘Über die Güter, ‘Über die Af…
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