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Ademptio legati

(48 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Der Widerruf eines förmlichen Vermächtnisses, anfangs nur durch förmliche Erklärung ( non do; heres ne dato) im Testament, seit dem 2. Jh. n. Chr. auch durch formlose Willensbetätigung (z. B. Veräußerung des Objekts) möglich (Dig. 34,4). Legatum Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) Bibliography Kaser, RPR I, 755

Erbteilung

(118 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Griech. Recht Datetai. Im frühröm. Recht bildeten Miterben eine gesamthänderische Gemeinschaft ercto non cito (“ohne vorgenommene Teilung” [2]; jeder Miterbe war befugt, allein über Erbschaftssachen zu verfügen. Die Auseinandersetzung geschah einverständlich oder durch die legis actio per arbitri postulationem (Gai. inst. 4,17a); der arbiter verteilte die einzelnen Erbschaftssachen und verurteilte gegebenenfalls zu Ausgleichszahlungen. Seit vorklass. Zeit wurde die Miterbengemeinschaft als Bruchteilsgem…

Bonorum possessio

(82 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Im röm. Erbrecht der vom Prätor zugewiesene Besitz an einem Nachlaß. Der bonorum possessor war nicht Erbe nach ius civile ( heres), konnte aber in gewissen Fällen dessen Erbschaftsklage abwehren (Gai. inst. 3,35ff.). Je nachdem, ob der Prätor auf Grund gesetzlicher, testamentarischer oder Not-Erbfolge einwies, unterschied man b. p. intestati, secundum tabulas und contra tabulas. Bona; Erbrecht Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) Bibliography 1 H.Honsell, Th. Mayer-Maly, W. Selb, Röm. Recht, 41987, 438f., 443, 450f., 464 2 Kaser, RPR I, 697ff., 680, 707ff.

Caducum

(138 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Die lex Papia Poppaea (9 n.Chr.) erzwang mittelbar Eheschließung und Kindererzeugung, indem sie Unverheirateten die ganze, verheirateten Kinderlosen die halbe Erwerbsfähigkeit ( capacitas) für das ihnen erbrechtlich Zugewandte entzog; Ehegatten hatten untereinander nur für ein Zehntel capacitas…

Cognatio

(136 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Nach röm. Recht die durch Blutsverwandtschaft begründete Verwandtschaft auch der Nichtagnaten; der Grad bestimmte sich durch die Zahl der vermittelnden Zeugungen oder Geburten. Die

Intestatus

(456 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Ohne die Hinterlassung eines wirksamen Testaments Verstorbener. Der Nachlaß eines i. fiel nach röm. ius civile zuerst den sui heredes an, sonst den gradnächsten agnatischen Verwandten ( agnati proximi). Sui wurden nach den XII Tafeln (5. Jh. v.Chr.) mit dem Erbfall heredes, agnati erwarben nur das Vermögen ( familia, XII 5.4) und wurden durch usucapio Erben; im klass. Recht (1.-3. Jh. n.Chr.) wurden Agnaten durch aditio hereditatis Erben. Agnatinnen ab dem 3. Grade hatten ab dem 2. Jh. v.Chr. kein Erbrecht ( lex Voconia). Wenn alle agnati proximi ausschlugen, wu…

Consanguinei

(54 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Geschwister mit gemeinsamem Vater ( uterini haben die Mutter gemeinsam). Nach röm. Zivilrecht hatten konsanguine Schwestern gesetzliches Erbrecht, während Agnatinnen höheren Verwandtschaftsgrades (Tanten, Nichten usw.) von der Intestaterbfolge ausgeschlossen waren (Gai. inst. 3,14; Inst. Iust. 3,2,3a).…

Decuma

(116 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)

Legatum

(652 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[English version] Im röm. Recht das Vermächtnis (von legare: “eine bindende Willenserklärung, lex , aussprechen”). Die Möglichkeit, jemandem durch letztwillige Verfügung (Testament) Gegenstände zu Lasten des Erben zuzuwenden, wurde in den XII Tafeln (5,3) anerkannt. Es gab zwei Hauptarten: 1) Durch l. per vindicationem (angeordnet durch: Titio …

Sui heredes

(263 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] ('house heirs') in Roman law were the offspring subject to the power of the testator who, on his death, immediately became independent ( sui iuris) (Gai. Inst. 3,2-5), i.e. children, grandchildren, whose father predeceased them, etc., the

Abstentio

(134 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] According to Roman law sui heredes acquired the inheritance due to them on succession; if a suus had not yet outwardly shown that he wanted to keep the inheritance, the praetor permitted him to abstain from it ( se abstinere). In this case the suus was still the heres, but did not receive the inheritance and was not responsible for the debts of the estate; the next in line received the bonorum possessio. An extraneus did not need an abstentio; as he did not acquire the inheritance until he came into it, he could simply relinquish it, but also declare a disclaimer ( omittere). …

Exheredatio

(241 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] Disinheritance. Archaic Roman law allowed the appointment of an inheritor in a will probably only when there was no suus heres (family heir). Later, it became possible to appoint one among several   sui heredes as an heir and to disinherit the rest. In the historical era there were no limits on the disinheritance of sui, but this had to be expressly stated in the will. Sons had to be disinherited by name, other sui (wife ─ uxor in manu ─, grandchildren, great-grandchildren etc. of both sexes) could be disinherited inter ceteros (as a group without stating their na…

Decuma

(121 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] (=  decima sc. pars). The law of Papia Poppaea (AD 9) limited to one-tenth of the inheritance (with additional allowances for children) the capacity ( capacitas) of spouses in manus-free marriage to inherit from the testament of another. A wife in manus- marriage was, however, sua heres entitled to inherit the entire estate [2].The limit was abol…

Heredium

(146 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] In the language of the XII Tables (7,3) the farmstead measuring two iugera (0.5 ha.; Plin. HN 19,4,50), consisting of a hortus (farm with garden, Paul Fest. 91,12 L.) and ager (agricultural land). Tradition has it that Romulus assigned to each citizen an inalienable heredium, which was passed on to the respective heir ( heres) (Varro Rust. 1,10,2); the XII Tables already allowed the entire property to be sold and inherited (6,1; 5,3), this therefore included the

Prodigus

(120 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] A prodigus ('spendthrift') was placed by the Twelve Tablets (7,4c) under the care ( cura) of their closest agnates ( agnatio ) who were to administer his wealth, so that their future right of inheritance (inheritance law III. C.; intestatus ) should not be at risk. In the classical law of the 1st-3rd cents. AD, a prodigus would be equated with a minor under the protection of a guardian ( tutela ); a cura prodigi was now also arranged not only in the interests of the agnates but also for the protection of the prodigus. Manth…

Aditio hereditatis

(76 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] According to Roman law a suus heres acquired the inheritance left to him without any further action on his part, but an extraneus only on accession ( aditio). The aditio could take place by formal declaration of accession ( cretio) or by informal exercise of the will to accept ( pro herede gestio).  Succession, law of III B;  Abstentio Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) Bibliography 1 …

Vacantia bona

(169 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] An heirless estate ( Bona ). In the Republic, the members of the gens of a deceased person had a right of acquisition (Gai. Inst. 3,17); if they did not exercise it, anybody could take possession of the estate and obtain it by usucapio ('adverse possession') (Gai. Inst. 2,52-58). If in a will ( Testamentum ) an heir was appointed, but had become unavailable, the will and all its dispositions were ineffective. From the lex Iulia et Papia (18/9 BC) onwards the VB fell as a caducum ('forfeited') to the state, which also fulfilled the provisions of t…

Lex Iulia et Papia

(204 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] To improve conjugal morals and to combat childlessness, Augustus, through the lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus (18 BC), forbade marriages outside one's class and ordered through the lex Papia Poppaea (AD 9) that citizens of a marriageable age had a duty to marry, with unmarried people penalized by the forfeiture ( caducum ) of assets gifted to them in wills, and childless married people with the forfeiture of half of this; on the other hand, anyone who had children was accorded numerous privileges ( ius liberorum, ‘children's privilege’). Which regulations should…

Substitutio

(325 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] In Roman law the appointment of a substitute heir ( substitutus), so as to avoid the danger that a will might become ineffective through the potential absence of the heir appointed by it (as a consequence of prior death or refusal; Succession, laws of III. D.). Instances of the modern-day persistence of

Lex Voconia

(324 words)

Author(s): Manthe, Ulrich (Passau)
[German version] A law introduced by the people's tribune Q. Voconius Saxa in 169 BC, which barred testators of the 1st census class (minimum assets of 100,000 as, Gai. Inst. 2,274) from naming a female heir in their will; this did not affect the intestate law of succession of women but following the law ( Voconiana ratione) women also had the intestate law of succession withdrawn from them from the 3rd degree of kinship (Paulus, Sent. 4,8,20). At the same time, the lex Voconia (LV) limited the maximum amount of legacies to half the inheritance (Gai. Inst. 2,226). In practice, …
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