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Sēḫa (Seha River Land)

(776 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographic location, borders Luwian-speaking (Luwian) state in Northwestern Asia Minor documented in Hittite transmission in the 15th-13th cents. BC. Its core area comprised the valleys of the Hermus [2] and the Caecus [1] (merging near the coast), and its name is derived from one of these two rivers. The Hittite designation is Sēḫas utnē (in Akkadian orthography KUR ÍD ŠE-E-ḪA) 'the land of S.,' while the name 'river land of S.', often found in secondary literature, is based on the inappropriate translation of the determinative ÍD 'river.' In the north, S. borde…


(884 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Introduction Horsemanship refers to the riding style developed in ancient times for military use of the  horse that has remained dominant up to the present time for European riding - the ‘classical riding style’. It is distinguished from other riding styles (that were only passed down or arose in modern times) in that in the training of the horse it is not satisfied with mere habituation but follows a systematic, gradually increased exercise programme that is based on strict obse…


(783 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Bonatz, Dominik (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Urarṭu | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Mesopotamia | Aegean Koine North Syrian city at the intersection of important trade routes on the Euphrates, economically and politically advantaged by its position on the border of a fertile plain, with access to mountain regions rich in raw materials. The existence of a settlement is documented as early as the 5th millennium BC through ceramic findings, its name (Akkadian K/Gark/gamis/š; Hittite, Luwian Karkamissa-; Hebrew Karkemiš, among others) as early as 2500-600 BC. In…


(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…


(674 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] State recorded in the 14th-13th cents. BC by the Hittite tradition (Hittite U̯ilusa-/ U̯ilussa-) in the northwest of Asia Minor, which was initially known to the Hittites at the end of the 15th cent. under the name Āssuwa (=Ā.). Its geographical location in the Troad (cf. Ḫattusa II, map, and above all the maps in [2. 304-307]), which was proposed as early as 1924 [6] and was able to be proved in 1997 on the basis of new evidence [8; 4], follows from W.'s close connexion with the sea [10. 603…


(1,697 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Geographical site, boundaries M. (Hittite also Merā-) is the name of the core territory of the significant Luwian-speaking state of Arzawa in western Asia Minor, which is attested from the 16th cent. BC on, primarily through the Hittite tradition, and of the Hittite vassal state formed out of it in c. 1315 BC. The vassal state grew into a Great Kingdom at the end of the 13th cent., and may have survived the collapse of the Hittite Empire (shortly after 1200 BC; see Ḫattusa II.). The western part of M., with the Arzawan capital of Abasa/Ephesus, encompassed the r…


(3,381 words)

Author(s): Seeher, Jürgen (Istanbul) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Mesopotamia | Aegean Koine [German version] I. City, archaeological Capital of the Hittites in central Asia Minor near Boğazkale (earlier Boğazköy), province Çorum, c. 150 km east of Ankara, Turkey. Sporadically settled since the Chalcolithic (6th millennium BC), Ḫ. was the location of an Assyrian trading colony ( kārum;  Kaneš) next to a native Hatti settlement in the 19th/18th cents. BC. The city was destroyed around 1700 BC; from Ḫattusili I (around 1600 BC), it was…


(845 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Language of the inhabitants of Caria ( Cares, Caria), documented in c. 200 inscriptions -- from the 7th-4th cents. BC that are mostly very short or fragmentary and written in a characteristic alphabetic script -- which apart from Greek-Carian bilingual inscriptions from Athens that came from Carian mercenaries and almost solely contain personal names, for the most part come from Egypt (e.g. Saqqāra, Abydus, Abu Simbel), and to a lesser extent from Caria itself (e.g. Caunus, Hyllarima, Sinuri) and Lydia (Sardes, Smyrna); also documented through personal names and p…


(527 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Lydian, belonging to the Anatolian languages, is the language of the Lydians and is transmitted in its own alphabetical script, which is written either left-to-right or right-to-left ( Asia Minor V., with map). Around 100 inscriptions are known today (including several graffiti and inscriptions on sea…


(4,764 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Raepsaet, Georges (Brüssel)
[German version] I. Introduction The outstanding historical and cultural significance which has been attached to horses since the 2nd millennium BC - first to pull  war chariots, later primarily for riding - in the area of the ancient Orient and Graeco-Roman antiquity has meant that archaeologists in the last 100 years have focused on the (esp. early) history of the exploitation of this domestic animal far more than on that of all the others. Scientific discussion in the first half of the 20th cent. was heavily dominated by ethnological and sociological questions (even influenced, in part, by racial ideology) revolving largely around the (thoroughly overestimated) role of the horse in the spread of the  Indo-Europeans and the (supposed) introduction of horses and chariots to the ancient Orient by Indo-Aryans (for a literary overview of the hi…

Anatolian languages

(472 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] The earliest documented Indo-Germanic language branch, which occurs in Asia Minor; ranged in the 2nd millennium from the Aegean coast to the Euphrates, gradually in the 1st millennium through  Phrygia, later above all through  Greece until it penetrated r…


(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (Hom. Il. 2,876f.), who for their part had no relationship at all with P. The contradictory findings (that can also not be satisfactorily explained even today) gave rise in ancient (Str. 12,4,6) as in modern scholarship to the idea of the beginnings of the Lycians in Troy and even allowed for the perception of an immigration to Lycia at the end of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st millennium BC of Lycians who had originally lived in north-western Asia Minor (see finally [1. 13f., 23-37]). Historically there are no grounds for this at all; in particular the beginnings of a northern Lukka, according to their identification in the 'Āssuwa list' (see Wilusa) have been dropped from the Hittite annals of Tu…


(660 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Hittite name attested in the 14th-13th cents. BC ( Lu-uk-ka/ ka4-a- [Lukkā-], with a stem ending of prolonged grade and certainly accented. Akkadian Lukki, Egyptian Rk [Luka/i]) for the area encompassing southwestern Asia Minor, western Pamphylia/ western Pisidia, Lycia and southern Caria, which stretched in the east to the Cestrus (Hittite Kastraja), in the north to Arzawa (or Mira) and bordered on Mycenaean settled Millawa(n)da ( Miletus) ( Hattusa II with map). It should be understood only in the political and geographical senses, especially as the ethnic terms ‘people’ and ‘tribe’ are completely foreign to Anatolian Asia Minor ( Anatolian languages), while the term ‘the Lukka’, often encountered in the secondary literature and evoking a tribal concept, has no grounds and furthermore is a linguistic mistake, as the inhabitants of L. should clearly be designated as ‘Lukkans’. Like the whole of western and southern Asia Minor, L. was Luwian-speak…


(2,869 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Documented period, language area Derived from the Hittite designation Luu̯ili-, Luwian is the term for the most widespread representative of the Anatolian languages in Asia Minor. It is attested in two dialects, both recorded in different writing systems. Cuneiform Luwian (CL, 16th to 13th cent. BC) and Hieroglyphic Luwian (HL, 15th to early 7th cent. BC), as well as in its late successors Pisidian (Pis., 3rd cent. AD), Lycian (5th to 4th cent. BC) and Milyan (Mil., 5th/4th cents. BC), …


(153 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] One of the  Anatolian languages; written in its own alphabetic script (Asia Minor VI), which runs from right to left, and attested in Side and the surrounding area. In addition to inscriptions on coins (5th/4th cent. BC), six mostly brief dedicatory inscriptions are known today, among them three that are bilingual (Sidetic-Greek; one is from Seleucia/Lyrbe), one voting tablet, and one inscription on a vessel fr…

International treaties

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] I. General International treaties (IT) are official and binding agreements under inter…


(863 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Tradition The language, passed down to us in Babylonian cuneiform, of the Hittites who had political leadership in Asia Minor in the 2nd millennium BC (core area appr. the geographical region ou…


(247 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Inland country of the Hittite Empire (Ḫattusa II. with map) in southern Asia Minor, which first makes an appearance in history at the time of Muwattalli II ( c. 1290-1272 BC) during the temporary relocation of the Hittite capital to this region's capital of the same name (T.; at modern Karaman or in the upper  Calycadnus valley). After Mursili III Urḫitesub (

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and fro…
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