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(986 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
Als H. ( gehenna) wird in Judentum, Christentum und Islam der unterirdische Ort bezeichnet, an dem die Verdammten unter den Toten für ihre Vergehen bestraft werden ( Jenseits). Die kirchliche Lehre war bis tief in die Nz. durch die Auffassung des Kirchenvaters Augustinus bestimmt: Bedingt durch die alle Menschen belastende …
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,169 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,446 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
1. Tradition…
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,063 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
Hell is the subterranean world as imagined in Christianity and Islam (and, more equivocally, in Judaism, cf. [14]) in which the damned among the dead are punished for their sins (Afterlife). Until well into the early modern period, church teaching was still conditioned by the view of the Church Father Augustine: because of original sin weighing upon all people, eternal punishment in hell awaited most of the progeny of Adam and Eve after their earthly lives. Two measures could save the individual fro…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,244 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
1. Theocentric view Christianity describes heaven as a transcendental locale beyond the material world, the residence of God, the angels and saints, where the faithful are…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,628 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
1. Traditions The very ancient belief in the existence and work of (good or evil) angels (from Gk ángelos, “[divine] messenger”) is taken for granted in Christianity and Islam. On into the 18th century it took its lead from the biblical narratives of angels as divine messengers and interpreters; on divine instructions they give advice to human beings and protect them from adversarial powers. Individuals, but also communities and even entire peoples have their guar…
Date: 2019-10-14

Rituals of Movement

(591 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] may be divided into three types: dance, procession, and perambulation. The central feature of dance is movement of the human body, whereby the body may function as a single whole, or, as in Africa, different parts of the body may execute quasi-autonomous movements. Dance may carry a wide variety of religious meanings; they range from entertaining the Egyptian goddess Hathor and bacchantic frenzy to inducing ecstasy, which may lead to possession ¶ by non-human beings. Dance that induces possession by the spirit of Christ seems to be acknowledged by Pau…


(438 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] Proverbs and proverbial expressions are found in all languages and cultures, and often represent international material. The traditional appreciation of proverbs is based on the observation that they preserve the ethos of “ordinary people,” whose values, informed by common sense, coalesce in a “simple morality” (Bollnow) of decency, industry, frugality, and respect for age and authority. In the Golden Rule this ethos has its measure, in proverbs its collective archives. The devil …


(262 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] The small island situated near the modern Asswan in the Nile, called Elephantine by the Greeks, marks the southern boundary of ancient Egypt. Ezekiel 29:10 mentions it by the name Syene (Heb. seweneh). Today, two Nubian villages and an extended, partially excavated area with ancient Egyptian structures and an archeological museum, can be found on the island. It has been the site of German and French excavations (1906–1911), and German and Sw…

Elephantine Documents

(1,630 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] I. History of the Discovery – II. The Jewish Military …


(986 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] I. Religious Studies


(383 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] ( in religious studies). The riddle is one of the oldest contrived formations of human speech. Most riddles are encrypted descriptions of persons, things or facts. As indirect communications they challenge the astuteness of the hearer or reader. Appreciation of riddles arises from the enjoyment of playful concealing, seeking, and finding of meaning, and also from the insight that no deeper knowledge can be acquired without striving to understand. Thus oracles can also take the form o…


(5,978 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Frankemölle, Hubert | Lang, Bernhard | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam – VIII. Buddhism – IX. Contemporary Art …


(2,732 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Thiel, Josef Franz | Lang, Bernhard
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Comparative Religion – III. Old Testament – IV. Ethnology and Theology I. The Concept


(8,622 words)

Author(s): Felber, Annelies | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Names and Terms – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Fundamental Theology – VIII. Dogmatics – IX. Judaism – X. Islam – XI. History of Art and Literature I. Names and Terms 1. Devil


(841 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard | Hoping, Helmut
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich …


(7,228 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. Namen und Begriffe 1.TeufelProfangriech. δια´βολος/diábolos, von διαβα´λλω/diabállō, »auseinanderbringen«, daher Bedeutungen wie »anklagen, verleumden, täuschen«, lat. diabolus, daraus dt. T. In der LXX wird hebr. שָׂטָן/śāṭān mit diábolos übers., was am besten mit »Widersacher« wiedergegeben wird. In den Apokryphen finden sich sowohl T. (3Bar 4,8; AssMos 10,1) wie Satan, weiters Beliar (zumeist TestXII), Mastema (Jub 10; 11), Samma'el (3Bar 4,8; bes. rabb. Schriften). Das NT kennt keinen inhaltlich…


(359 words)

Author(s): Lang, Bernhard
[English Version] Rätsel, religionsgeschichtlich. Das R. gehört zu den ältesten geformten Sprechweisen der Menschheit. Die meisten R. sind verschlüsselte Beschreibungen von Personen, Dingen oder Sachverhalten. Als indirekte Mitteilungen fordern sie den Scharfsinn des Hörers oder Lesers heraus. Die Wertschätzung des R. beruht auf der Freude am spielerischen Verstecken, Suchen und Finden von Sinn, aber auch auf der Einsicht, daß es kein tieferes Wissen ohne Mühe um Erkenntnis gibt. Deshalb können auc…