Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Rist, Josef (Würzburg)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Rist, Josef (Würzburg)" )' returned 121 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Monotheletism

(305 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Theological controversy of the 7th cent. AD, closely linked to the politics of the Byzantine Empire. Monotheletism, as well as its predecessor, monenergism, is the doctrine of a single will (μόνος/ mónos, ‘single’; θέλημα/ thélēma, θέλησις/ thélēsis, ‘will’) or a single action or power of action (ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia) in Christ. Following military victories (Persian Wars), the East Roman Emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641) tried to reestablish ecclesiastical unity with the monophysites (Monophysitism). This was the starting point in…

Horsiesi

(178 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Abbot general of the coenobitic association of monasteries founded by  Pachomius in Upper Egypt († after AD 386). Initially superior of the monastery in Šenesēt (Chenoboscium), H. was appointed by Abbot Petronius as his successor. After conflicts in the so-called poverty dispute, Theodorus took over the ‘deputy leadership’ [3. 527] for H. Later the latter again was head of the koinōnía (‘community’), initially jointly with Theodorus, and on his own after Theodorus' death. As a spiritual testament he wrote the Liber Orsiesii (Latin translation by  Hieronymus, …

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Gelasius

(565 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina Bishop of  Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina (died before AD 400). The nephew of  Cyrillus of Jerusalem, installed as bishop around 365/367, took part in the Council of Constantinople in 381 and in the synod there in 394. At the wish of his uncle, G. wrote a continuation of the Church history by  Eusebius [7] of Caesarea, going as far as 395, which had a long-lasting effect (Gelasius of Cyzicus, hagiographic lives, etc.). Parts of the lost s…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Eutyches

(362 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Εὐτύχης; Eutýchēs). [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD, signed as ‘son of  Dioscorides of Aegeae’ the rock crystal with a bust of Athena (Berlin, SM), in the style of the Athena of Velletri. Athena of  Velitrae;  Intaglio;  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 31770, 331 pl. 92,3 AGD II, Berlin 169 pl. 80 and 81 no. 456. [German version] [2] Lat. grammarian of the 4th cent. AD (Eutyc(h)ius, MSS), Latin grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, a pupil of  Priscianus and author of an Ars de verbo, probably identical with…

Synesius

(476 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Συνέσιος; Synésios) [German version] [1] S. of Cyrene Neoplatonist philosopher and bishop, c. AD 400 Neoplatonist philosopher and bishop ( c. AD 370 - c. 413). S., of a leading family at Cyrene (Libya superior), first studied at Alexandria [1] with the Neoplatonist philosopher Hypatia. From 399 to 402 (or 397-400; S.' chronology is disputed) he went to the court at Constantinople at the bidding of his home city to obtain tax relief. He then travelled to Alexandria (where he married a Christian) and subsequently retire…

Shenoute of Atripe

(446 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Coptic 'child of god'; Greek Σινούθιος/ Sinoúthios); abbot and important author of Coptic literature, died between AD 436 and 466 (466 is most often given as the year of his death). The stages in his life can be deduced from his writings and from a panegyric vita [6] written by his successor Besa. At an early stage, S., the son of a peasant family, entered the White Monastery at Sauhāǧ in Upper Egypt, which had been founded by a maternal uncle. He took over its leadership in about 385.…

Eustathius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Εὐστάθιος; Eustáthios). [German version] [1] from Caria Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD, imperial administrator, consularis Syriae Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD; studied in Athens and later settled in Tyre. He held many offices in the imperial administration, and used them to enrich himself (i.a.: rationalis summarum per orientem), in 388 he was consularis Syriae. He was at first a friend of  Libanius (panegyric: Lib. Or. 44), later his enemy (diatribe: Or. 54, cf. also Or. 1,271-275). There is no other witness apart from Libanius. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [2] Neop…

Ebionaei

(379 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Greek Ἐβιωναῖοι; Ebiōnaîoi, from Hebr. םיִנֹויְבֶא < æbyōnı̄m, ‘[the] Poor’). Since  Irenaeus (Haer. 1,26,2); the usual collective term for selected, heterodox Jewish-Christian groups in antiquity. The name was wrongly interpreted as pejorative by Patristic authors (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,27; Orig. contra Celsum 2,1: ‘poor of mind’) or, since Tertullianus (De praescriptione haereticorum 10,8; also Hippolytus, refutatio omnium haeresium 7,35,1), ascribed to a homonymous namegiver Ebion, su…

Iohannes

(7,268 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης; Iōánnēs). Well-known persons i.a.: I. [1] the Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, bishop of Constantinople and Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, author of the world chronicle, I. [25] of Gaza, rhetor and poet, I. [33] of Damascus, the theologian, I. [39] Baptistes. [1] I. the Evangelist [German version] A. Tradition and criticism According to the inscriptions, the author of a  Gospel (Jo), of three letters and the Apocalypse in the NT is called I. (= J.; the name appears only in Apc. 1:1; 1:4; 1:9; 22:8). Since the end of the 2nd cent. (Iren. adv…

Diognetus

(335 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Διόγνητος; Diógnētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, victor at the Dionysia in 415 BC Athenian, son of Niceratus, from Cyantidae; brother of Nicias and Eucrates [2], father of Diomnestus. Winner at the Dionysia in 415 BC (Pl. Grg. 472a), afterwards exiled; in Athens in 404-03. Intervened in 403 with Pausanias on behalf of Nicias' sons. Died c. 396 (Lys. 18,4; 9f.; 21; And. 1,47). Perhaps identical with the person named by Traill (PAA 327535, 327540). Traill, PAA 327820; Davies 10808. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) [German version] [2] Nauarch of Antiochus III c. 220 BC As nauarch of An…

Didache

(448 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (διδαχή; didachḗ, ‘teaching’ sc. ‘of the Twelve Apostles’). The earliest Church regulations, usually attributed to the  Apostolic Fathers. Highly prized in antiquity, frequently used in other works, the Didache has been known since 1873. The most important textual witness to this influential document of early Christian communality is the 11th-cent. Codex Hierosolymitanus 54. Greek and Coptic fragments, Ethiopic and Georgian translations, as well as considerable indirect transmission, including the Apostolic …

Proclus

(2,700 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris)
(Πρόκλος/ Próklos). [German version] [1] Bishop of Constantinople 434-446 Bishop of Constantinople (434-446). Probably born before 390 in Constantinople, after a thorough schooling, P. occupied a position of trust under bishop Atticus (406-425). In 426, Atticus' successor Sisinnius consecrated him bishop of Cyzicus, but, in face of local opposition, P. was unable to occupy his bishop's chair. Passed over on many occasions, he eventually became bishop of Constantinople in 434. He stood in high esteem as a preacher; besides letters - among them the epistle of 435 Tomus ad Armenios (CP…

Noetus of Smyrna

(201 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Νοητός/ Noētós). Early Christian theologian (end of the 2nd cent. AD). According to the biased report of his adversary Hippolytus [2] (Refutatio omnium haeresium 9,7-10; 10,26f.) N. came from Smyrna. His heterodox teachings, which according to Hippolytus could be traced back to Heraclitus, were brought to Rome by Epigonus and further disseminated among the Roman bishops Zephyrinus ( c. 198-217) and Callistus (217-222) by Epigonus's pupil Cleomenes. N. is regarded as the founder of modalistic monarchianism. This school saw in the Father …

Zacharias

(658 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ζαχαρίας/ Zacharías, Graecised form of the Hebrew Zacharyah, 'Yahweh remembers'). [German version] [1] Stoned to death at the command of the king Joash, 9th cent. BC According to 2 Chr 24:17-22, Zechariah bar Jehoiada was stoned to death in the Temple at the command of the king Joash (840-801 BC), for having reproached the people for practicing idolatry and hence abandoning their god. The Jewish Haggada developed this story: the blood of the murdered one boils on the floor of the Temple and does not come to rest (ultima…

Makedonianer

(258 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Zunächst Bezeichung für die um Bischof Makedonios von Konstantinopel († vor 364 n.Chr.) Mitte des 4. Jh. gesammelten arianischen Gruppierungen (Arianismus). Später geht der Name über auf die pneumatomáchoi , d.h. all jene, auch Nichtarianer, die die Gottheit des Hl. Geistes bestreiten. Der Namensgeber wurde - zunächst in ständiger Konkurrenz zum mehrfach exilierten nizänischen Bischof Paulos - 342 Bischof von Konstantinopel. Nach Paulos' endgültiger Vertreibung (351) alleiniger Bischof, u…

Paulos

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Παῦλος). [English version] [1] Bf. von Antiocheia [1], gest. nach 272 Bischof von Antiocheia [1] († nach 272 n.Chr.). Der wohl in Samosata geb., aus einfachen Verhältnissen stammende P., der 260/1 Demetrianos als Bischof nachfolgte, machte sich rasch durch Lehre und Amtsführung bei einflußreichen Teilen der Gemeinde Antiocheias mißliebig. Lokaler Exponent der gegen die Lehre des Bischofs, seine äußere Selbstdarstellung (Errichtung eines hohen Thrones; Bezeichnung als ducenarius) sowie liturgische und disziplinäre Vorstellungen aufbegehrenden Opposition war na…

Noëtos von Smyrna

(178 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] (Νοητός). Früchristlicher Theologe (E. 2. Jh.n.Chr.). Nach dem parteiischen Bericht seines Gegners Hippolytos [2] (Refutatio omnium haeresium 9,7-10; 10,26f.) stammt N. aus Smyrna. Die von ihm ausgehende, nach Hippolytos auf Herakleitos zurückgeführte heterodoxe Lehre wurde durch Epigonos nach Rom gebracht und durch dessen Schüler Kleomenes unter den röm. Bischöfen Zephyrinus (etwa 198-217) und Callistus (217-222) weiter verbreitet. N. gilt als Begründer des modalistischen Monarc…
▲   Back to top   ▲