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Terracing

(476 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] Terracing is used worldwide in settlement areas with considerably variable surface relief to extend the usable agricultural area and increase yields, and to this day it characterizes the appearance of many Greek landscapes. By reshaping steep slopes into a number of gently sloping or horizontal steps, water retention is improved, root formation is promoted, soil erosion is retarded and working the land is made easier. Most terraces in the Mediterranean may have their origin in the…

Erchia

(295 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐρχία; Erchía). Attic mesogeia deme of the Aegeis phyle; the modern Spata. Seven (six)  bouleutai, eleven after 307/6 BC. Xenophon (Diog. Laert. 2,48) and Isocrates (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) were demótai of E.; Alcibiades possessed 300 plethra ( c. 26.5 ha.) of land in E. The lex sacra of E. from Pussiri south of Spata (SEG 21, 541; [1-7]) lists 59 annual sacrifices at a total cost of 547 drachmas. 21 of the 46 cults are generally situated in the territory of E. (Ἐρχι, Ἐρχιᾶ, Ἐρχιᾶσιν): one on the agora of E.; nine of them ἐμ Πάγῳ, i.e. on a hill at E., which Vanderpool…

Halimus

(225 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁλιμοῦς; Halimoûs). Attic asty-deme of the phyle Leontis, with three   bouleutaí (for population size [4. 286]), according to Str. 9,1,21 located on the west coast of Attica between Phalerum and Aexone 35 stadia (= 6.2 km) from the city (Dem. Or. 57,10). H., which bordered Euonymon in the east, lay near the modern Halimos and Hagios Kosmas, the ancient cape  Colias with the sanctuary of Demeter Thesmophoros and Kore (Paus. 1,31,1; Hsch. s.v. Κωλιάς; [1-3]; prehistorical s…

Eitea

(241 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Εἰτέα; Eitéa). [German version] [1] Attic asty (?) deme of the phyle Acamantis Attic asty(?) deme of the phyle Acamantis, from 307/6 to 201/0 BC of Antigonis, from AD 126/7 that of Hadrianis. Two bouleutai. The location is unknown (north-east Attica? [3. 140-142]). The fact that it belonged to the city trittys of Acamantis is deduced from the inscriptions [1] and IG II2 2363 ([2. 101]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. D. Meritt, J. S. Traill, in: Agora 15, 50ff. no. 42 2 J. S. Traill, Diakris, the Inland Trittys of Leontis, in: Hesperia 47, 1978, 89-109 3 Id., Demos and Trit…

Plotheia

(101 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Πλώθεια/ Plṓtheia; demoticon Πλωθεεύς/ Plōtheeús, Πλωθειεύς/ Plōtheieús, from the 4th century BC Πλωθεύς/ Plōtheús). A small Attic asty-deme, phyle of Aigeis, one bouleutḗs (later two). Its site to the southwest of modern Stamata on the northeastern slopes of Mount  Pentelicon is certain from votive inscriptions (IG II2 4607, 4885, 4916). The deme decree IG I3 258 (425/413 BC, ex IG II2 1172) governs finances, and attests to a dḗmarchos [3], tamíai ( tamías ) and cults of Apollo, Aphrodite and the Dioscuri (Anaces). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attic…

Thymaetadae

(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Θυμαιτάδαι; Thymaitádai). Attic asty deme of the Hippothontis phyle, two bouleutaí, probably to the northwest of Piraeus on the Bay of Keratsini, modern Ormos Erakleus. With Piraeus, Phaleron and Xypete, T. formed the tetrákōmoi cult federation (Poll. 4,105; IG II2 3102 f.) with a central sanctuary to Heracles (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἐχελίδαι). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 21, 52, 69, 112 No. 138, Tab. 8.

Phegaea

(140 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηγαία/ Phēgaía, Φηγαιά/ Phēgaiá; demotikon Φηγαιεύς/ Phēgaieús). Attic p aralia deme of the phyle of Aigeis, from AD 127/8 of Hadrianis, with three (four) bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica (near what is today Draphi [3. 335] or Ierotsakuli? [1. 82 with note 12]). It was not an independent dêmos, but a kṓmē ('village community'; of Stiria?) that was established by the people of Phegaea, as included in the list of demes IG II2 2362 as one of the demes of Pandionis (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.) [2. 55, 57ff.]. IG II2 1932,14f. shows evidence of cults of Hercules and th…

Cerameis

(208 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κεραμεῖς; Kerameîs). Attic asty deme of the phyle Acamantis, six   bouleutaí . Provenance from this deme is expressed by ἐκ Κεραμέων ( ek Keraméōn). Sources [1. LXXf.] consistently refer to the place as  Kerameikos. This was called the most beautiful of Athenian suburbs (Thuc. 2,34,5;  Athens, map), and was located inside -- and to the northwest outside -- the Dipylon Gate between Sacred Way to Eleusis and the road to the Academy. The hóroi Kerameíkou alongside the latter (IG II2 2617-2619) probably marked the deme border, contrary to [2. 167; 5. 300; 6. 29109; 7] (for…

Atene

(291 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀτήνη; Atḗnē). Attic paralia deme of average size (three   bouleutai ) of the phyle Antiochis on the south-west tip of Attica; name pre-Greek. Thus far the only deme which has been examined completely within its ancient borders. A. borders Anaphlystus in the north,  Amphitrope in the east (border inscription on the Megalo Baphi). The area of the deme covers, with the valleys of Charaka, Hagia Photini and Thimari, as well as the island Gaidouronisi, around 20 km2, of which only 22% (= 440 ha.) is agriculturally useful. In prehistoric times still not settl…

Epicephisia

(84 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικηφισία; Epikēphisía). Attic asty deme of the phyle Oeneis. One (or two) bouleut(ai). The approximate location of E. in the Cephissus valley at  Laciadae is evident from the name and the site where the decree on deme was found IG II2 1205 at Dipylon, see [1. 40]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982. Traill, Attica 19, 49, 69, 110 no. 40, table 6 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 133 Whitehead, Index s.v. E.

Brauron

(719 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Attica (Βραυρών; Braurṓn), now Vraona. Prehistoric settlement and sanctuary of Artemis on the east coast of Attica at the mouth of the Erasinus that became marshy owing to land subsidence. According to Philochorus in Str. 9,1,22 (FGrH 328 F 94), one of the 12 poleis of the Attic Dodecapolis. Home of Peisistratus, probably therefore it did not become an independent demos in the Cleisthenian reforms but part of Philai…

Coele

(164 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοίλη, also Κοιλή; Koílē, Koilḗ). Attic asty Deme of the phyle Hippothontis, from 307/6 to 201/0 BC of the Demetrias, with three bouleutaí, in the originally densely populated ‘rocky Athens’, which was, however, abandoned already in the 4th cent. BC [5], south-west of the Pnyx between the hill of nymphs and the Mouseion, near the Melitian gate [2. 168f.] at the koilḕ hodós [2. 180], where the tombs of  Cimon [1] (Hdt. 6,103) and the historian Thucydides (Marcellinus, Vita Thucydidis 17,55; Paus. 1,23,9) lay. C. offers one of the best pres…

Milesia

(864 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(ἡ Μιλησίη/ hē Milēsíē, Str. 14,1,8; ἡ Μιλησίη χώρα/ hē Milēsíē chōra, Hdt. 5,29). [German version] A. Geography Peninsula of Miletus [2] between the Latmian Gulf in the north and the Gulf of Akbük ( basilicus sinus, Mela 1,16-17; Plin. HN 5,112) in the south, not identical with the entire polis territory of Miletus, which changed repeatedly [2. 13ff.]. After its exploration had been initiated by Th. Wiegand [13; 14], M. and the development of its landscape have been systematically investigated since 1992 [1; 4; 5; 6]. Sections of the eastern upland settled by Cares (Carians), Milesia Hyper…

Anagyrous

(257 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀναγυροῦς; Anagyroûs). Attic   paralia deme of the phyle  Erechtheis. Six (eight) bouleutai. Etymologically, A. is derived from the stinking bean-trefoil (Anagyris foetida L.) which favours sand and deserted plains. Localized by Str. 9,1,21 between Halae Aixonides and Thorae on the south-western coast of Attica. Fish from A. are mentioned in Ath. 7,329c; 8,344e. The votive inscription of Archeneus (IG II2 2825) of A. (IG II2 4906), apart from a Pan grotto in  Hymettus (= nymph grotto of Vari? [7. 447]) mentioned by Synes. Epist. 136 (to this […

Diomea

(112 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Διόμεια; Diómeia). Attic paralia(?) deme of the Aegeis phyle, from 307/6 until 201/0 BC of the Demetrias phyle. One  bouleutes. D. was located outside the walls of Athens and south of the Ilissus between Alopece to the South and Ancyle to the East [1], where, not far from the Diomeic Gate (Alci. 3,51,4; Hsch. s.v. Δημίαισι πύλαις; [2. 83, 112, 160 fig. 219 ‘X’), the Hercules sanctuary and gymnasium were situated in  Cynosarges (Diog. Laert. 6,13; [2. 340f.]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, Top. von Athen, 21932, 169f. fig. 14 2 Travlos, Athen. Trail…

Eteobutadae

(137 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐτεοβουτάδαι; Eteoboutádai, ‘ancient/true Butadae’). Attic génos that claimed descent from the hero Butes [1] and probably originated as a cult association in the territory of  Butadae. Since the Eteobutadae are already attested during the archaic period, its members ─ contrary to what the name suggests ─ could not have taken their name after the creation of the Cleisthenic deme Butadae. They provided the priestess of  Athena Polias (Aeschin. Leg. 147) and the priests of Poseidon Erechtheus (Plut. Lycurgus 47 f.). Lycurgus [9] belonged to the génos of the Eteobu…

Leucophrys

(104 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Λευκόφρυς; Leukóphrys). Polis in Ionia with a sanctuary to Artemis Leukophryene and a fresh-water lake (Xen. Hell. 3,2,19; 4,8,17). Probably not the same as the newly founded Magnesia [2] near modern Ortaklar (otherwise [1]). Around 400 BC, Thibron [1] moved the old settlement Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] to the Thorax (modern Gümüş Dağı; Diod. Sic. 14,36). [2] identified a fortified ancient settlement with orthogonal street layout on its eastern heights as L. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Bürchner, s. v. L., RE 12, 2288 2 A. Philippson, Milet III/5: D…

Kolonos

(147 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Kolonos agoraios (κολωνὸς ἀγοραι̂ος; kolōnòs agoraîos, ‘at the agora’). Hill (68 m) to the west of the Agora in Athens, in the deme of Cerameis, with synhedrion [1. 112], arsenal [1. 188f.], temples to Athena and to Hephaestus (so-called Theseum) [1. 91; 5. 261-273, fig. 335-350] and other cults [5. 79], as well as the neighbouring territory in the south (Aristoph. Av. 997f.). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] [2] Kolonos hippios (κολωνὸς ἵππιος; kolōnòs híppios, ‘equestrian hill’), hill in the north-west of Athens (Thuc. 8,67), made famous by …

Cephisia

(147 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κηφισιά; Kēphisiá). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle Erechtheis, six (eight)   bouleutaí , modern Kifissia [1. 38]. Location of the Attic dodekapolis (Philochorus in Str. 9,1,20; FGrH B Fr. 94). Suburb of  Athens with abundant springs and forests, west of the  Pentelicon (Harpocr. s.v. Κηφισιεύς; Diog. Laert. 3,41; Synes. Epist. 272) with a villa of Herodes [16] Atticus (Gell. NA 1,2,2; 18,10,2; Philostr. VS 2,1,12) [2. 197 fig. 251-254]. His family used to be attributed with a Roman tomb on the Plateia Platanou [2. 197f. fig. 255-2…

Hamaxantia

(42 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁμαξάντεια; hamaxánteia). Attic paralia? deme of the Hippothontis phyle, supplying one   bouleutḗs , unknown location. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 51, 68, 110 no. 52, table 8 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 138 Whitehead, 372 n. 6.

Ionidae

(118 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰωνίδαι; Iōnídai). Attic Mesogea deme of the Aegeis phyle, sending two (one) bouleutaí. Meyer [1] localizes it near Charvati, Siewert [2] near Lutró, Traill [3; 4] near Draphi (?), and Vanderpool [5. 24ff.] near Vurva. Genealogical connections between its eponymous hero Ion and Gargettus (Paus. 6,22,7) might point to the deme's location in the general area of Charvati south of Pallene. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 10, 329 2 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982, 87 n. 2, 172ff. 3 Traill, …

Eupyridae

(126 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐπυρίδαι; Eupyrídai). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle Leontis, two bouleutai. E. with the neighbouring deme Cropidae and Peleces formed the cult association of Trikomoi (Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; [1. 112; 2. 184f.46]). As Archidamus moved through Cropidae to Acharnae in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,19), E. can be estimated to lie north of the Aegaleus near Kamatero. From there originates the decree IG II2 1362 to protect the trees in the sanctuary of Apollo Erasitheus [2], and from Hagios Saranta to the west of Menidi come the tomb inscriptions IG II2 6146. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Biblio…

Oe

(72 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀή/ Oḗ, Οἴη/ Oíē; demotikon Ὀῆθεν/ Oêthen; Οἰῆθεν/ Oiêthen [1]). Attic paralia deme, phyle of Oineis, with six (or seven) bouleutaí; probably location in Thriasia to the northeast of Aspropirgos, cf. Soph. OC 1059ff. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. Dow, The Attic Demes Oa and Oe, in: AJPh 84, 1963, 166-181. Traill, Attica, 19, 49, 67, 111 nr. 92, table 6  J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 57, 134  Whitehead, Index s.v. O.

Crya

(103 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Κρύα; Krýa; Καρύα; Karía, Ptol. 5,3,2; Crya fugitivorum, Plin. HN 5,103; now Taşyaka). Fortified town in the Rhodian Peraea on the south-west coast of Asia Minor in Lycia on the gulf of Telmessus, 2,4 km west-north-west of Fethiye. Sources: Mela 1,16; Steph. Byz. s.v. Krya Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography G. E. Bean, s.v. Taşyaka, PE, 886 Id., Kleinasien 4, 1980, 31, 34 Id., P. M. Fraser, The Rhodian Peraea, 1954, 55f. GGM 1, 494f. no. 258f. P. Roos, Topographical and Other Notes on South-Eastern Cari…

Euonymon

(221 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐώνυμον; Euṓnymon). Attic asty deme of the phyle Erechtheis, ten (from 307/6 BC twelve) bouleutai. Its location has been pinpointed to ‘Trachones’ (modern Alimos) on the Leophoros Vouliagmenis because of epigraphical evidence. There are also Mycenaean tombs [1] and a late geometric necropolis [2; 6. 7]. E. had a northern border with Alopece, an eastern one with Hymettus, whilst in the south it bordered on Aexone and in the west on Halimus. North of the airport is the theatre of E. with an ort…

Pidasa

(178 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Πίδασα; Pídasa). Fortified Carian settlement on (Mount) Grion, modern Ilbıra Daǧi, above Danişment, with two acropoleis (modern Cert Osman Kalesi) [1; 2. 91f.; 5]. After 494 BC the Persians gave Milesia ὑπεράκρια/ hyperákria ('on the heights') , the uplands of Miletus [2], to the Pidaseis (Hdt. 6,20). P. was a member of the Delian League (tribute of one talent, ATL 1, 535), and concluded a sympoliteía between 323 and 313 BC with Latmus [2] (cf. [1]), and between 188/7 and 178/7 BC with Miletus [2] (cf. [1. 139; 3; 4. 283f.]), which sent a detachment to garrison P. Lohmann…

Berenicidae

(72 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βερενικίδαι; Berenikídai). Attic deme of the Ptolemais phyle established in 224/23 BC and named after  Berenice, wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. Possibly located around Eleusis (cf. grave inscription IG II2 5868 from Mandra and IG II2 5888 from Eleusis). The announcer of the decree on demes (?) IG II2 1221 (found at Eleusis) came from the B. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 29f., 109 (no. 25), table 13.

Sunium

(511 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Laurium | Attica | Attica (Σούνιον/ Soúnion). Cape in the southeast of Attica, Attic paralia deme (Str. 9,1,22), phyle of Leontis, from 201/0 BC Attalis, four (six) bouleutaí. The territory of S. ( c. 28 km2) bordered on Amphitrope in the west (border inscription on the Spitharopussi [1. 11 f. pl. 3]), and Thoricus in the north and, in Nape and Thrasymus, encompassedtwo significant mining districts of Laurium. The cults of Poseidon and Athena Sounias on the cape stretched back into the late Geometric Period. In c. 600 BC colo…

Cynosarges

(194 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόσαργες; Kynósarges). Sanctuary of Hercules first mentioned for the year 490 BC (Hdt. 6,116) with a gymnasium in the deme Diomea south of the Ilissus in front of the walls of Athens (Plut. Themistocles 1; Diog. Laert. 6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.). Because of the finding-place of IG II2 1665 it is vaguely considered to lie near Hagios Pantelemon. The link between a dromos to Agrae (IG II2 2119 Z. 128) and C. is doubtful. The C. gymnasium was meant for illegitimate children (  nóthoi ) (Dem. Or. 23,213; Ath. 6,234E; Plut. Themistocles 1,2). At…

Panionion

(418 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Πανιόνιον; Paniónion). Central sanctuary of the Ionian amphiktyonía on the Mycale (Hdt. 1,142f.; 148; modern Dilek Yarımadası) that celebrated the festival of Paniṓnia with a panḗgyris ('festive meeting') and a bull sacrifice to Poseidon Helikonios (i.e. of Helice: Str. 8,7,2; Hom. Il. 20, 403f.) there. Founded according to the Marmor Parium (IG XII 5, 444) in 1086/5 BC (cf. Paus. 7,4,10) and according to Kleiner [1. 9] only on the occasion of the destruction of Melia (in whose territory the P. lay) between 663 and 657 BC, the P. belonged from that time onward to P…

Myus

(264 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (Μυοῦς; Myoûs). Small port in Ionia on the former Gulf of Latmia, now 18km from the sea at Avşar Kale. As a member of the Pan-Ionic amphiktyonía (Hdt. 1,142), it provided three ships for the naval battle of Lade in 494 BC (Hdt. 6,8). During the 5th cent. BC it was ruled by Themistocles (Thuc. 1,138), before joining the Delian League (ATL 4, Index s.v. M.); in the 3rd cent., M. lost its political independence to Mile…

Thyrgonidae

(65 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Θυργωνίδαι; Thyrgōnídai). Kṓmē in the territory of the 'constitutional' Attic deme  Aphidna, changed together with the latter from the Aiantis [1] phyle into the Ptolemaïs [10] phyle in 224/3 BC (IG II2 2362, Z. 49; Harpocr.  s. v. Θ.). Not an independent deme until the Roman period. Hsch. s.v. Θ.; EM s.v. Τιτακίδαι/ Titakídai. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 30, 88, 121 No. 41.

Hydrussa

(63 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑδροῦσσα/ Hydroûssa; also Ὑδρόεσσα/ Hydróessa, Ὑδροῦσα/ Hydroûsa, Ὕδρουσα/ Hýdrousa; ‘rich in water’). The name of numerous islands, the one in Attica was off the coast of  Aexone according to Str. 9,1,21. However, the name does not fit any of the rocky islands off the western coast of Attica. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. H., RE 9, 79 W. Kolbe, s.v. H., RE 9, 87.

Lamptrae

(294 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαμπτραί; Lamptraí). Attic deme of the phyle Erechtheis, 307/6-201/0 BC of Antigonis, that consisted of the smaller mesogeia deme of ‘upper L.’ (Λ. καθύπερθεν) with five bouleutaí and the larger coastal deme of ‘lower L.’ (Λ. ὑπένερθεν or παράλοι, ‘on the coast’), with nine bouleutaí (Harpocr. s.v. Λαμπτρεῖς; Hsch. s.v. Λαμπτρά). Upper L. comprised Lambrika, which preserves the name, with the centre of the deme near Kitsi. Important early Mycenaean acropolis of Kiapha Thiti and Mycenaean necropoleis at this location [1. 54…

Acharnae

(346 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀχαρναί; Acharnaí). Largest Attic deme, the only mesogeia trittys of the phyle Oeneis, 22 bouleutai. 60 stadia from Athens (Thuc. 2,21,2) near or south-west of Menidi. Its borders are disputed [7], as are Thuc.'s (2,19 [1; 5; 8]) records of 3,000  hoplitai -- probably an incorrect transcript of 1,000 [1; 8. 397 ff.], a number commensurate with the ‘standard relation’ of 42 full citizens per bouleutes [3. 286 f.]. Mycenaean tholos-tomb near Lykopetra south of Menidi, also a Bronze-Age settlement in Nemesis [2; 6]. In classical times, a deme o…

Alopece

(160 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀλωπεκή; Alōpekḗ). Attic   asty-deme of the phyle  Antiochis, 10-12 bouleutai [3]. 11-12 stadia ( c. 2 km) outside the city (Aeschin. In Tim. 99). Since according to Hdt. 5,63 the grave of  Anchimolus lay in A. by the heracleum of Cynosarges in  Diomea, A. bordered to the north on Diomea, and in the west on  Phalerum. Located earlier near Katsipodi or Ambelokipi [3. 53; 2; 1] (today Daphni / Hagios Dimitrios). IG II2 3683 (place where found ‘Angelokipi’ [sic!]), documents the cult of  Aphrodite, Alci. 3,37, of  Hermaphroditus, IG II2 1596(A) l. 5 a   hieromnemon

Eiresidae

(122 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Εἰρεσίδαι; Eiresídai). Attic asty deme of the phyle Acamantis. One (or two)  bouleut(ai). A plot of land owned by Plato in E. bordered on the river Cephissus to the west (Diog. Laert. 3,41), which probably formed the boundary of the demos. Therefore, E. was probably located west of the Colonus Hippios and north-west of the Platonic Academy (an epitaph from the 4th cent. BC of two dēmótai from E. was found in the north-west [1. 8 fig. 8]) between the Hodos Kephissou and the Leophoros Athenon. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. D. Stavropullos, Ἀνασκαφαὶ Ἀρχαίας Ἀ…

Melia

(148 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελία; Melía). According to Hecat. (FGrH 1 F 11, with Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.) a city in Caria, according to Vitr. De arch. 4,1,4-6 one of the ancient Ionian cities. It was destroyed by the Ionians around 700 BC, and the territory between Samos and Priene was divided up (IPriene Nr.37). Since [1. 78-167] the late Geometric/early Archaic hilltop enclosure on the Kale Tepe by Güzel Çamlı north of the Mycale (today's Samsun Dağı) is considered to be M. But it should rather be localized as the ruins on the Mycale (ibid. also the archaic Panionium? [2. 1371]) discovered in 1999. Lohmann,…

Steiria

(146 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Στειριά/ Steiriá, Στειρία/ Steiría, Στιρία/ Stiría, Στηριά/ Stēriá). Attic Paralia deme of the Pandionis phyle, three (four) bouleutaí, on the eastern coast of Attica between Prasiae and Brauron on the bay of Porto Raphti (Str. 9,1,22; modern Limen Mesogeias) to the north of the Punta peninsula [1. 68-70]. The Steiriakḗ hodós ('S. Road') connected S. with Athens (Pl. Hipparch. 229a). Steirians took part in the colonisation of Euboea [1] (Str. 10,1,6). The Phegaeans in IG II2 2362 probably formed a kṓmē ('rural community') of S. [2. 55, 57…

Phrearrhii

(111 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φρεάρριοι; Phreárrhioi). Large Attic Paralia deme of the Leontis phyle, with nine (ten) bouleutaí. The name is not derived from φρέαρ/ phréar, 'well, shaft', rather it is pre-Greek [1. 74568]. The find of a cult calendar secures its location to the north of the southern Attic Olympus [2] at modern Pheriza. In the east and south P. bordered on Anaphlystus [1. 74f.; 2]. Quarries in P.: [1. 78568]. Themistocles was from P. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Lohmann, Atene, 1993, Index s.v. P. 2 E. Vanderpool, A lex sacra of the Attic Deme P., in: Hesperia 39,…

Skolopoeis

(76 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σκολοπόεις; Skolopóeis). Place on the coast between Priene and Thebae on the River Gaeson and at the southern foot of the Mycale mountains with a sanctuary to Eleusinian Demeter (probably at modern Domatia [1. 17]), where in 479 BC the Greeks won a victory over the Persians (Hdt. 9,97; Persian Wars [1]). Border with Thebae: IPriene 361. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Th. Wiegand, Priene. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1895-1898, 1904.

Argaseis

(96 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] Deme of  Miletus, south of Milesia at the Gulf of Akbük. Name ( Argasa) of Carian origin [2. § 89-1]. Several inscriptions prove the existence of a (secular?) temenos of A. [1 no. 66-69]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Rehm, A. Harder, Didyma II. Die Inschr., 1958 2 L. Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Ortsnamen, 1984. M. Piérart, Athènes et Milet I. Tribus et dèmes Milésiens, in: MH 40, 1983, 1-18 Id., Athènes et Milet II. L'organisation du territoire, in: MH 42, 1985, 276-299 H. Lohmann, Survey in der Chora von Milet. Vorbericht über die Kampagnen der…

Echelidae

(90 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐχελίδαι; Echelídai, from ἕλος; hélos, ‘Swamp’?). Locality ( dḗmos according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Eχελíδαι; EM s.v. Ἔχελος) in Attica in the plain near the mouth of the Kephisos close to the ‘Long Wall’ leading to Phalerum, slightly north of today's Neofaliron on the territory of the Demos Xypete [2; 3. 87]. Judeich and Milchhöfer [1; 2] suspect that the hippodromos of Athens was located there. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, Top. von Athen, 21931, 456 2 A. Milchhöfer, s.v. E., RE 5, 1911 3 Traill, Attica, 50, 86f., 114 no. 10.

Aphidna

(274 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἄφιδνα, Ἀφίδναι; Áphidna, Aphídnai). Large Attic deme, sole component of the mesogeia trittys of the  Aeantis [1] phyle, then of the  Ptolemais; from AD 126/27 of the Hadrianis. 16   bouleutai . The settlement site on the Great Kotroni, already important in the mid-Helladic era (assigned by Str. 9,1,20 to the Attic dodecapolis [2. 330 ff., especially 338 no. 6]), with its own mythic tradition ( Aphidnus), is virtually unresearched. The territory of the A. deme comprised a number of settlements known to us by na…

Cholargus

(121 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Χολαργός; Cholargós). Attic asty deme ( Asty) of the Acamantis phyle; four (six) bouleutai. Its exact location is uncertain, presumably to the west or north-west of Athens, towards Phyle (Men. Dys. 33), the presumed location of the estate of Pericles, who hailed from C. (Thuc. 2,13; Plut. Pericles 3). Epitaphs for inhabitants of C. originate from Chaïdari (IG II2 7768). C. is one of those six or seven demes where the holding of  Thesmophoria is verified (IG II2 1184; LSCG no. 124); it also boasted a Pythion (ibid. l. 23), as well as a circular temenos of Heracles (IG II2 1248…

Collytus

(201 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κολλυτός, also Κολυττός; Kollytōs, Kollyttós). Attic asty deme belonging to the Aegeis phyle in the centre of Athens south of the  Areopagus and west and south of the Acropolis, the dense urban development of which apparently blended into Melite (Eratosth. in Str. 1,4,7; [1. 169; 2. 16; 3. 55; 4. 276; 6. 27f.]); provided three (four) bouleutaí. The main street, the ‘narrow’ (στενωπός) C., was used as a marketplace (Phot. 375B; [1. 180]). Reference on the decree on demes IG II2 1195 l. 6ff., see [6. 128, 140, 187, 382]. There is evidence of rural (!)  D…

Ancyle

(93 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγκυλή; Ankylḗ). Attic   asty deme (Upper and Lower A.) of the phyle  Aigeis, later of  Antigonis with two (1/1) bouleutai, located in the east or south-east of Athens (Alci. 3,43: ‘Proasteion’). A. bordered on  Agryle either in the north [1. 170] or south (IG II2 2776 Z. 57-59 [2. 70]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, Top. von Athen, 21931 2 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora, in: Hesperia 41, 1972,50-95. Traill, Attica, 7, 29, 39, 68, 69, 109 f. (no. 14, 15), 126 f. table 3, 11 Id., Demos and Trittys, 1986, 127.

Gargettus

(136 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαργηττός; Gargēttós). Attic Mesogea deme in the Aegeis phyle, after 307/6 BC in the Antigonis. It provided four (already in IG I3 1040), later seven   bouleutaí . Name pre-Greek [1. 1336]. A decree on the demes of Hagios Giorgios near Ieraka locates it in the marching order between Hymettus and Pentelicum east of Pallene and attests a Dionysus sanctuary as the mustering ground [2. 41; 3. 127]. G. was with Acharnae, Paeania and Pallene a member of the cultic federation of Athena Pallenis (Ath. 234f-235c; [4. 18546]), the hero G. was considered the father of Ion…

Conthyle

(85 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κονθύλη; Konthýlē). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle Pandionis, from 224/3 BC of Ptolemaïs; one   bouleutḗs ; the location is uncertain (Mazareïka? [2; 3. 43]). According to [1. 601ff.], C. formed the cultural association of Tricomi together with Erchia and Cytherus. Sources: Aristoph. Vesp. 233; Phot. s.v. Κοθύλη. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. J. Bicknell, Clisthène et Kytherros, in: REG 89, 1976, 599-603 2 M. Petropolakou, E. Pentazos, Ancient Greek Cities 21. Attiki, 1973, 157 no. 25 3 Traill, Attica 43, 62, 69, 111 no. 73, table 3, 13.

Panactum

(316 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Πάνακτον, Πάνακτος; Pánakton, Pánaktos). Attic border fortress on the southern edge of the Plain of Scurta near modern Prasino (once Kavasala) [2; 3; 4; 5. 224f.; 6], sometimes incorrectly identified with the Gyphtokastro (Eleutherai) in the Kaza Pass. Built before the  Peloponnesian War, in 422 BC P. fell to the Boeotians through treachery (Thuc. 5,3,5), who, in violation of a treaty, demolished it before returning it (Thuc. 5,18,7; 39,2f.;…
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