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Eumaeus

(104 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Εὔμαιος; Eúmaios). The faithful swineherd of  Odysseus (Hom. Od., esp. Bks. 14-17; 20-22); son of a king, he was abducted as a child owing to the betrayal of a Phoenician maid and was sold. Hard-working, caring, pious and unconditionally faithful to his absent master, E. represents the type of the loyal vassal. The meeting with Telemachus on E.'s farm, in accordance with Athena's directive (Hom. Od.13,404), marks the beginning of Odysseus's homecoming within Ithaca. From there E. …

Procrustes

(109 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Προκρούστης/ Prokroústēs, 'stretcher', Lat. Procrustes). Highwayman in Attica who would lie in wait for travellers and torture them to death by stretching them and hitting their limbs with a hammer (alternative name: Προκόπτης/ Prokóptēs, 'persuader'), until they fitted his enormous bed ('Procrustes' bed'). Together with Sinis and Sciron, P. represents a 'plague on the land' from which  Theseus with civilizing intentions liberates the region (Bacchyl. 18,19-30; Xen. Mem. 2,1,14; Diod. Sic. 4,59; Hyg. Fab. 38; Ov…

Meriones

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Μηριόνης; Mēriónēs). Cretan, son of Molus (Molos). As a young soldier efficient in battle and a faithful and devoted follower of Idomeneus [1], he takes part in the Trojan campaign (Hom. Il.). Together with the sons of Nestor, Antilochus and Thrasymedes, M. represents the second guard of the Greek army consisting of younger warriors. This guard performed duties suited to their age (e.g. night watch: ibid. 9,79ff.) and had to prove their worth on the battle field, mainly after the …

Lotophagi

(200 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λωτοφάγοι; Lōtophágoi, ‘lotus-eaters’). Peaceful, mythical fairytale people, living exclusively on the magical plant lotos. The country of the L. is the second stop on Odysseus' journey; their scouts give Odysseus and his companions a warm welcome and invite them in good faith to eat from the lotos. In doing so, they entirely forget their previously strong urge to return home and have to be brought back to the ship against their will (Hom. Od. 9,82-104). In its core, the L. story corresponds to a widespread fairytale motif [1]. In antiquity and modern t…

Demodocus

(382 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δημόδοκος; Dēmódokos). [German version] [1] Singer at the royal court of the Phaeaces Singer at the royal court of the  Phaeaces; as an indirect self-portrait, his slightly idealized description (Hom. Od. 8), just as that of  Phemius, constitutes an important source for the self-perception, working style and social status of the Homeric   aoidoi . D. is highly regarded in society; his name (‘whom the people receives’) is very telling and specifically explained in ‘etymological’ terms in Od. 8,472. D. presents his songs accomp…

Leiodes

(75 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ληώδης, Λειώδης; Lēṓdēs, Leiṓdēs). The son of Oenops, priest. He is one of Penelope's suitors, whom he loathes, however, keeping to himself. L. is the first suitor to try his luck in the archery contest and is then reproached by Antinous [1] for his supposedly defeatist advice (Hom. Od. 21,144ff.). When Odysseus slays the suitors, L. points out his detached relationship to the others in vain (ibid. 22,310-329). Nünlist, René (Basle)

Talthybius

(130 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ταλθύβιος; Talthýbios). Herald and follower of Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320 f.), at whose command he and Eurybates [1] unenthusiastically go and fetch from Achilles [1] the object of their dispute, Briseis (ibid. 1,327-347). T. also acts in the service of all Greeks, e.g. when he and the Trojan herald Idaeus [3a] interrupt the single combat between Ajax [1] and Hector (ibid. 7,273-312); as a general Greek herald he also appears in Euripides (Hec., Tro.), who makes the idea of the "un…

Telemachus

(472 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τηλέμαχος; Tēlémachos). Only son of Odysseus and Penelope (cf. Telegonus). As often, the name of the son ('far fighter') reflects a characteristic of the father [1]. T. is portrayed in the Odyssey as well brought-up but uncertain and lacking initiative. He watches the activities of Penelope's suitors without feeling able to do anything about them, until Athena, in the guise of Mentes [2], encourages him to a more self-assertive demeanour (Hom. Od. 1,269-305). He summons the first …

Laertes

(236 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαέρτης; Laértēs). Son of Arcesius and of Chalcomedusa, husband of Anticlea, father of Odysseus (cf. the latter's patronymic, Laertiádēs, ‘son of L.’); in his various depictions, the last is the most important function of L., who has little significance of his own. The image of him in the ‘Odyssey’ is the formative one it has shaped all later representations. Before the beginning of the Trojan War, for reasons of age, L. passes his power to Odysseus. Even when Odysseus does return to assume the th…

Socus

(83 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Σῶκος; Sôkos). Trojan, son of Hippasus [2], challenges Odysseus to battle to avenge the death of his brother Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,430-433: one of the rare direct speeches by a 'minor' combatant). He wounds Odysseus so badly that he has to leave the battle field, but not before killing the fleeing S. and directing a sneering speech of triumph to him (ibid. 11,434-458). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 2, 1988, s. v. S., 1001-1004.

Clonius

(93 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κλονίος; Kloníos). [German version] [1] Commander of the Boeotian contingent at Troy commanded, with four other leaders, the Boeotian contingent at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,495); died in a sea battle at the hand of  Agenor [5] (ibid. 15,340). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Companion of Aeneas Aeneas [1] had with him two Clonii, who fell in battle against Turnus and Messapus respectively (Verg. Aen. 9,574; 10,749). One of Aeneas' companions with the name of Clonius is said to have founded the gens Cloelia (Paul. Fest. 48,16 L.). Nünlist, René (Basle)

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him. Odysseus silences him by attacking him verbally and physically, …

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, Andreas (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Chryse and Dardanus Son of Chryse and  Dardanus [1] with whom he emigrates from Arcadia across Samothrace to the  Ida mountains [2], which are said to be named af…

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (῾Ρῆσος/ Rhêsos, Latin Rhesus). King of Thrace, son of Eïoneus (Hom. Il. 10,138) or of the river god Strymon ([Eur.] Rhes. 279). R. and his snow-white horse appear only in the tenth year of the war as an ally of the Trojans and dies on the first night, without having played any part in battle. Caught on his nightly tour of reconnoissance, Dolon has betrayed R. and his men. Diomedes kills the men in their sleep, as R. has foreseen in a nightmare, and Odysseus makes off with the horses…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Cedalium

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κηδαλίων, κήδαλον, Kēdalíōn, kḗdalon, which probably describes a tool: ‘poker’?). Comes from the island of Naxos, initiates  Hephaestus into the blacksmith's craft at the request of his mother  Hera (schol. Hom. Il. 14,296). On Lemnos, Hephaestus makes C. the leader of blinded  Orion. Sitting on his shoulders, C. leads Orion towards the sun, through whose rays Orion is healed of his blindness (Hes. fr. 148a M-W; Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Apollod. 1,4,3). Scarcely more than the title is known of Sophocles' satyr play ‘C.. (TrGF IV fr. 328-333). Nünlist, René (Basl…

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down just so (Aesch. Sept. 423ff.). According to Stesichorus (fr. 194 PMG),  Ascl…

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοίρανος; Koíranos). [German version] [1] Descendant of Melampus Belongs to the family tree of  Melampus (Hes. Cat. 136,3), but his exact position therein is not certain; father of the seer  Poly(e)idus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 112; Paus. 1,43,5). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Charioteer of Meriones Charioteer for  Meriones; he saves  Idomeneus' [1] life by bringing a chariot to him at exactly the right moment, so that he instead of Idomeneus is hit by  Hector's spear (Hom. Il. 17,611-614). The motif of ‘substitution death’ is typical of Homer's epics [1]. Nünlist, René (Bas…

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…

Sisyphus

(349 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Σίσυφος; Sísyphos). Mythical fraudster and penitent in the Underworld. Son of Aeolus [1], father of Glaucus [2], grandfather of Bellerophon, founder and king of Corinth (Corinthus), legendary and proverbial fraudster, who as a punishment in the Underworld has to roll a rock up a mountain, but every time just before reaching the summit it rolls back down into the valley (Hom. Od. 11,593-600). S. earns the punishment by conquering death (i.e. abandoning the boundaries placed on huma…

Teichoscopy

(119 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (τειχοσκοπία/ teichoskopía, ‘viewing from the walls’). Term, coined already in Antiquity (Schol. Eur. Phoen. 88), for the scene in the Iliad in which Helen (Helena [I 1]) identifies for Priamus the most important leaders of the Greek army (Agamemnon, Odysseus, Menelaus, Ajax [1], Idomeneus [1]) from the Trojan walls (Hom. Il. 3,161-244, imitated e.g. by Eur. Phoen. 88-192). The Homeric narrator has Helen observe an event happening elsewhere at the same time and present it verbally toPriam (and hence …

Hekatoncheires

(196 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἑκατόγχειρες, centimani = ‘hundred-handed’). Briareus (also called Aegaeon: Hom. Il. 1,403f.), Cottus and Gy(g)es (for the name forms see [1]) are powerful monsters (hundred arms, fifty heads: Hes. Theog. 147ff.), offspring of  Uranus and  Gaia. They were chained by their father and thrown into Tartarus (617ff.). Zeus frees them and, on account of their hundred arms, makes them allies in the battle with the  Titans (626ff.). The belief that the H. later guarded the defeated Titans…

Irus

(117 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἶρος; Îros). [German version] [1] Son of Actor Son of Actor from Opus, father of the Argonaut Eurytion, whom  Peleus accidentally killed during a hunt (Pind. Fr. 48). I. refused the sheep and cattle offered as atonement (Antoninus Liberalis 38). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Derisive nickname for the beggar Arnaeus Derisive nickname (secondary masculine form of the name of the messenger to the gods  Iris: ‘Mr Iris’) for the beggar Arnaeus, because he ran errands for everyone (Hom. Od. 18,6f.). Greedy, presumptuous, but at the same t…

Tereus

(121 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τηρεύς; Tēreús). Mythical king from Thrace. By marrying Procne he allies himself with the Attic king Pandion [1], whose other daughter Philomele he rapes. In order that she should not be able to denounce him, T. cuts out her tongue. She depicts the crime on a loom, however. Procne avenges herself on her husband by cruelly killing their son Itys. When T. in turn wants to take revenge all three transform themselves into birds, T. into a hoopoe, the sisters into a swallow and a nightingale (Apollod. 3,193-195; Ov. Met. 6,424-674). Sophocles wrote a (largely lost) Tēreús (fr. 5…

Pheme

(83 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φήμη/ Phḗmē; Latin Fama ). Goddess or personification of public speech, rumour and (helpful or malicious) gossip (Hes. Op. 760-764; Bacchyl. 2,1; 10,1). Aeschines (Aeschin. In Tim. 128 with schol.; Aeschin. Leg. 144f.; cf. Paus. 1,17,1) mentions an altar of P. (built after the Battle on the Eurymedon [5]), making the distinction that P. appeared in person, while Diabolḗ ('Calumny') could be traced to individual people. However, Ach. Tat. (6,10,4-5) makes P. the daughter of Diabole. Nünlist, René (Basle)

Hector

(755 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕκτωρ/ Héktōr; Lat. Hector). Son of the Trojan royal couple  Priamus and  Hecabe, husband of  Andromache and father of  Astyanax. As the strongest fighter of Priamus' sons, H. (and not Paris, who is to blame for the war) is responsible for the defence of the besieged city in The Iliad. He is most successful on the third day of battle: after Agamemnon's wounding (Hom. Il. 11,200ff.), H. breaks through the Achaean wall (12,445ff.), and - despite a set-back (14,409ff.) - he pushes them back to their ships and sets one of them on f…

Philoetius

(86 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Φιλοίτιος; Philoítios). Odysseus’ cowherd (Hom. Od. 20-22); like the swineherd Eumaeus he epitomizes the loyal retainer. After Odysseus has revealed his identity to them and has assured himself of their loyalty, the two of them, who are largely cast in the same mould [1], assist him in killing the suitors. In doing so, the two of them take their revenge on their counterpart, the disloyal goatherd Melanthius [1]. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography 1 B. Fenik, Studies in the Odyssey (Hermes ES 30), 1974, 172-173.

Stentor

(108 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Στέντωρ/ Sténtōr, aptonym: 'roarer' [1]). Greek warrior at Troy, whose powerful voice is equivalent to those of 50 men. In his guise Hera gives the Greeks a dressing-down (Hom. Il. 5,784-792). S. himself does not appear anywhere. This 'lacuna' was increased in ancient exegesis by scholarly speculations (Schol. AbT Hom. Il. 5,785): he had to lose his life because he had challenged Hermes to a competition in shouting (for the motif cf. Thamyris), and is the inventor of the war trump…

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost the life of the Trojan ally, the Thracian King Rhesus (Hom. Il. 10, so-called Doloneia, probably post- Iliad [1]; [Eur.] Rhes.). By contrast with this portrait of D. ─ for the Stoa he was the archetypical…

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Thrinacie

(95 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θρινακίη; Thrinakíē). Mythical island, near Scylla [1] and Charybdis (Hom. Od. 12,260f.), on which the daughters of the sun god Helios (Sol) mind his sacred oxen. In vain Teiresias and Circe warn Odysseus that his and his companions' fate depends on the oxen's being unharmed (ibid. 11,110-112; 12,137-139): when Odysseus falls asleep, his starving companions, instigated by Eurylochus [1], slaughter the animals (ibid. 12,260-402), and all therefore later die, while Odysseus alone su…

Leocritus

(98 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ληόκριτος, Λειώκριτος; Lēókritos, Leiṓkritos). [German version] [1] Greek participant of the Trojan War Son of Arisbas, participates in the Trojan War on the Greek side and is killed by Aeneas [1] (Hom. Il. 17,344). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Suitor of Penelope A suitor of Penelope. He opposes Mentor, who speaks for Telemachus, in the public assembly, sarcastically approves his travel plans and doubts that the return of Odysseus would constitute a danger to the suitors (Hom. Od. 2,242ff.). He is killed by Telemachus during the slaying of the suitors (ibid. 22,294). Nünl…

Eris

(238 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἔρις; Éris). Personification of (often warlike) strife, Latin  Discordia; in allegorical genealogy interpreted as sister of  Ares (Hom. Il. 4,441) or as daughter of  Nyx (Hes. Theog. 224ff., together with other negative ‘abstracta’). In the Iliad, E. (alone or in association with Ares and other personifications) triggers the fighting (Hom. Il. 11,3ff.; 4,439ff.). The post-Homeric Cypria make E. the person actually responsible for the Trojan War due to her instigating the judgement of Paris at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis (Cypria …

Iphianassa

(163 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἰφιάνασσα; Iphiánassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea Daughter of  Proetus and  Stheneboea (Hes. fr. 129,16-24 M-W), cursed together with her sisters Lysippe and Iphinoe with madness owing to disrespect to the cult of Dionysus (Hes. fr. 131 M-W) or slander of Hera (Bacchyl. 11,40ff.). Finally, by sacrificing to Artemis Proteus makes her change Hera's mind. According to another version (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 114; Hdt. 9,34), the seer  Melampus heals the daughters after haggling fo…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fairy-tale-like people of man-eating giants, who raise cattle but do not engage in agriculture (cf. Cyclopes). In the course of his wanderings, Odysseus lands in their country, where the sun never sets. After an initial friendly greeting of his scouts by the king's daughter, the mood shifts when they catch sight of the giant queen. The king, summoned by his wife, devours one of the Greeks, and the rest of the L. destroy the entire fleet.…

Thamyris

(160 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θάμυρις/ Thámyris, also Θαμύρας/ Thamýras). Mythical singer from Thrace (cf. Orpheus), who in human overestimation of himself challenges the Muses to compete with him and, naturally, loses (for the motif, cf. Marsyas [1], Niobe, Capaneus). As a punishment they take his gift of song away (again) and maim him (Hom. Il. 2,594-600, without further specifying this; Hes. Cat. 65 speaks of blinding). The same subject was probably dealt with by Sophocles in his tragedy Thamyris (TrGF 4 F 236-245), in which the poet himself appeared as an actor (Soph. Test. Ha …

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name. One is mentioned in Hdt. 1,149; it was one of the eleven Aeolian cities, and, according to [1. 216f.], was not located in the Troad. The other is mentioned in the ‘Iliad’ (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) and was supposedly located near Chryse and Thebe -- probably north-west of the bay of Adramytteum; an exact localization has not been possible as yet. Different from that was perhaps…

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē). Maid in the house of  Celeus, where  Demeter, mourning her abducted daughter Persephone, accepts nothing but a simple chair, which I. offers to her (H. Hom. 2,192-197; reverse ritual related to thrónōsis, placing the initiant on a foot stool [1]). I. makes Demeter laugh with her cheeky jokes and provocative insults, thus improving her mood (H. Hom. 2,202-204, cf. SH 680,51ff.). This reflects the cultic practice of aischrologia (ritual insult). Evidently, there is a connection between the mythical figure of I. and the literary genre …

Cebriones

(89 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κεβριόνης; Kebriónēs). Bastard son of  Priamus, half-brother of  Hector, who makes him his chariot driver after Archeptolemus' death (Hom. Il. 8,318f.). C. participates in the storming of the Greeks' ship camp; the chariot is entrusted to a weaker fighter for this time period (ibid. 12,91ff.). Finally, Patroclus kills C. with the throw of a stone and ridicules him as he falls from the chariot by comparing him with a diver (ibid. 16,737-750). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, Vol. 1, 1988, 677-679.

Tithonus

(219 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Τιθωνός; Tithōnós). Member of the Trojan royal family, grandson of Ilus [1], son of Laomedon [1] and hence a brother of Priamus. Eos, the  goddess of dawn, abducted the extremely attractive T. and makes him her lover (cf. Cephalus [1], Cleitus [1], Orion [1]). According to the Homeric formula Eos brings light in the morning, by rising from "T.' bed" (Hom. Il. 11,1 et passim). The result of their union is the Aethiopian king Memnon [1]. Eos asks Zeus for immortality for T., but neg…

Sirens

(706 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σειρῆνες/ Seirḗnes; Latin Sirenes, Sirenae). [German version] I. Mythology Mythical female creatures who sing seductively Sirens are mythical beings (in Greek myth female) in ancient sailors' tales (the earliest evidence - admittedly without context - extends back to the Mycenaean period [1]). Their seductive song makes sailors forget their home  (cf. Lotophagi) and perish. Instructed by Circe, Odysseus outwits the Sirens: he stops the ears of his companions with wax and has himself tied to the mast with inst…

Tydeus

(361 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τυδεύς; Tydeús). [German version] [1] Son of Oeneus and Periboea Son of Oeneus and Periboea [6]. He has to leave his home after killing one of his relatives (for his motive: [1. 175]). In Argos, Adrastus [1] gives him his daughter Deipyle in marriage. In the siege of Troy, their son Diomedes [1] fights hard to match the achievements of his father in every way. As one of the Seven against Thebes, T. is part of an embassy to the city and emerges victorious from a series of contests with the Thebans. On his…

Scheria

(167 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Σχερίη; Scheríē). Land of the Phaeaces, last stop on Odysseus's wanderings. As with almost all these stops, brains have been racked over the location of S. since Antiquity. Among the numerous proposed solutions Corcyra [1] (Corfu) appears at a very early stage (Alc. fr. 441 Voigt: [1. 19]) and most frequently [2. 294]. Similarly, for the ship of the Phaeaces, turned to stone on the return from Ithaca (Hom. Od. 13,161-164), several rock formations off Corfu are plausible. All of th…

Cresphontes

(111 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κρεσφόντης). [German version] [1] Heraclidus Heraclidus ( Heraclidae), husband of  Merope. In the lottery for the Peloponnese, C. uses a trick to gain Messenia. After a short reign, he falls victim to a revolt. His only surviving son,  Aepytus [4], avenges him (on the motif:  Orestes) and secures the paternal throne for himself (Paus. 4,3,3-8; 8,5,6-7). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Cresphontes [1] Son of [1] in Euripides' tragedy of the same name, in which C.'s mother almost kills him by mistake while avenging the murder of his father. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliogr…

Hekaergos

(46 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἑκάεργος; Hekáergos). Epithet of  Apollo and  Artemis ( Hekaerge), mostly interpreted as *έκα (cf. ἑκών) + έργον, ‘working of his own free will’, connected by the poets, however, with ἑκάς, ἕκαθεν: ‘working from afar’. Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography W. Beck, s.v. H., LFE 2, 493-494.

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Ctimene

(107 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κτιμένη, Ktiménē). [German version] [1] Odysseus' youngest sister  Odysseus' youngest (or younger [1]) sister. She was brought up together with  Eumaeus and sent to Same to be married (Hom. Od. 15,363ff.: only place tò mention siblings of Odysseus). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Daughter of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Daughter of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë; C. is said to have been seduced by  Hesiod and to have given birth to  Stesichorus, which caused her brothers Amphiphanes and  Ganyctor [2] to kill Hesiod in revenge (Vita Hesiodi p. 50 Wilam.). Nünlist, René (B…

Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…
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