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Adolius

(77 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Silentiarius at the court of Justinian I, Armenian, son of the proconsul of Armenia I Arsacius, who was murdered in AD 539. Participant in campaigns against the Persians, in 542 under  Belisarius, whom he supported through tactical manoeuvres at the conquest of Callinicus on the Euphrates, in 543 under Martinus, after whose defeat at Anglon in Armenia he was killed while fleeing (Proc. Pers. 2,3; 21; 24 f.). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography Rubin 1, 340-43.

Logothetes

(254 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (λογοθέτης; logothétēs). Byzantine term for an office attested from the 6th cent. AD, initially for more lowly finance officers (tax collectors in the province or pay administrators in the army), and from the 7th/8th cents. for the following high offices: 1) logothetes genikoú (‘general logothetes’, i.e. logothetes of the state treasury), initially still subordinate to the sakellários but soon the highest finance officer in the empire corresponding to the earlier comes sacrarum largitionum ( comes ), 2) logothetes idikoú, successor of the comes rerum privatarum, …

Zoe

(232 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ζωή; Zōḗ). Empress regnant of Byzantium 21 March - 12 June AD 1042 (born 978), as the daughter of Constantinus [10] VIII (1025-1028) a descendant of the Macedonian dynasty, therefore she also legitimated the emperorship of her three husbands [2; 4]. She was presumably the bride from Byzantium intended for Otto III who did not arrive in Italy until shortly after his death on 24 January 1002. By having her first husband Romanos [4] III, imposed on her by her dying father in 1028, mu…

Sabbatius

(32 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σαββάτιος/ Sabbátios). Father of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, Illyrian, mentioned only in passing in Procop. Arc. 12,18 and Theophanes p. 183,9 de Boor. PLRE 2, 966. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Nika revolt

(264 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Revolt against Iustinianus [1] I in Constantinople, AD 13-18. 1. 532, named after the cry of níka (νίκα, ‘be victorious!’) of the rebels in the Hippodrome. The outward reason was the decisive action of the city prefect Eudaemon against rampaging members of the so-called circus parties (‘green’ and ‘blue’, factiones ), the real cause, however, was the strict rule of the emperor, particularly his fiscalism occasioned by expensive war campaigns. The growing unrest among the citizens, further stirred up by oppositi…

Autokrator

(333 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Αὐτοκράτωρ; Autokrátōr). [German version] A. Greek The meaning ‘exercising control over oneself’ expresses the opposite of subjugation to the will of another. The Thebans used this argument to claim that their support of the Persians in 480 was attributable to a ruling   dynasteia , not to the whole city, which acted as its own autocrator (Thuc. 3,62,3-4). Envoys and officials are often described as autokratores when entitled to more power than is usual in these positions. This background is evident, for example, when the Athenians declare the leaders of th…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient Court titles (CT) and court ranks in antiquity, used for the description and creation of personal proximity of members of courtly society to the  ruler or to the hierarchical rank classification of the upper class involved in administration, are a consequence of the emergence of territorial monarchies from the time of Alexander [4] the Great and the resulting organization of  courts as centres of political rule. The question of ancient Oriental antec…

Artabasdus

(58 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Artavasděs, AD 742-743). Armenian, brother-in-law of the emperor of Byzantium, Constantine V, who began his rule on 19 June 741. A. revolted against him some time later, supposedly as the defender of image-worship. He was defeated by Constantine in November 743 and overthrown. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 1, 192 I. Rochow, Kaiser Konstantin V., 1994.

Photius

(775 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
(Φώτιος/ Phṓtios). [German version] [1] Byzantine high-ranking military officer Stepson of Belisarius, son of his wife Antonina from an earlier marriage, born around AD 520, died AD 578/585. After AD 535, he accompanied Belisarius on campaigns in Italy, and after AD 541 in Persia . In a novelistic passage from the Historia arcana (1,31-35; 2,1-17; 3,2-5; 3,12f.; 3,21-29) Procopius relates that P. was incarcerated by the empress Theodora on Antonina’s orders because P. tried to thwart her affair with Theodosius, an adoptive son of her husband. How…

Praepositus

(216 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A term used during the Roman Imperial Period and in Late Antiquity to refer to leadership functions in a variety of areas of public service [3], in the 4th-6th cents. AD in the expanded form praepositus sacri cubiculi (Greek praipósitos toû eusebestátou koitônos) to refer to the court position of imperial high chamberlain, which was reserved for eunuchs, under whom the chamberlains (see Cubicularius) served. The office of praepositus is first attested under Constantius [2] II for Eusebius [3]. As a confidant of the emperor, the praepositus often played a key role …

Ceremony

(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…

Vindex

(448 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Guarantor in Roman procedural law A vindex, (probably with the same etymology as vindicta ) was a guarantor in Roman procedural law. He played a role in two parts of the trial--in the summoning and in the execution, each time in the context of the manus iniectio (the physical bringing forward of the defendant). According to the Twelve Tables (tab. 1,1; tabulae duodecim ), the latter was permitted when the defendant did not voluntarily follow the order of the plaintiff to appear in front of the court magistrate ( vocatio in ius ). The defendant co…

Sabinianus

(321 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the Carthaginians Was proclaimed emperor in AD 240 by the inhabitants of Carthage, but was shortly after defeated by the governor of Mauretania and delivered to Gordianus [3] III by his own followers (Zos. 1,17,1; SHA Gord. 23,4). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 1, 197. [German version] [2] see Vettius Sabinianus See Vettius Sabinianus. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Magister equitum per Orientem, 359-360 AD At a gre…

Dux

(741 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] The term dux, which had already appeared in the Republican period with the general meaning of ‘a leader in a military action or of a troop of soldiers’ (cf. e.g. Cic. Dom. 12: seditionis duces), was in the 2nd cent. AD occasionally used in a semi-official way as the title for the commander of a milit…

Protobestiarios

(28 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοβεστιάριος/ prōtobestiários, Latin protovestiarius). Overseer of the Byzantine emperor's wardrobe, 5th-15th centuries, eunuch office second to the parakoimṓmenos . ODB 3, 1749. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Euphemia

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] E. Aelia Marciana Wife of the emperor Anthemius, AD 467 elevated to Augusta Only daughter of the emperor Marcianus, married Anthemius [2] in c. AD 453 who was later emperor in the west and had four sons and a daughter with him. In 467 she was elevated to Augusta. Her fate after the execution of her husband in 472 is unknown. …

Varangians

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βάραγγοι/ Bárangoi). Scandinavians who from about the early 10th cent. AD arrived in Byzantium by way of the territory of the Kievan Rus (hence also often described as Ῥώς/ Rṓs or Tauroscythae), from the 11th cent. also Anglo-Saxons who served in the Byzantine army (in which they were considered particularly trustworthy), but primarily in the Imperial Guard. Their characteristic weapon was the battle-axe, which earned them the nickname 'axe-bearers' (πελεκυφόροι/ pelekyphóroi). T…

Mauricius

(425 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μαυρίκιος; Mauríkios). Flavius M. Tiberius, East Roman emperor (A.D. 582-602), born in 539 in Arabissus (Cappadocia), died on 27th Nov. 602 in Calchedon. M. replaced the caesar and later emperor Tiberius II in 574 as chief of the guard and was given the command in 577 as magister militum per Orientem to continue the Persian war.…

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hi…

Timostratus

(210 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Τιμόστρατος/ Timóstratos). [German version] [1] Tragic poet, 4th cent. BC Greek tragedian, successful at the Lenaea in c. 350 BC (TrGF I 83). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Athenian comedy writer, beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Athenian comedian, who came sixth at the Dionysia in 188 BC with his Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed [prisoner]') [1. test. 1] and fourth in 183 with his Φιλοικεῖος ( Philoikeîos, 'He who loves his relatives') [1. test. 2]; a third place in c. 177 with an Ἀντευεργετῶν ( Anteuergetṓn, 'He who repays good deeds') is uncertain [1…

Iustinus

(1,495 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] I. I Eastern Roman general AD 518-527 (AD 518-527), emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, born a farmer's son around 450 in Bederiana (like  Iustinianus [1] I.), he came to Constantinople with  Leo I and was soon a member of the palace guard; under  Anastasius I he was comes rei militaris and from 515 comes excubitorum. In the dispute over the succession to Anastasius, who died without an heir, a majority in the Senate supported his candidacy and eventually he was also acclaimed by the army and the people, and was crowned on 10 July 518 by the patriarch. In contrast to his predece…

Heraclonas

(74 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Ἡρακλωνᾶς; Hēraklōnâs). Son of the emperor  Heraclius [7] and his second wife Martina, born c. AD 626. After his father's death in 641, he was to assume …

Traianus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Trajan, Roman Emperor, AD 98-117 Roman emperor, AD 98-117. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] I. Career up to accession T. was pro…

Strategos

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(στρατηγός/ stratēgós, 'army leader'; pl. strategoi). In many Greek states the formal title for a military commander. [German version] I. Classica…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he f…

Protonotarios

(46 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτονοτάριος, Latin protonotarius). Superintendent of notarii (Greek notárioi) in Byzantine public authorities, primarily as 'state secretary' of the logothétēs toû drómou ( Logothétēs ), 9th-12th centuries. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography R. Guilland, Les logothètes, in: REByz 29, 1971, 5-115, esp. 38-40 ODB 3, 1746.

Kouropalates

(73 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (κουροπαλάτης; kouropalátēs; from Lat. cura palatii). Initially a term for an official responsible for palace business, used for the first time by Justinianus [1] I as a higher court title for his successor Iustinus [4] II. In the period following it was mainly reserved for members of the imperial family or for foreign princes. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 2,1157 R. Guilland, Titres et fonctions de l'Empire byzantin, 1976, III.

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …

Katholikos

(66 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (καθολικός; katholikós). In the early 4th cent. AD the designation of a financial supervisor in an imperial diocese, later used only in the ecclesiastical sense: in the Byzantine world, used of an abbot in charge of several monasteries, in the Christian East used of bishops and above all for ecclesiastical leaders of whole countries (Armenia, Georgia). ODB 2, 1116. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Gloriosus

(52 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (and gloriosissimus). Unofficial epithet of the Roman emperor and of high officials in correspondence and in the intitulatio of laws, having the same meaning as the official inclitus, Greek éndoxos (ἔνδοξος), a result of translating the Greek word back into Latin. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography G. Rösch, Ὄνομα βασιλείας, 1978.

Staurakios

(121 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Byzantine emperor, 9th cent. Byzantine emperor (AD 811), son of Nikephoros [2] I, seriously wounded in the battle against the Bulgarian Khan Krum, in which his father fell. After a short period of recognition as successor to the throne, he was succeeded by Michael [3] I. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. A. Hollingsworth, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1945 f. [German version] [2] Eunuch, 8th cent. AD Eunuch in the rank of a πατρίκιος/ patríkios (Patrikios), from AD 781 λογοθέτης τοῦ δρόμου/ logothétēs toû drómou (Logothetes), victorious over the Slavs in Greece i…

Hetairia

(601 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(ἑταιρία/ hetairía, also ἑταιρεία/ hetaireía). [German version] [1] In Crete a sub-category of citizenry In Crete a sub-category of citizenry, with communal meals ( andreia or syssitia: Aristot. Pol. 1272a 12ff.; Ath. 4,143a-b = Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2) and a common cult of Zeus Hetaireîos (Hsch. s.v. ἑταιρεῖος/ hetaireîos), but neither an association of family members nor part of a phyle, as was the hetairia in Thera or Cyrene (ML 5, l. 16). Acceptance into the hetairia took place after those fit for military service had left the   agélai and it was a prerequisit…

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Scholasticus

(151 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(σχολαστικός/ scholastikós). [German version] [1] Advocate in Late Antiquity In Roman procedural law of Late Antiquity a scholasticus (literally: someone 'schooled') is the advocate of a party, a late successor to the causidicus , with a certain amount of knowledge of formal rhetoric and law. Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 563. [German version] [2] Palace official in Constantinople, from 422 (in Latin sources Scholasticus or Scholasticius), a palace official in Constantinople, first recorded i…

Indictio

(389 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Originally ‘levy, tax’ (Dig. 19,1,13,6; Cod. Just. 1,51,11 and 12,52,3), from the 4th cent. AD also a term in chronology and from the 6th cent. solely used as a term in chronology. In the Imperial period Indictiones temporariae were extraordinary duties on grain. In 287 emperor  Diocletianus introduced an annual tax census that in each case involved a five-year assessment. It was initially called ἐπιγραφή ( epigraphḗ), and after 297 also indictio (ἰνδικτίων, indiktíōn). A 15-year tax cycle was introduced in 314, retroactively effective as of September…

Longinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
Roman cognomen (greek Λογγῖνος; Longînos), derived from longus (‘tall’), in the Republican period in the family of the Cassii (Cassius [I 6-17; II 14-16]), in the Imperial period attested in numerous other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] Cassius Longinus Grammarian, Rhetor and platonic philosopher, c. AD 210-272/3 [German version] A. Life A Greek grammarian, rhetor and Platonic philosopher ( c. AD 210-272/3), who was an outstanding representative of the education and culture of his time and was therefore called a ‘living library and walking u…

Philippicus Bardanes

(113 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης/ Philippikòs Bardánēs). Byzantine emperor (November AD 711 -June 713). Of an Armenian family at Constantinople (hence his Armenian name Bardanes), d. at Constantinople in 714/5. While participating in an expedition against Cherson, he was proclaimed emperor there under the Greek name P.B. as a rival to Iustinianus [3] II, who, while attempting to stall him on his way to Constantinople, was killed. As an adherent to Monotheletism, P.B. revoked the rulings of the 680/1 Council of Co…

Verina

(174 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Aelia V., Greek Βηρίνη/ Bērínē). Eastern Roman empress, wife of Leo [4] I, died AD 484. After the death of her husband in 474 she initially favoured rule by the Isaurian Zeno [18], the husband of her daughter Ariadne and the father of her grandson Leo [5] II, but for a time in 475 she supported the rebellion of her brother Basiliscus against Zeno. In 478 she and Epinicus [2] tried to overthrow the powerful magister officiorum Illus; but he anticipated it and banished her to Tarsus. He was able to win her over in 484, however, to suppor…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…

Patrikios

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πατρίκιος/ patríkios, from Lat. patricius). From the time of Constantine [1] I until about the 11th cent., a court title (court titles) in the Roman-Byzantine empire for high officials and officers. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 6, 1789-1791  ODB 3, 1600  W. Heil, Der konstantinische Patriziat, 1966.

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Amorian dynasty

(247 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Sovereign family, ruled the Byzantine Empire for three generations (AD 820-867). Its founder Michael II (820-829) from Amorion in Phrygia asserted himself in 823 against the usurper Thomas the Slav. His son Theopilus (829-842) was the last of the iconoclast emperors (opponents of religious cult images). During his rulership the Arabs achieved a significant success in 838 by taking the fortress Amorion. Under his widow Theodora, who first ruled for her son Michael III (842-867, bor…

Skeuophylax

(49 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σκευοφύλαξ; skeuophýlax). Clerical post in the Byzantine Church, responsible for liturgical equipment, sanctuaries and ecclesiastical ceremonies, associated with the headship of an office and highly prestigious. At major churches such as Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Magdalino, A. M. Talbot, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1909f.

Circus factions

(202 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Latin factiones; Greek μέρη/ mérē or, less succinctly, δῆμοι/ dêmoi; see Demos [2] C.). Modern term for the associations or clubs that from the Roman Imperial Period onwards, initially in Rome itself and later also in other cities of the Empire, organised chariot races in hippodromes ( Hippódromos [1]). They were grouped - distinguished from one another by the colours white, red, blue and green - around successful charioteers and in Late Antiquity, primarily in the East of the Roman Empire, occasionally exhibited a clear political orientation (Nika Revolt; Factiones

Nomophylakes

(473 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(νομοφύλακες / nomophýlakes, ‘guardians of the law’) [German version] I. Classical Period In the Classical Period, nomophýlakes were officials responsible for ensuring compliance with the laws ( nómoi). In Athens, the Areopagus (Areios Pagos) was said to have performed the function of the nomophylakía  until the reforms of Ephialtes [2] (462 BC) ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 3,6; [4,4]; 8,4; 25,2). According to one version in a fragment of Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 64), Ephialtes appointed a college of seven nomophýlakes, who also held some religious offices, but it is more likely…

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Demos

(1,287 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(δῆμος; dêmos). [German version] [1] The entire citizenry Demos, meaning ‘people’, could refer to either the entire citizenry of a community or only the ‘common people’ as distinct from its more privileged members. As an extension of the first meaning it also served to designate the popular assembly, so that political decisions in many states were seen as being ‘issued by the council and the people’ (ἔδοξεν τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ). Adjectives such as dēmotikós and the description of a democratic leader as προστάτης τοῦ δήμου (‘champion of the people’; e.g. in Thuc. 3,82,…

Sacellarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (σακελλάριος/ sakellários). From the 5th cent. AD, a chamberlain at the Roman-Byzantine imperial court (Court D), from the 8th-12th cents. the senior custodian of the state finances (last reference 1196), from 1094 sometimes called mégas logariastḗs . Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography P. Schreiner, s.v. Finanzwesen, -verwaltung (A. I.f.), LMA 4, 456  P. Magdalino, s.v. Sacellarius, ODB 3, 1828 f.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…

Martinus

(909 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Tours, AD 316/7-397 Bishop of Tours (Caesarodunum (Turonum)), Christian monk and miracle worker ( Miracles; Miracle workers , born in 316/7 in Sabaria/ Pannonia; died on 8 November 397 in Candes/Loire. According to Sulpicius Severus' Vita Martini (composed in 396/7, complemented by 3 letters and 2 (3) dialogues), M. was the son of a Roman tribune and performed his military service under the emperors Constantius [2] II and Iulianus [11] Apostata. During this time he converted to Christianity (‘Sharing of t…

Theodora

(850 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοδώρα; Theodṓra). [German version] [1] Roman empress, about AD 300 Roman empress; stepdaughter (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,25; Eutr. 9,22,1) or daughter (Anon. Vales. 1,1; Philostorgius 2,16) of Maximianus [1]. Contrary to the assertions of later sources, she was already married to Constantius [1] even before he was elevated to the rank of Caesar in AD 293  ( tetrárchēs IV.), and probably when he was praefectus praetorio to Maximianus (unclear Paneg. 2,11,4). The six children of their marriage represent the younger branch of the Constantinian imperial fam…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Procopius

(2,667 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Προκόπιος/ Prokópios). [German version] [1] Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper, AD 365-366 Usurper in AD 365-366. He was born in 326 in Corycus (Them. Or. 7,86c; cf. Amm. Marc. 26,9,11) and was a relative of the emperor Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 23,3,2). In 358 he was a delegate to Persia with the rank of a tribunus (Amm. Marc. 17,14,3), later he held a high position at the schola notariorum (Amm. Marc. 26,6,1). During Julian’s Persian campaign, he commanded a division as a comes (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5). After Julian's death (363) he retired to private life (Zos.…

Vitalianus

(170 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Flavius V., Byzantine army leader, who rebelled in AD 513 because of the lack of supplies for his troops, but also because, as a supporter of the Christology of the Synod of Calchedon (Synodos II. D.4.), he was opposed to the monophysite emperor Anastasius [1] I (Monophysitism). When in 514 V. had brought under his control Anastasius' nephew Hypatius [4], who had been sent against him with an army, he consented to free him for a large ransom and, in return for being appointed magister militum per Thracias and the emperor's backing down on the question of belief, to…

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…

Irene

(139 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). Byzantine empress (AD 797-802; born in Athens c. 752, died on Lesbos in 803), from 768 wife of  Leon IV; after his death in 780 regent for her underage son  Constantinus [8] VI. The Council of Nicaea in 787, convened at her instigation and conducted by Tarasius, the patriarch of her choice, arrived at a moderate reconciliation of the Byzantine image controversy ( Syrian dynasty) in favour of the cult of images. In 790 her son forced her to hand over power, but was deposed…

Mundo

(133 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (so named in Marcellinus Comes) or Μοῦνδος ( Moûndos; Greek sources). Eastern Roman general, born the son of a king (Giesmus?) of the Gepidae before AD 488, died in 536, probably not identical with the Hun M. (PLRE 2, 767f.). Initially he served the Ostrogoth king Theoderic the Great until his death (in 526). In 529 he was appointed magister militum per Illyricum by the Emperor Justinian [1] I. Magister militum per Orientem in 531, he returned to his earlier position in 532. In the Nika Revolt (January 532) he and Belisarius successfully defended Justin…

Solomon

(684 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[1] Son of King David [German version] I. Old Testament S. (Hebrew Šelomō, literally 'his peace' or 'his restitution'). Successor to David [1] (2 Sam 9-1 Kg 2) in the second third of the 10th cent. BC. His 40-year reign (1 Kg 11:42, cf. 1 Kg 2:11) is of ideal duration, resulting from his esteem as a wise man and temple-builder (1 Kg 3:6-8, cf. Sir 47:12-18). He is criticized for building altars to foreign deities (1 Kg 11:1-13) and his introduction of forced labour (1 Kg 5:27-32). Stories about S. (1 Kg 3-1…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Vitalis

(47 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Army leader in the war between the Eastern Roman empire and the Goths in Italy, recorded only in Procopius [3] (Goth. 3,10,2) under the name Βιτάλις/ Bitális as magister militum per Illyricum c. AD 539-544. PLRE 3, 1380 f., no. 1 (s. v. Vitalius). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Anastasius

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] A. I, AD 491-518 Byzantine emperor A. I, AD 491-518 Byzantine emperor, born c. 431 in Dyrrachion, decurio of the Silentiarii under emperor Zeno the Isaurian, after whose death the widowed empress Ariadne pushed through A.'s selection and took him as her spouse. Ariadne also banned Longinus, the brother of Zeno; he had been regarded as the successor to Zeno. A revolt of the Isaurians which broke out as a consequence of this, was finally put down by A. only in 498. There was a revolt of the people of Constantinople in 512 caused by the preference of the empero…

Strategius

(69 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Musonianus see Musonianus Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) [German version] [2] Eastern Roman official, 6th cent. AD (Strategios). Eastern Roman official, praef. Augustalis at Alexandria c. AD 518-523, received the title patrikios by 530 at the latest, and was head of the exchequer ( comes sacrarum largitionum) from AD 535 to c. 538. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 1034-1036, Nr. 9  Stein, Spätrömische Republik 2, 433, 476f.

Historia Monachorum

(73 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Account, partly from secondary sources, of the journey that some Palestinian monks took to monastery centres in the Nile valley from the Thebaid to the Delta, composed c. AD 395 by one of the travellers, often transmitted together with the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius ( c. 400) (DHGE 24, 681f.). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A.-J. Festugière, Historia Monachorum in Aegypto, 1961 (Ed.) Lat. Übers. des Rufinus von Aquileia: PL 21, 387-462.

Mundilas

(74 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Μουνδίλας; Moundílas). Eastern Roman officer in the body-guard of Belisarius during the Gothic War, attested between AD 537-539. M. was at Belisarius' side when he was besieged at Rome by the Gothic King Vitigis in 537-538, and he held Milan for nine months in 538 until finally forced to surrender to the Gothic besiegers and taken captive to Ravenna. Thereafter, he vanishes from history (PLRE 3, 901-903). Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)

Tatianus

(689 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I. Greek [German version] [I 1] Christian apologist and theologian, 2nd cent. (Τατιανός; Tatianós). Christian apologist and theologian (born c. AD 120). By his own account, T. was from the East Syrian/North Mesopotamian region (Or. 42). His work betrays a knowledge of classical authors relying upon Hellenistic scholarly tradition. His travels brought T. into contact with a variety of the philosophical and religious systems of his period ( i.a. participation in mystery cults, which he fails to define more precisely). In Rome, study of the Bible finally brought hi…

Hesychius

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡσύχιος; Hēsýchios). [German version] [1] Alex. scholar, author of a lexicon Alexandrian scholar, author of an alphabetically arranged lexicon, which has passed down to us numerous fragments (primarily of poetry), allows many text variants to be restored, and is of special significance to the study of ancient classical exegesis, of dialects, and of the history of the Greek language. The basis for dating him is the Epistula ad Eulogium, which introduces the lexicon: some scholars identify the addressee with  Eulogius Scholasticus (5th cent. AD), others, includin…

Michael

(1,757 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
(Μιχαήλ/ Michaḗl; Mîkāēl). [German version] [1] Archangel Archangel, [1] One of the most prominent angels (cf. the description archistratēgós, ‘supreme commander’ of the heavenly host, Joseph of Aseneth 14,8, cf. Slavonic Hen 22,5; 33,10), one of the seven (Ethiopic Hen 20,5) or four (Ethiopic Hen 9,1; 10,11) archangels (cf. [1]). The name means ‘who is like God’ or ‘who is victorious like God’. M., who was first mentioned in the ‘Book of Watchers (Ethiopic Hen 1-36, end of the 4th/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC)…

Paroikoi

(244 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(πάροικοι; pároikoi). [German version] [1] Free non-citizens in Hellenistic states and Roman provinces In the Hellenistic states of Asia Minor and the Near East and the Roman provinces that arose out of them, free people, mostly indigenous but without citizenship, living in kṓmai ( kṓmē ) in the territory of a pólis were predominantly called paroikoi. In emergency situations, freed and non-free people, particularly those belonging to the (royal) farmers ( láoi), could be made paroikoi, and paroikoi from a pólis's synoikismós could be made citizens of that pólis. In legal status wi…

Constantianus

(133 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinian I, died c. 370 AD Brother-in-law of  Valentinian I. He led the fleet of the Euphrates in 363 in Julian’s Persian campaign (Amm. Marc. 23,3,9; Zos. 3,13,3). In 370 when tribunus stabuli in Valentinian’s Gaulish campaigns he was killed in an ambush (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). PLRE 1,221. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Byzantine general under Justinian I Comes sacri stabuli (‘supervisor of the imperial stables’), Byzantine general in the war of  Justinian I against the Goths; from 536 in Dalmatia; after…

Leo

(2,156 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Arens, Herbert (Aachen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Domitius [II 17] Leo Praefectus urbi under Elagabalus; see Domitius [II 17] Leo. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Leo Narbonensis High-ranking Gaulish senator, 5th cent. AD High-ranking Gaulish senator ( vir spectabilis), a descendant of Fronto [6]; poet, orator, and jurist. As consiliarius (‘adviser’) to the kings Euricus and Alaricus [3] II, L. was between c. AD 475 and 484 (as a Roman) the most important official within the Visigoth kingdom. He wrote Euricus' speeches and received envoys on his behalf (such as in 474…

Basileus

(3,191 words)

Author(s): Carlier, Pierre (Nancy) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(βασιλεύς; basileús). I. Mycenaean period up to the Hellenistic Monarchies [German version] A. Mycenaean The word basileus has not yet been sufficiently explained etymologically. It is usually translated as ‘king’ and probably stems from the pre-Hellenistic substratum. The Mycenaean form qa-si-re-u is evidently identical to βασιλεύς, but instead of designating the sovereign of a kingdom (he holds the title of wa-na-ka), it refers to a considerably lower position. Qa-si-re-u and its derivation qa-si-re-wi-ja can be found about 20 times in the Linear-B archives of Cn…

Basiliscus

(178 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), Flavius. East Roman counter-emperor, brother of the empress Verina who was the wife of emperor  Leo I (457-474). Since 468, he held the office of mag. militum. In 468, he fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals, in 471, he supported Leo in overthrowing and murdering Aspar ( Ardabur), the powerful mag. militum, and revolted against Leo's son-in-law  Zeno (474-491) from January 475 until August 476 with the support of Monophysite groups. During his rule, he issued an edict to abolish the doctrines establi…

Gobazes

(67 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Γωβάζης; Gōbázēs). King of the Lazes, abdicated in c. AD 456 in favour of his son under pressure from the Roman government, visited Constantinople in 465/6 for negotiations with Emperor Leo I, in which Daniel the Stylite, who lived there and whom he revered, supported him in a mediating role. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515 ODB 1, 585, s.v. Daniel the Stylite.

Iustinianus

(1,554 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iustinianus I. Roman emperor AD 527-565 The Roman emperor Justinian (AD 527-565), born c. 482 of Thracian-Illyrian origins as the son of a farmer, with the Latin name Petrus Sabbatius in Bederiana by Tauresium, in the area of the city Iustiniana Prima, which he later built (probably identical with modern Caričin Grad, 45 km south of Niš; see [1. 1085]), died on 14 November 565 in Constantinople. He owed his rise to  Iustinus [1] I, his mother's brother. He trusted I. especially, who was serving as candidatus in the imperial palace guard when his uncle c…

Romanos

(779 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ῥωμανός; Rhōmanós). [German version] [1] R. Melodod, the Melodist Byzantine hymnographer, 5th/6th cent. AD (Ῥωμανὸς Μελωδός; Rhōmanòs Melōdós). Byzantine hymnographer of Syrian origin, b. before AD 493 at Emesa (present-day Ḥims in Syria), d. between AD 551 and 565 at Constantinople. Initially deacon at Berytus (Beirut), he took up his post at the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople under the emperor Anastasius [1] I. According to legend, he is said to have decided to become a composer of hymns after receivi…

Stotzas

(92 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Στότζας; Stótzas). Member of Martinus' [2] guard, accompanying him on Belisarius' campaign against the Vandali in AD 533. Rebelling troops in Africa chose him as their leader in 536. After a failed attempt to conquer Carthage, he was defeated in 537 by Germanus [1] and fled to Mauretania. In 541 he rebelled again, assumed the title of emperor and tried to extend his power in northern Africa until in 545 he was killed in a battle. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1959f.  PLRE 3B, 1199f.

Demarchos

(417 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Δήμαρχος; Dḗmarchos). Holder of office with political and/or religious duties in Greek communities. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [German version] I. Greece until late antiquity (1) In Athens the demarchos was the highest office-holder in each of the 139 demes ( Demos [2]), into which Cleisthenes had divided the polis ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 54,8). By no later than the 4th cent. BC the demarchos was elected by lot in each   dḗmos for one year; the demarchos for Piraeus on the other hand was appointed by the polis (Ath. Pol. 54,8). He convened and chaired the assembly of th…

Macrobius

(1,341 words)

Author(s): Flamant, Jaques (Venelles) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[1] M., Theodosius Writer of the Saturnalia, c. 400 [German version] A. Identification There are three Latin works extant under the name Ambrosius Theodosius M., vir clarissimus and illustris (sometimes listed in reverse order): 7 bks. of Saturnalia( Sat.), 2 bks. of Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis ( Somn.) and excerpts from De differentiis et societatibus Graeci Latinique verbi. Otherwise the author is unknown. However, the persons that appear in Sat. (Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, Q. Aurelius Symmachus and several Albini) are well-known Roman aristocrats from …

Logariastes

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (λογαριαστής, λογαριαστεύων, λογιστής; logariastḗs, logariasteúōn, logistḗs). From the 11th cent. AD the financial official responsible for the control of public expenditure in several departments of the central and provincial administration of the Byzantine empire. Alexios I (1081-1118) introduced a mégas logariastḗs as the top supervisor of the state expenses who initially acted with the sakellarios and later acted in his place. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 2, 1244f. R. Guilland, Titres et fonctions de l'Empire byzantin, 1976, XXI (1969).

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…

Narses

(824 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Middle Persian Narseh, Armenian Nersēh, Greek Ναρσῆς/ Narsȇs, also Ναρσαῖος/ Narsaȋos). [German version] [1] Brother of Sapor I, died in AD 302 Brother of Sapor I, when he was prince-governor of (Persian) Armenia in AD 293 he overthrew his great-nephew Wahram III from the Persian throne and documented his success in the Paikuli inscription (cf. [1]). In about 296, N. renewed the conflict with Rome by invading (Roman) Armenia. The emperor Galerius [5] suffered a defeat at Carrhae (Ḥarran) in 297, but was able to besi…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Georgius

(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Political administration

(4,328 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. General The states of antiquity had no executive PA independent of government and legislature in the sense of the modern separation of powers. The triple division of constitutions, indicated in Aristot. Pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 ( tría mória, 1297b 37), into a decision-making, legislating organ ( tò bouleuómenon), an executive element ('on the offices': tò perì tàs archás) and judicature ( tò dikázon) owes more to the schematically working mind of the author than to a political concept as such, especially since the fields defined show conside…

Memoriales

(163 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Chancellery officials in the first division of the sacra scrinia, the imperial offices, who are attested in the Roman Empire from the latter part of the 3rd cent. AD. From c. 310, these were led by the magister officiorum and later by the quaestor sacri palatii. It was generally the task of the three scrinia ( memoria, epistolarum and libellorum) to manage communication between the Empire's central administration and the provinces. The memoriales under the magister memoriae, attested in the eastern part of the Empire in particular, were, on the evidence o…

Probus

(1,292 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus Roman emperor AD 276-282 Roman emperor 276-282 AD. Born on 19 August 232 AD in Sirmium; the information about his father in SHA Probus 3,2 and in [Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 37,1 is probably fictitious. P.'s career prior to his elevation to emperor in the East in the summer of 276 (Zos. 1,64) (in SHA Probus he is confused with a dux Tenagino P.) is unknown. During his six-year reign ( cos. I-III 277-279, cos. IV 281, cos. V 282) he fought first on the Rhine against the Alamanni, then against the Franci, Burgundiones an…

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Scholae Palatinae

(258 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Mounted guard troops in the service of the Roman emperor from the time of Constantine onwards, according to the Notitia dignitatum five regiments in the West and seven in the East of the empire, each of 500 men, initially mostly of Germanic origin, which on the whole were not part of the imperial army but were subordinate to the magister officiorum and were each commanded by a tribune [2]. However, by the time of the emperor Zeno the SP were used only as parade troops in court ceremonial, and their role as a defensive guard for the emperor had in fact been …

Herodianus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡρωδιανός; Hērōdianós). [German version] [1] Aelius H. Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. AD (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός; Aílios Hērōdianós), of Alexandria, one of the most important Greek grammarians, lived in the 2nd cent. AD; son of  Apollonius [11] Dyscolus and his worthy student and successor. For a time he lived in Rome and dedicated his main work, the Καθολικὴ προσῳδία ( Katholikḕ prosōidía) to the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180). He is justifiably not seen as a brilliant but as a careful and precise grammarian, the great heir and systematician of the Alexandr…

Isaurian emperors

(241 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty from AD 717 to 802 (Leo III, Constantinus [7] V, Leo IV, Irene and Constantinus [8] VI). According to an unreliable source on its origin, its founder Leo III came from Isauria, but in fact, as has long been known, he came from Germanicaea in Syria. Nevertheless, the dynasty has regrettably - because there had been an Isaurian on the imperial throne in the person of emperor Zeno (474-91) - retained its traditional name. The first two representatives of the dynasty…

Macedonian dynasty

(392 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty AD 867-1056, founded by Basilius [5] I, who hailed from the province ( théma) of Macedonia, after the murder of Michael III ( Amorian dynasty). Basilius was succeeded in 886 by his second son Leo [9] VI (until 912), who was in turn first succeeded by his brother Alexander [20] (until 913), then his son Constantinus [9] VII (913-959; b. 905). Initially, various regents reigned in place of the young Constantine, then, from 920 onwards, his father-in-law Romanus I; only from Janua…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Theophano

(152 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοφανώ; Theophanṓ). [German version] [1] T. Anastaso (Θ. Ἀναστάσω; T. Anastásō). Byzantine empress ( c. 941 until after 976 AD), wife of Romanus [3] II (959-963); the later emperors Basileius [6] II and Constantinus [10] VIII were their children; in 963 she became the wife of Nicephorus [3] II, and in 969 she instigated his assassination. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s. v. T., ODB 3, 2064 f. [German version] [2] Wife of Otto II, c. 1000 AD (also Theophanou, c. 960-991 AD). wife of the Western emperor Otto II from 972 onwards, niece of the Byzantine…
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