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Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that both a clear definition of their relationship [1] and a clear distinction of their works are impossible. Various sources re…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured …

Aeschylus

(3,563 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Αἰσχύλος; Aischúlos). [German version] [1] of Athens Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedian. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Democles

(138 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δημοκλῆς; Dēmoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted to flee from erotic pursuit by Demetrius Poliorcetes At the baths the Athenian D. saved himself as an ‘immature boy’ (παῖς ἄνηβος; paîs ánēbos) from erotic pursuit by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes by jumping into a kettle of boiling water but was killed as a result (Plut. Demetrios 24,2-6). D. is not identical with the defender of the sons of Lycurgus against the suits of Moerocles and Menesaechmus (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 842E).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic orator of the school of Theophrastus Attic o…

Sopater

(416 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Σώπατρος/ Sṓpatros). [German version] [1] Greek rhetorician, 4th cent. AD Greek rhetorician of the 4th cent. AD, contemporary and perhaps pupil of Himerius (Walz 8,318,29, where the reading ὁ σοφὸς ὁ ἡμέτερος Ἱμέριος 'our learned teacher Himerius' is probably to be preferred). S. probably taught at Athens (Walz 8,55,6 f.). These pieces of information come from his main work, the Διαίρεσις Ζητημάτων/Di(h)aíresis Zētēmátōn (approx. 'Discussion of Q…

Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή (

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgo…

Demades

(344 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Δημάδης; Dēmádēs). Orator from Athens, * around 380 BC, son of Demeas (deme of Paeania), † 319. Along with references by contemporary orators and epigraphical evidence (collected in [6]), we have information about him from an article in the Suda. Like his father, D. was initially a sailor and then, at a point in time that has not been authoritatively established, he turned to politics, initially and even later (cf. [4]) often in concert with Demosthenes. After 338 D. became one of the leaders of the pro-Macedonian party, achieved Alexander's lenient treatment of Athens after the destruction of Thebes (335), prevented support for Agis III, (330), proposed divine honours for Alexander (324/3) and negotiated peace with Antipater after the Lamian War (322), linked with the banning and death of Demosthenes. In 319, with his son Demeas, D. was himself killed by Cassander because of traitor…

Hypereides

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ὑπερείδης; Hypereídēs). Attic orator, son of Glaucippus, from the deme Collytus, born 390/89 BC (since he was diaitetes in 330/29 and thus 60 years old, IG II 941), died in 322 BC. [German version] A. Life Of the rich biographical tradition of antiquity (Hermippus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Caicilius) all that has been preserved are the Vita in Ps.-Plutarch (Mor. 848d-850b) and short notes in Athenaeus, Photius (495b-496a) and in the Suda; in addition there is usable biogra…

Cleochares

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κλεοχάρης; Kleochárēs). Greek rhetor from Myrlea/Bithynia (Str. 12,4,9 = 566). According to Diog. Laert. 4,41 a lover of Arcesilaus, Demochares and Pythocles living therefore in the 3rd cent. BC, probably mostly in Athens. Apart from speeches, he wrote treatises in literary criticism; three works have been transmitted: in a comparison of Isocrates and Demosthenes he used the famous image of an athlete's body for the style of the former and of a soldier's for that of the latter (Ph…

Menecles

(381 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μενεκλῆς/ Meneklês). [German version] [1] Athenian lawyer, 350 and 347 BC Athenian. In 350 and 347 BC he was synegoros for Boeotus ( Mantitheus [3]) and his mother Plangon in two lawsuits (Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,9f.; 32). Allegedly a sycophant, Menecles was himself accused by Ninus's son. The prosecution speech (Din. fr. 33 Conomis) was attributed to Dinarchus. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Beilagen 1885, 211-226 PA 9908 Traill, PAA 643135. [German version] [2] Greek historian and antiquarian, 2nd cent. BC Menecles from Barca in northern Africa, a Greek histo…

Minucianus

(350 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μινουκιανός; Minoukianόs). [German version] [1] 2nd cent. AD Athenian rhetor, rhetoric teacher and author of rhetoric textbooks Second-cent. AD Athenian rhetor, rhetoric teacher and author of rhetoric textbooks. According to a genealogy in [1] combined primarily from Himerius 7,4 (ed. Colonna p. 64) and Apuleius (Met. 1,2; 2,2f.), in about 130 he married Salvia, the daughter of the Stoic Sextus from Chaeronea, the teacher of Marcus [2] Aurelius and a nephew of Plutarch. According to the Suda (where the biograph…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life.…

Artemon

(593 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρτέμων; Artémōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian From Cassandreia. Greek  grammarian. As he makes mention of  Dionysius Scytobrachion, he is dated to the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. Of his works Athenaeus cites: Περὶ βιβλίων συναγωγῆς, Περὶ βιβλίων χρήσεως, Περὶ τοῦ Διονυσιακοῦ συστήματος as being his. An almost contemporary namesake from Pergamum, the commentator on Pindar (FGrH 569), possibly is the same person; A. from Clazomenae (FGrH 443), on the other hand, is older. A., the editor of the Aristotelian letters (Demetrius, elocutiones 223), is difficult to identify.…

Isocrates

(2,269 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
Logographer, teacher of rhetoric and publicist from Athens, Erchia deme, son of Theodoros and Hedyto, 436-338 BC. [German version] A. Biography The biographical tradition concerning I., which goes back to Hermippus, is essentially documented in Dion. Hal. De Isocrate 1, Ps.-Plut. Mor. 836e-839d, an anonymous Life in a few MSS, Phot. 486b-488a and a Suda article s.v. I. In addition, there are biographical details in I.'s own works, particularly in Or. 15. As the son of a wealthy flute maker, I. received an education …

Micines

(51 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Μικίνης; Mikínēs). An Athenian, whose name is known only because he was murdered in the streets of Athens one night between 403 and 380 BC. Lysias wrote a speech for the ensuing trial, which subsequently became famous (Fragment 90 Thalheim, hypothesis of Antiphon 2a). …

Rufus

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
Common Roman cognomen ('red-haired', 'redhead', Quint. Inst. 1,4,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] …

Hybreas

(223 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ὑβρέας; Hybréas). Greek orator and politician of the 1st cent. BC from Mylasa in Caria. He came from a simple background (Str. 14,2,24 = 659) but was fortunate enough to be taught by the rhetor Diotrephes in Antioch. After returning to his hometown, he acquired influence and wealth, becoming…

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person un…

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/…

Neanthes

(285 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νεάνθης; Neánthēs). [German version] [1] Of Cyzicus, Greek author of uncertain date N. of Cyzicus. References to and some fragments of the following works under this name are preserved (FGrH 84): a Greek history (Ἑλληνικά, Hellēniká), a history of Attalus [4] I of Pergamum (Περὶ Ἄτταλον ἱστορίαι, Perì Áttalon historíai), writings on the myths and history of the city of Cyzicus (Τὰ κατὰ πό…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony of Thurii, which had been founded in 444 (the archaic assessment of his year of birth as 459/8 was most likely a combination of references to his age and the foundation year of Thurii). After returning from Thurii, where he is said to have studied rhetoric with Teisias (412: anti-Athenian sentiment in Lower Italy after the defeat at Syracusae), L. was possibly active as a teacher of rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 48 referring to Aristotle) and maybe already …

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma.…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography …

Aphthonius

(218 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀφθόνιος; Aphthónios). Rhetorician of the 4th and the 5th cent. AD, from Antiochia, student of  Libanius and friend of  Eutropius. Of his writings, the practice speeches mentioned in Phot. library 133 are lost; still extant are 40 fables, some of which he had adopted from  Babrius, others he had newly created. Also still extant are the so-called   progymnasmata , which contain 14 definitions of basic rhetorical concepts used as introductory material for the discipline of rhetoric (e.g. fable μῦθος, narration διήγημα, p…

Rhetoric

(12,493 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] I. Terminology Generic term: Greek τέχνη ῥητορική/ téchnē rhētorikḗ; from Plato onwards, the technical term is ῥητορική/ rhētorikḗ [43]; Latin: ars oratoria, ars dicendi (rhetoric as an acquired skill), or eloquentia (as an ability). Performers: Greek ῥήτωρ/ rhḗtōr (Homeric ῥήτηρ/ rhḗtēr); Latin orator (initially referring to any orator; later used in the specific context of rhetoric), rhetor (technical term for a teacher of rhetoric). Activity: Greek είρειν/ eírein (‘say’ in formal language) or more generally λέγειν/ légein (‘speak’); the Latin equivalen…

Acacius

(589 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἀκάκιος; Akákios). [German version] [1] Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea, contemporary of  Libanius, who mentions A. numerous times in his letters, also known through Eunapius (Vitae Sophist. 497, cf. PLRE s. v. Acacius 6-8). After completing his studies in Athens, A. taught in Antioch [1]. He is said to have been superior to Libanius because of his natural talent. A. may have authored Ὠκύπους (Lib. Ep. 1380 W. = 1301 f.), the parody of a tragedy that was passed down under the name  Lucianus. Later, …

Himerius

(810 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] A. Life From his own speeches and other sources (Lib., Eun. Vit. Soph. 14 (494), Suda) the following emerges: Greek rhetor from Prusias in Bithynia,

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. …

Neocles

(460 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νεοκλῆς; Neoklȇs). [German version] [1] Father of the Athenian politician Themistocles The politically inactive father of the Athenian politician and commander Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1; [1. 60-66; 69f.]; therefore …

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/1…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, province of Africa (CIL VIII 24094; [2. 411ff.]), was praetor in AD 138 and consul in AD 148, served on the Imperial council of Hadrian and probably also that of Antoninus Pius, as well as that of the divi fr…

Libanius

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] A. Life L. from Antioch/Syria, AD 314-393, is the most outstanding Greek rhetor of the late Imperial period. The most useful biographical data are contained in L.'s work itself, especially in his letters, but also in his speeches with autobiographical topics, esp. or. 1 and 2. Furthermore, there are references in contemporary writings (among others by Iulianus [11] and Iohannes [4] Chrysostomos), a Vita by Eunapius and the Byzantine tradition, probably largely based on the latter (Zosimus, Zonaras, Suda et al.). L. was born in 314 as the son of a highly respected famil…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of …

Artemidorus

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος; Artemídōros). [German version] [1] Indo-Greek King in 1st cent. BC. Coins are the only evidence of his existence, middle Indian Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [German version] [2] Elegiac poet Writer of elegies Περὶ Ἔρωτος in which, among others, the katasterismós of the dolphin was narrated. He had helped Poseidon win Amphitrite as his wife (Ps.-Eratosth. Catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, cf. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 214). Even if this is only a hypothesis, it is highly probable that the ast…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC …

Dinarchus

(546 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δείναρχος; Deínarchos). [German version] A. Life Attic orator, born about 361 BC in Corinth, son of Sostratus, died after 292. The source of information on his life is the (incompletely transmitted) treatise De Dinarcho

Empylus

(69 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἔμπυλος; Émpylos). Rhetor of the 1st cent. BC from Rhodes; he lived in Rome in the house of M. Iunius Brutus and composed a small work on Caesar's assassination, taking the side of his friend Brutus. Plut. Brut. 2,4 used the work and passed a positive judgement on it. Quint. Inst. 10,6,4 mentioned E., praising his extraordinary memory. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Edition: FGrH 2 B 191.

Tyrannus

(106 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Τύραννος/ Týrannos). Greek rhetor of the 4th or 5th cent. AD (definitely before Georgius Monos, who wrote around 500 and used T.); fragments survive from two of his works, five from Περὶ στάσεων ( Perì stáseōn, ‘Case Categories’, a systematic work on stasis theory; cf. status [1]) and seven from Περὶ διαιρέσεως λόγου ( Perì dihairéseōs lógou), a work which, similarly to the Dihaíresis zētēmátōn of Sopater [1], provides guidelines and examples for the preparation of speeches using fictitious cases organized by category. T. generally followed …

Menecleidas

(126 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Μενεκλείδας/ Menekleídas). Theban orator and politician of the 4th century BC. The main source (Plut. Pelopidas 25, 290f-291d) does describe him as a man powerful in speech, but also as a man of intrigue, who forced Epameinondas out of the boeotarchy, and who tried to disparage Pelopidas by playing off Charon against him. In a paranomy lawsuit (accusation of proposing an illegal resolution), a large fine was imposed on Menecleidas, but this did not prevent him from further agitati…

Gorgias

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Γοργίας; Gorgías). [German version] [1] Sculptor, late 6th cent. BC Sculptor who created bronze and marble votive offerings on the Athenian acropolis in the late 6th cent. BC. The bases are the only extant parts and suggest mostly statues of horses or riders. Pliny (HN 34,49) refers to G. with wrong biographical dates, or perhaps refers to a homonymous sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 356a (sources) Loewy, no. 36 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 5, 65, 77, 147 B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Amphicrates

(107 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Rhetorician from Athens; when the Romans conquered Athens in 86 BC, A. fled to Seleuceia first and later stayed at Tigranes' court with Tigranes' wife Cleopatra, daughter of Mithridates. He soon fell from favour there and voluntarily chose death by starvation, but still received an honourable funeral (Plut. Luc. 22). A. was an Asianist; Ps.-Longinus (De subl. 3,2) places him on a par with  Hegesias and Matris, regarding him as representative of the movement that runs counter to th…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus. His works focuses on…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Theon

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Θέων; Théōn). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Samos, 300 BC and after T. of Samos was a Greek painter of the Hellenistic Period, who was active around and after 300 BC. His skill as a creator of images and the successful way in which his paintings were composed were praised in handbooks of rhetoric (e.g. Quint. Inst. 12,10,6) as examples to be followed. The viewer's creative imagination and intuitive understanding were meant to be stimulated at the same time by means of the artistic phantasía (Lat. ingenium, 'image creation'; Phantasia), so that the viewer might imagine e…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.3 279,7) and the town of Zelia apologized to Alexander (Arr. Anab. 1,17,2). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 H.G. Lolling, Mi…

Antyllus

(426 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄντυλλος; Ántyllos). [German version] [1] Grammarian and rhetor of unknown time Grammarian and rhetorician of unknown time (Suda). He authored a biography of Thucydides, which was used by Marcellinus in his Thucydides-Vita (22, 36, 55), and a commentary to Thucydides, which was used and quoted in a number of scholia (to 1,2,3; 3,95,1; 4,19,1 and 28,2). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography F. Goslings, Observationes ad Sch. in Thuc., 1874, 54 ff. R. Tosi, Scolifantasma tucididei, 1983. [German version] [2] Greek physician and surgeon of the imperial period Greek p…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Hermagoras

(760 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἑρμαγόρας; Hermagóras). [German version] [1] From Temnos, Greek orator, 2nd cent. BC Greek orator from Temnus (Str. 13,3,5 = 621; Suda, s.v. H.), probably active in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC (earlier than Molon, cf. Quint. Inst. 3,1,16). Except for his main work, texts written by him were already lost in antiquity (ibid. 3,5,14). His main work was probably titled Téchnai rhētorikaí, comprising 6 bks. (according to the Suda). Its content can be partially reconstructed from Cic. Inv., Quint. Inst. (esp. bk. 5) and Aug. De rhetorica. H. exerted an autho…

Nicetes

(317 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Νικέτης; Nikét ēs). [German version] [1] Greek rhetor at Rome, Augustan period Greek rhetor active at Rome in the Augustan period, known solely through several references by Seneca the Elder. Most of these report brief judgements and pithy remarks on fictional disputes (Sen. Controv 1,4,12; 1,5,9; 1,7,18; 1,8,13; 9,2,29; 9,6,18; 10,5,23); others exemplify the peculiarity of his teaching method (ibid. 9,2,23: N. only declaimed himself, and did not listen to students' practice speeches) and indicate his evid…

Molon

(443 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μόλων; Mólōn). [German version] [1] Satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies in 222 BC In 222 BC, together with his brothers Alexander and Neolaus, M., as satrap of Media and governor-general of the Upper Satrapies, rebelled against the young Antiochus [5] III and assumed the title of king (on coins: βασιλέως Μόλωνος). M. repelled Antiochus' military commanders, occupied the Apolloniatis (left bank of the Tigris, to the north of Babylon), crushed an army led by Xenoitas in 221 and conquered t…

Hegesias

(418 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἡγησίας; Hēgēsías). [German version] [1] Cyrenaic, c. 300 BC  Cyrenaic, lived in the decades before and after 300 BC. Due to the modifications that he (presumably in dialogue with  Epicurus) made on the original Cyrenaic doctrine of pleasure, some ancient philosophical historians have a new phase in the history of the Cyrenaics begin with him. H. assessed the view that one could succeed in achieving  pleasure and avoiding pain much more pessimistically than the original Cyrenaics. …

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Democrates

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δημοκράτης; Dēmokrátēs). [German version] [1] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna, probably an older contemporary of Demosthenes [2] (about 338 BC he is called γέρων ( gérōn; old man), cf. Stob. Floril. 3,22,43). As the descendant of  Harmodius or  Aristogeiton, he had a claim to free provisions in the Prytaneion (Hyp. 4,3). He belonged to the Pro-Macedonian party (Hyp. 4,2). He is also mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 2,17 and Isaeus 6,22. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2. [German version] [2] Tragedian of Sic…

Naucrates

(247 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Ναυκράτης; Naukrát ēs). [German version] [1] Of Erythrae, rhetor, 4th cent. BC Rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, of Erythrae [2] in Ionia, known almost solely by virtue of the fact that he was a student of Isocrates. He seems not only to have relied closely on his teacher linguistically and stylistically (Cic. De orat. 2,94), but also, like him, to have confined his activities particularly to the area of political journalism (an epitáphios [2] is mentioned - probably a model funeral oration without a concrete occasion: Dion. Hal. Rhet. 6,1 - and a funeral oration presente…

Isaeus

(786 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἰσαῖος; Isaîos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic logographer from about the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, son of Diagoras. Scant information about his life is offered in vitae in the MSS, Ps.-Plutarch (Mor. 839e-f), Harpocration, Suda and Photius (490a), all of which however depend on Dion. Hal. De Isaeo and Caecilius. The precise dates of his life are unknown; among the datable surviving speeches the earliest can be dated to about 389 and the latest to perhaps 344/3. Athens and Chalcis in Euboea are named as his birthplace.…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Anaximenes

(648 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἀναχιμένης; Anaximénēs). [German version] [1] Nature philosopher, 6th cent. BC Nature philosopher of 6th cent. BC, last representative of the  Milesian School. Although the arche (ἀρχή; archḗ) is unlimited with A. as with  Anaximander, it is specified as air. Air envelops the world, and a part of this is a component of the world. A. developed the first, still rudimentary theory of metamorphosis: in densifying (πύκνωσις; pýknōsis) and ephemeralizing processes (μάνωσις [ mánōsis] or ἀραίωσις [ araíōsis]) air and the various substances change into each other, in this sequ…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Alciphron

(225 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀλκίφρων; Alkíphrōn). Atticist author, probably from the 2nd or the early 3rd cent. AD [5], mentioned only by Aristaen. 1,5. 25 and Eust. 762,62. Preserved under A.'s name is a collection of 122 fictitious letters (only partial fragments), organized into letters by: 1. fishermen, 2. peasants, 3. parasites, 4. love letters. All letters are set in a timeless and idealized 4th-cent. Attica, perhaps modelled after the New Comedy [10], possibly but not clearly an imitation of Lucian [8…

Aristaenetus

(235 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀρισταίνετος; Aristaínetos). Accepted name for the author of a collection of love letters in two books, probably from the 1st quarter of the 6th cent. AD. In reality, A. is the sender of the first extant letter, but in the beginning of the MS at least one folio is missing and so is the name of the real author. A.'s models are mainly Plato, Menander, Lucian, Alciphron, Philostratus, and the authors of the novels and love elegies by  Callimachus (Aristain. 1,10. 15), whose content c…

Lycoleon

(113 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, known only because of a mention in Aristot. Rh. 1411b 6f.: a speech of L. for the defence of the strategos Chabrias is cited in which a statue erected in honour of the latter is metaphorically called hiketēría (olive branch wound around with wool as a symbol of one beseeching protection). (On the shape of this statue and the reasons for its erection, cf. Nep. Chabrias 1-3 and Diod. Sic. 15,33,4). The trial (it concerned treason in connection with battles for the Attic-Boeotian border fortre…

Rhetorica ad Alexandrum

(419 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Greek rhetoric textbook, amounting to some 100 pages of modern print, recorded in the MSS (none earlier than the 14th cent.) as a work of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]), but not appearing in the ancient title lists of the Corpus Aristotelicum (e.g. in Diog. Laert. 5,22-27). The earliest surviving attribution to Aristotle is by Syrianus (In Hermog. comm. 2, p. 11,17-21 Rabe). According to Quint. Inst. 3,4,9, Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (2nd half 4th cent. BC) distinguished types of speech (εἴδη/ eídē) in his rhetorical textbook ( téchnē); the same distinction occurs at…

Menesaechmus

(142 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Μενέσαιχμος; Menésaichmos). Attic rhetorician of the 4th cent. BC. Lycurgus [9] (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843d) succesfully charged him with neglecting his obligations as leader of the festival legation to Delos (Fr. in [1. 115-118]). M. succeeded Lycurgus as leader of the financial administration of Athens (Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho 11) and accused him shortly before his death (ibid. 842f) and afterwards his sons, who were temporarily arrested (ibid. 842e). M. was one of the accusers of Demos…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Theodectes

(976 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Θεοδέκτης/ Theodéktēs). Rhetor and tragedian of the 4th cent. BC, active in Athens, extant only in fragments, b. in Phaselis (Lycia), son of an Aristander. Only the Suda (s. v. Θ.) mentions a like-named son of T., who was also active in literature (historiographic and ethnographic works, text for rhetorical instruction in 7 books, encomium of Alexander [6]); no other source differentiates between the two T., so that in some cases it is difficult to assign a work. This information …

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Potamon

(195 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ποτάμων/ Potámōn). Rhetor from Mytilene in Lesbos, son of the philosopher Lesbonax, known from the Suda (s. v. Π., Lesbonax and Theodorus of Gadara), mentioned in Seneca (Suas. 2,15 f.), Strabo (13,2,3), Lucian (Macr. 23) and several inscriptions  (cf. [1]). His life-span (90 years according to Lucian l. c.) reached probably from the 70s BC into the early reign of Tiberius. Three times he led a legation from his home city, twice to Caesar (in 47 and 45 BC), once to Augustus (in 27…

Craton

(75 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κράτων). Greek rhetor, roughly a contemporary of the older Seneca, known as a bitter enemy of the dominant style of  Atticism during his time. Seneca the Older recorded a few utterances that attest to C.'s honest humour in the face of Emperor Augustus (contr. 10,5,21f.). Considering this fact, as well as his openly stated animosity towards the imperial confidant Timagenes, C. must have belonged to Augustus' inner circle. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Eustathius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Εὐστάθιος; Eustáthios). [German version] [1] from Caria Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD, imperial administrator, consularis Syriae Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD; studied in Athens and later settled in Tyre. He held many offices in the imperial administration, and used them to enrich himself (i.a.: rationalis summarum per orientem), in 388 he was consularis Syriae. He was at first a friend of  Libanius (panegyric: Lib. Or. 44), later his enemy (diatribe: Or. 54, cf. also Or. 1,271-275). There is no other witness apart from Libanius. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [2] Neop…

Tiberius

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, prob. late 3rd/4th cent. (Τιβέριος/ Tibérios). Greek rhetor, probably of the late 3rd or 4th cents. AD, author of a small surviving treatise on figures (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ Δημοσθένει σχημάτων, Perì tòn parà Demosthénei schēmáton, 'On the figures in Demosthenes'), which uses Apsines as its main source. The latter's dates (1st half of 3rd cent. AD) are thus the only point of reference for dating T. The treatise deals separately with figures of thought (1-22) and figures of speech (23-42; Figures). E…

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Dion

(1,970 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Et al.
[English version] I. Personen (Δίων) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] [I 1] Freund Platons, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Hipparinos, Schwager und Schwiegersohn Dionysios' I. von Syrakus, * 409 v.Chr., seit Platons erstem Aufenthalt 388 in Syrakus dessen enger Freund und Verfechter seiner Philosophie. Unter Dionysios I. kam er als dessen Vertrauter und Ratgeber zu Ansehen und Reichtum und blieb auch unter Dionysios II. einflußreich. Er vermittelte 366 den Frieden mit Karthago und rief Platon nach Syrakus, um …

Iulianus/-os

(4,346 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Beinamen bei vielen Gentilicia [1]. Bekannte Personen: der Jurist Salvius I. [1], der Arzt I. [2], der Kaiser I. [11], gen. “Apostata”, die Bischöfe I. [16] von Aeclanum und I. [21] von Toledo. [English version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus röm. Jurist, 2. Jh. Jurist, geb. um 100 n.Chr. in Nordafrika, gest. um 170 n.Chr., war ein Schüler des Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) und der letzte Vorsteher der sabinianischen Rechtsschule (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., dessen Ämterfolge die Inschr. aus Pupput/Prov. Africa (CIL VIII 24…

Aristainetos

(227 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[English version] (Ἀρισταίνετος). Eingebürgerter Name für den Autor einer Sammlung von Liebesbriefen in zwei Büchern, wohl aus dem 1. Viertel des 6. Jh. n. Chr. In Wahrheit heißt A. der Absender des ersten erh. Briefes, aber in der Hs. fehlt am Anfang mindestens ein Folio und damit der wirkliche Name des Autors. A. benutzt als Vorlagen hauptsächlich Platon, Menandros, Lukian, Alkiphron, Philostrat und die Romanautoren sowie Liebeselegien des Kallimachos (Aristain. 1,10. 15), deren Inhalt sich so t…

Molon

(400 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Μόλων). [English version] [1] Satrap von Medien und Generalstatthalter der Oberen Satrapien 222 v.Chr. M. empörte sich als Satrap von Medien und Generalstatthalter der Oberen Satrapien 222 v.Chr. zusammen mit seinen Brüdern Alexandros und Neolaos gegen den jungen Antiochos [5] III. und beanspruchte königliche Würde (Mz. βασιλέως Μόλωνος). M. warf die Feldherren des Antiochos zurück, besetzte die Apolloniatis (linke Tigrisseite nördl. von Babylon), vernichtete 221 ein von Xenoitas geführtes Heer und unterwarf…

Libanios

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[English version] A. Leben L. aus Antiocheia/Syrien, 314-393 n.Chr., ist der bedeutendste griech. Rhetor der späteren Kaiserzeit. Die wertvollsten biograph. Informationen bietet das Werk des L. selbst, bes. die Briefe, auch die Reden mit autobiograph. Thematik, v.a. or. 1 und 2. Dazu kommen Angaben aus zeitgenössischen Schriften (u.a. von Iulianos [11] und Iohannes [4] Chrysostomos), eine Vita des Eunapios und die wohl im wesentlichen aus letzterer schöpfende byz. Trad. (Zosimos, Zonaras, Suda u.a.). L. wurde 314 als Sohn einer hochangesehenen, dem Stand der decuriones (also d…

Amphikrates

(102 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[English version] Rhetor aus Athen, floh von dort 86 v. Chr. vor den siegreichen Römern zunächst nach Seleukeia, später an den Hof des Tigranes zu dessen Frau Kleopatra, der Tochter des Mithradates. Dort fiel er bald in Ungnade und wählte den freiwilligen Hungertod, erhielt aber ein ehrenvolles Begräbnis (Plut. Luc. 22). A. war Asianer, Ps.-Longinos (de subl. 3,2) stellt ihn in eine Reihe mit Hegesias und Matris und nennt ihn stellvertretend für die den guten Vorbildern (Xenophon) zuwiderlaufende …

Hegesias

(399 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἡγησίας). [English version] [1] Kyrenaïker, um 300 v. Chr. Kyrenaïker, lebte in den Jahrzehnten vor und nach 300 v.Chr. Wegen der Modifikationen, die er (vermutlich in Auseinandersetzung mit Epikuros) an der urspr. kyrenaïschen Lustlehre vornahm, ließen manche ant. Philosophiehistoriker mit ihm eine neue Phase in der Gesch. der Kyrenaïker beginnen. H. schätzte die Aussicht, daß es einem gelinge, sich Lust zu verschaffen und Schmerz zu meiden, erheblich pessimistischer ein als die u…
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