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Xenodikai

(295 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ξενοδίκαι/ xenodíkai). [German version] [1] In Athens: 'judges of foreigners' First mentioned in Athens as 'judges of foreigners' (IG I3 439,75 and IG I3 440,126) for the years 444-442 BC in which the xenodikai had to provide quite large sums for the construction of the Parthenon . It cannot be deduced from this evidence [3. 661 f.] that they operated only for a relatively short period after Pericles' [1] statute of civic rights as an authority for lawsuits relating to illegal arrogation of Athenian civil rights (Xenias graph…

Naucleidas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Epaminondas

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπαμεινώνδας; Epameinṓndas). Most important Theban commander of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC. His year of birth has not been recorded. After instruction by the Pythagorean Lysis of Tarentum who lived in his father Polymis' house (Diod. Sic. 15,39,2; Plut. Mor. 583c; 585e; Paus. 9,13,1; Nep. Epaminondas 2,2), he was considered incorruptible and frugal as well as a great orator (Plut. Mor. 808e, 809a). Little is known about his political beginnings. The outline in Paus. 9,13,1-1…

Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Tisamenus

(313 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τεισαμενός/ Teisamenós, Lat. Tisamenus). [German version] [1] Son of Thersander Son of Thersander, the king of Thebes and of Demonassa [1] (Paus. 9,5,15) and therefore a grandson of Polyneices (Hdt. 6,52). After the de…

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metapho…

Proegoros

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προήγορος/ proḗgoros, Doric προάγορος/ proágoros, 'spokesman'; from pro-agoreúein, 'speak publicly for somebody'). Spokesman of a group or legation (Xen. Hell. 1,1,27; 2,2,22; Xen. An. 5,5,7). In the Sicilian poleis of Acragas (IG XIV 952: 2nd cent. BC), Tyndaris (Cic. Verr. 2,4,85) and possibly also Tauromenium (IG XIV 423) the term for an offi…

Dercylidas

(305 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδας; Derkylídas). Spartan; regarded as a talented and cunning military commander. He won Abydus and Lampsacus in 411 BC without a battle (Thuc. 8,61f.), was harmost in Abydus in 407/6 (Xen. Hell. 3,1,9) and in 399 in Sparta's war against the Persian satrap Tissaphernes in Asia Minor he relieved the unpopular Thibron, who was unable to keep discipline in the army, including the former mercenaries (including Xenophon) of Cyrus the Younger (Xen. Hell. 3,1,8-10). In 399 in a ‘l…

Agesilaus

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίλαος; Agēsílaos). [German version] [1] I, legendary Spartan king (c. 900 BC) …

Melesippus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελήσιππος; Melḗsippos). Spartiate, son of Diacritus, member of the last Spartan delegation to Athens in 431 BC before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 1,139,3). In the same year, during the advance of the army of Archidamus [1], he was again sent to Athens for negotiations, but was turned back at the city gates. On leaving Attica, he is said to have prophesied that that day would mark the beginning of great misfortune for the Hellenes (Thuc. 2,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pasiteilidas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιτειλίδας; Pasiteilídas). Spartiate, son of Hegesander and harmost under Brasidas in Torone, where he was taken prisoner in 422 BC during the Athenians' capture of the city under Cleon [1]. From there he was presumably taken to Athens (Thuc. 4,132,3; 5,3,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Leotychidas

(368 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λεωτυχίδας; Leōtychídas). [German version] [1] Eurypontid Eurypontid (Hdt. 8,131; Eurypontidae), considered to be the ancestor of L. [2]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) …

Gerousia

(995 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(γερουσία; gerousía, ‘Council of Elders’). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman In Sparta the gerousia was probably originally an assembly of representatives from leading families. There it gained its institutional character from early on and consisted of the two kings and 28   gérontes (γέροντες), who were appointed for life and were at least 60 years old. Election took place on the basis of the volume of the acclamation in the   apélla (ἀπέλλα), with ‘electoral officials’ in a closed room deciding who got the strongest applause (Plut. Lycurgus …

Alcibiades

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκιβιάδης; Alkibiádēs). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of 6th cent. BC) Athenian, who in 510 BC supported  Cleisthenes when he initiated the expulsion of the Peisistratids from Athens (Isoc. Or. 16,26). [1; cf. 2]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 Traill, PAA, 121620. 2 Davies, 600,III u. V. [German version] [2] ‘the Elder’ Athenian, around 461 BC Son of the previous (cf. Pl. Euthd. 275a/b); after the deposition of  Cimon (462/1 BC) and the break between Athens and Sparta he laid down demonstratively the inherited title of a Lacedaimonian proxenos (Thuc. 5,43,2; 6,8…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut. Pel. 13; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 240; cf. Xen. Hell. 5,4,13; Diod. Sic. 15,27). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Megalopolis, end of the 3rd cent. BC L. from Megalopolis ( Megale Polis); in 223/2 BC L. wanted to l…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
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