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Correus

(100 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[English version] Keltischer(?) Name eines Häuptlings der Bellovaci, “Zwerg”? [1. 339-340]. C. führte 51 v.Chr. zusammen mit Commius den letzten größeren Aufstand mehrerer gallischer Stämme gegen Caesar, der auch von german. Truppen unterstützt wurde. Nachdem zunächst die romfreundlichen Remi geschlagen und durch geschicktes Taktieren eine offene Schlacht mit den Römern vermieden werden konnte, scheiterte schließlich ein von C. gelegter Hinterhalt. Die Gallier wurden geschlagen und C. fiel im Kamp…

Critognatus

(101 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ecritognatus). Celtic composite name with variant readings: ‘knows trembling’ or ‘born to attack’ [1. 78-79; 2. 185]. Arvernian nobleman, who in 52 BC extolled his fellow combatants in besieged Alesia to hold out when the absence of the Gaulish relief army caused serious provisioning difficulties. Caesar (B Gall. 7,77,2-16) relates the full wording of C.'s speech as an example of Gaulish cruelty because he called for eating the bodies of the old and the infirm rather than falling into eternal Roman servitude.  Alesia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 …

Viridomarus

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Viridomaros). Celtic compound name: 'strong hero'? [1. 125]. [German version] [1] Insubran prince, c. 3rd cent. BC Prince of the Insubres, who fell at Clastidium in 222 BC at the hands of the consul M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus (Liv. Per. 20) [2. 379 f.]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Haeduan, soldier in Caesar Young man from the tribe of the Haedui of lowly origin who, by the patronage of Diviciacus [2], attained Caesar's high regard. Together with Eporedorix [2], in 52 BC he uncovered Litaviccus' conspiracy. Later he wa…

Gargoris

(85 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Name derived from an uncertain Indo-European root [1. 118-119]. Legendary king of the Curetes (?) in  Tartessus, who allegedly invented honey gathering. He repeatedly attempted to have his grandson Habis, who was born after a slip by his daughter, killed by wild animals but they spared and even nursed him. G. recognized his growing grandchild and made him his successor (Iust. 44,4,1-14).  Exposure, myths of Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Lourdes Albertos Firmat, La onomastica personal primitiva, 1966. H. J. Rose, Griech. Mythologie, 51978, 2…

Commius

(329 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name (‘nicely dressed’?) [1. 335-336]. Caesar installed the Atrebatian C. as king in 56 BC after conquering his tribe. When C. was sent to Britain in 55 BC to persuade the local tribes of entering an alliance with Caesar, he was first put into chains but released upon Caesar's arrival. He served Caesar as leader of the cavalry and as negotiator in Britain and in Gallia and in return was granted rulership over the  Morini and others (Caes. B Gall. 4,21,6-8; 27,2-3; 35,1; 5,22,3; 6,6,4; 7,76,1). In 52 BC, C. changed sides and attempted to come to the aid of  V…

Cambaules

(29 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Καμβαύλης; Kambaúlēs). Leader of a Celtic army that invaded Thrace in 281 BC but who had to retreat from there (Paus. 10,19,5-6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Corolamus

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Minor king of the  Boii with a Celtic name [1. 184]. In 196 BC he killed the consul M.  Claudius [I 12] Marcellus (Liv. 33,36,4-8), who was operating in the Boian region in northern Italy. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Acco

(48 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name of uncertain origin [1]. Leader (?) of the  Senones, who in 53 BC called for an unsuccessful uprising against the Romans and was thereafter executed (Caes. B Gall. 6,4; 44). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans, 297 f. E. Klebs, s. v. A., RE 1, 151.

Belgius

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βόλγιος; Bólgios). Celtic name, cf. Irish Bolg ‘lightning’ [1.88], leader of the Galatian Celts. He invaded Macedonia in late 280 and early 279 BC and destroyed the small army of King  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was killed in the process (Just. Epit. 24,4-5; Paus. 10,19,5-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, 1987. Holder, 1, 384.

Surus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Haedui nobleman with a name which is probably Celtic [1.472f.; 2.1678-1682], enemy of the Romans. In 51 BC he was taken prisoner by T. Labienus in a cavalry skirmish in Treveri territory (Caes. B Gall. 8,45,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder 2.

Adiatunnus

(224 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Adietuanus, Adiatonnus, Adcatuannus, Adsatuannus). Celtic compound name from ad-ia(n)tu- ‘zealously striving (for rulership)’ [3. 45-47; 5. I 41,42; III 507]. Commander of the tribe of the Sotiates based in Gallia  Aquitania, who in 56 BC defended the oppidum of the tribe, Sot(t)ium, against P. Licinius Crassus. After a failed sortie attempt with 600 of his comrades ( soldurii), A. had to capitulate to the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 3,22,1; 3,22,4). A. is also mentioned in a fragment by Nicolaos of Damascus (Ἀδιάτομος; Adiátomos) (FGrH II A 80 [89]) recorded by At…

Vertico

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Nervian noble (Nervii) who defected to the Roman side and helped Q. Tullius [I 11] Cicero during the siege of his winter camp  in 54 BC to send reports to Caesar (Caes. Gall. 5,45; 5,49). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 385 f.

Druids

(554 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Druides, Druida). Latinization of the Celtic stem *drui(d), ‘the very wise’; the ambiguity with the Greek δρῦς ( drys) ‘oak’ was apparently intentional (cf. Plin. HN 16,249) [1. 1321f.; 2. 430]. They were first referred to by the Peripatetic Sotion 200/170 BC (Diog. Laert. 1,1,6f.), later references are based at least in part on the lost historical work by Posidonius. According to them, the druidae formed, together with the bardi and   vates , a hierarchically organized branch of the Celtic priestly caste, with an orally-transmitt…

Brennus

(270 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Βρέννος; Brénnos). Celtic titular name, from the Breton brennin ‘King’ [1. 105-108]. [German version] [1] Gallian prince, defeated the Romans at the Allia, 390 BC In the Roman annalistic tradition, prince of the Gallic  Senones, who in 390 BC decisively defeated the Romans at the Allia and occupied and pillaged Rome. When the Romans besieged on the Capitol tried to negotiate the withdrawal of the Gauls for 1,000 pounds of gold, B. threw his sword on the scales as well, saying vae victis (Liv. 5,38-49; Plut. Camillus 18-30). Rome's destruction created the bogey of ‘barbaric …

Casticus

(79 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name from -ico- [1. 330-331]. Son of Catamantaledes, king of the Sequani, ‘the one who defeats the enemy in battle’ [1. 66-69; 2. 166-167]. C. was persuaded by  Orgetorix in 59 BC to seize royal power in his house as his father had apparently died. The triple alliance between C., Orgetorix and  Dumnorix failed because of the death of Orgetorix (Caes. B Gall 1,3,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. 2 Schmidt. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 84-87.

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Andecombogius

(112 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Andocumborius, Andebrogius, Andecombo). Celtic composite of ande- and combogio: ‘He who exudes dignity’ [1. 143-144; 5. 49-51]. One of the two legates of the Remi, who offered Caesar the subjugation of their tribe in 57 BC (Caes. Gall. 2,3,1). The name Andecom(bo) appears on the silver coins of the Carnutes, which were probably dedicated to the leader of the Remi [3. 421 A. 1; 2. 78, 83, 330 fig. 264]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 3 J. B. Colbert de Beaulieu, Monnaies Gauloises au nom des…

Mandubracius

(66 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Trinobantes in south-eastern Britannia, who on the occasion of the murder of his father by Cassivellaunus had fled to Caesar on the mainland. When Caesar invaded Britannia for the second time in 54 BC, M. was able to return to his tribe by providing hostages and grain (Caes. B Gall. 5,20; 22,5; Oros. 6,9,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 100ff.

Catumerus

(51 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Actumerus). Celtic name -- passed down in various forms -- of a Chatti prince, grandfather of  Italicus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1; 11,17,1). Strabo (7,1,4) calls him Οὐκρόμηρος ( Oukrómēros). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography E. Koestermann, Cornelius Tacitus Annalen, 11-13 und 57-58, 1967 A. Scherer, Die kelt.-german. Namengleichungen, in: Corolla Linguistica 1955, 199-210.

Correus

(106 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic(?) name of a chieftain of the  Bellovaci, ‘dwarf’? [1. 339-340]. In 51 BC, together with  Commius, C. led the last large revolt of several Gaulish tribes against Caesar, which was also supported by Germanic troops. After initial success in beating the Rome-friendly  Remi and by avoiding an open battle with the Romans through clever tactics, an ambush laid by C. ultimately failed. The Gauls were beaten and C. fell in battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,6-21; Oros. 6,11,12-14). The name also appears on a British gold coin [2. 1134f.; 3. 153]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bib…

Caesorix

(27 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celticized Germanic name ending in - rix ‘king’ [1.160]. Cimbrian chieftain ( Cimbri), captured at Vercellae in 101 BC. (Oros. 5,16,21). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Voccio, Voctio

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of Noricum with a probably Celtic name [1. 478 f.]. One of V.'s sisters had married Ariovistus in Gaul, in 58 BC she and his other wife died (Caes. B Gall. 1,53,4). Caesar (C.) Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Lugotorix

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Lucotorix). Celtic compound name [1. 98f.]. British prince, who was taken captive in an attack on the Roman ship camp in Kent in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1-2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Sido

(92 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] deposed (according to Tac. Ann. 12,29-30), together with his brother Vangio, their uncle Vannius, who - himself a Quadus - by Roman mandate ruled the kingdom of the Suebi, which neighboured the Quadi. The two brothers then ruled the Suebi state together and remained faithful to Rome. S. fought on the side of the followers of Vespasianus together with Italicus [2] and a contingent of troops on the front line in the battle of Cremona in 68/9 AD (Tac. Hist. 3,5,1; 3,21,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Holder 2, 1540.

Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nehalennia

(264 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic mother goddess, documented by more than 160 inscriptions and pictorial dedications from the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. With two exceptions from Cologne- Deutz these were all found along the Dutch estuary of the Schelde, e.g. in Domburg (Walcheren) and in a submerged temple area discovered as late as 1971/2 on Colijnsplaat (Noord-Beveland) in the Oosterschelde. Today the latter is associated with classical Ganuenta, the assumed principal settlement of the Frisiavones, whose chief …

Chilperic

(248 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Burgundian king, 5th cent. AD C. I, Burgundian king; died c. 480. Co-ruler from 457, after the death of his brother Gundic in c. 472 he replaced the latter as magister militum Galliarum (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,6,2). First having fought against the West Goths, he eventually went over to their side and dissolved the treaty of federation with the Western Roman Empire.  Magister militum Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography J. Richard, s.v. Chilperic I., LMA 2, 1824f. A. Demandt, s.v. Chilperic, RE Suppl. 12, 1588. [German version] [2] Merovingian king, 6th ce…

Epasnactus

(54 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Epad[nactus]; Celt. name compilation from epo- ‘Horse’ [2. 89-90]). Pro-Roman prince of the  Arverni, who captured the rebellious Cadurcan leader Lucterius in 51 BC and turned him over to Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 8,44,3). E. is documented on several coins [1. 432-436]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1] 2 Evans.

Combutis

(76 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κόμβουτις; Kómboutis). Galatian leader following  Brennus [2] on the 279 BC invasion of Greece [1. 178]. C. and Orestorius were sent off together at the head of a strong contingent through Thessaly into Aetolia. There they committed great atrocities against the inhabitants of the city of Callion and suffered substantial losses on their return to Thermopylae at the hands of the Aetolians who had rushed in pursuit (Paus. 10,22,2-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Chiomara

(144 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Χιομάρα; Chiomára). Celtic name of the wife of the Tolistobogian king  Ortiagon [1. 156]. In 189 BC, after the victory of Cn.  Manlius Vulso over the Galatians at Olympus, C. came into the hands of a centurio. When he first sexually assaulted her and then wanted to set her free in return for a high ransom, she had him killed at the handover. She delivered his head to her husband. Polybius is supposed to have met her personally in Sardis, evidently when she was interned there after the fall of Ortiagon in 183 BC. P…

Orgetorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic composite name: “King of the cudgels” [1. 108f.]). Influential and prosperous Helvetian nobleman, whose greed for royal power, according to Caesar,  led him to instigate a conspiracy by the nobility and in 61 BC to persuade his tribe to move away from its ancestral territory. Appointed leader of this enterprise, O. (according to Caesar) then made plans with Casticus and Dumnorix to conquer the whole of Gaul. In the spring of 60 BC his large number of followers prevented hi…

Boiorix

(157 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic/Illyrian compound for ‘King of the Boii’ [1.497; 2.153]. [German version] [1] Prince of the Boii around 194 in Italy Titular name of a prince of the Boii in Italy who, together with his brothers, led the war against the Romans in 194 BC (Liv. 34,46,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Cimbri around 105 BC King of the  Cimbri, probably identical with the ferox iuvenis who in 105 BC killed the captured legate M.  Aurelius [I 18] Scaurus. Together with his fellow king, Lugius, B. fell at Vercellae, after first negotiating the t…

Troucillus

(94 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valerius T. was a respected man from the province of Gaul, who had the confidence of Caesar, who sent him as his interpreter to Diviciacus [2] in 58 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,19,3). Identifying him with C. Valerius Procillus, son of C. Valerius Caburus, the chieftain of the Helvii, and brother of Donnotaurus, is debatable. The latter and M. Mettius [I 1] were sent as Caesar's negotiators to the camp of Ariovistus, but were taken prisoner and freed by Caesar personally (Caes. Gall. 1,47,4; 1,53,5). Helvii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 380-382.

Bituitus

(115 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound form based on bitu- ‘world’ [1.149]. King of the Arverni, defeated in 121 BC by the consul Q.  Fabius Maximus in the region of the Isère's confluence with the Rhône when he came to the aid of the  Allobroges. B. was afterwards banished by the Senate to Alba (Liv. per. 61; Eutr. 4,22; Flor. Epit. 1,37; Oros. 5,14,1 i.a.; Fasti triumphales, CIL I2 634, p. 49 Betulto). His son, Congonnetiacus (Contoniatus), was initially brought to Rome as a hostage but may later have been installed as a client king (Diod. Sic. 34,36). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bib…

Tarcondarius

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταρκονδάριος/ Tarkondários). T. Castor I, tetrarch of the Tectosages, with a Celtic name [1. 1732]. In the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, T. and his father-in-law Deiotarus supported Pompeius [I 3], sending him 300 horsemen (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5). After Caesar's death in 44 BC, he and his wife were killed in his residence of Gorbeus by Deiotarus (Str. 12,5,3). He was the father of T. Castor II (Deiotarus). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 2

Concolitanus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κογκολιτάνος; Koncholitános). Celtic name, ‘he whose heel is broad’ [1. 182]. Jointly with  Aneroëstes, king of the  Gaesati. He was captured by the Romans after the Celtic defeat at Telamon in 225 BC (Pol. 2,22,2; 2,31). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Tarcondimotus

(191 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Ταρκονδίμοτος/ Tarkondímotos; also Ταρκόνδημος/ Tarkóndēmos). [German version] [1] T. I. Philantonius King of Amanus, son of Straton. Roman ally, partisan of Pompeius [I 3], Caesar, Cassius [I 10] and finally Antonius [I 9], on whose side he fell at Actium in 31 BC (Plut. Antonius 61,2; Cass. Dio. 41,63,1; 47,26,2; 50,14,2; Flor. Epit. 2,13,5; IGR 3, 901 = OGIS 752 and 753). In 51 BC Cicero appraises him as fidelissimus socius trans Taurum amicissimusque populi Romani ("the most faithful ally beyond the Taurus and the best friend of the Roman people", Cic. Fam. 15,…

Catugnatus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κατούγνατος; Katoúgnatos). Celtic name compound ‘for battle born, well acquainted with battle’ [1. 168]. Leader of the  Allobroges who plundered Gallia Narbonensis in 61 BC. C. was able for a long time successfully to hold his ground against the Romans and also to save himself when they seized the town of Solonum which he was defending (Cass. Dio 47,1-48,2; Liv. per. 103). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Deiotarus

(682 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δηιόταρος; Dēiótaros). Φιλορώμαιος (regarding Celtic composite name cf. [4. 190; 5. 155]). Born at the end of the 2nd cent. BC the son of Sinorix (IG III2 3429); husband of Berenice; tetrarch of the Tolistobogii, king of the Galatians; died c. 40 BC. D. was a semi-Hellenized client prince of the Romans, and practised an energetic and unscrupulous form of power politics. He was one of the three Galatian tetrarchs who in 86 BC escaped the assassination attempts of Mithridates of Pontus. From then on he fought as an all…

Domnilaus

(82 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δομνέκλειος; Domnékleios). Celtic name; tetrarch of the Trocmi, the son and successor of Brogitarus [1. 1303; 2. 155]. D. was killed on Pompey's side at Pharsalus in 49 BC. After the death of Deiotarus his territory was awarded to his son Adiatorix by Antony but Augustus had him executed after the battle of Actium (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5; Str. 12,3,6).  Antonius [I 9];  Brogitarus;  Deiotarus;  Trocmi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken 1931.

Connacorix

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοννακόριξ; Konnakórix). Galatian with a Celtic name [1. 182; 2. 155], in 73 BC a commander of  Mithridates in  Heraclea (Memnon 29,4; 34,4; 35,1-4; 7; 36=FGrH 3 no. 434). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt. 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Brittomaris

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the  Senones, is alleged to have had Roman envoys murdered (App. Sam. 6 and Celt. 11). The Senones, together with the Etruscans, were defeated in 283 BC at the Vadimonian Lake by Consul P.  Cornelius Dolabella and driven out of Italy. The character of B. is perhaps a fabrication of the later  Annalists. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 882.

Ambigatus

(83 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ambicatos). Celtic compound name with ambi- ‘around’ [5. 122-123, 215; 1. 134-135; 4. 708]. According to Livy the  Biturigan A. during the reign of  Tarquinius Priscus in Rome was king of all Celts (Liv. 5,34,2). Because of overpopulation, he is supposed to have, under the leadership of his nephew  Segovesus, caused the first Celtic immigration to the Po Plain (Liv. 5,34,3-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder, vol. 1, 120 3 E. Klebs, s. v. A. RE 1, 1798 4 R. M. Ogilvie, Comm. on Livy, 1965 5 Schmidt.

Eporedorix

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name: ‘king of the riders?’ (cf. also Plut. Mor. 259A; C (Πορηδόριξ MS]. [German version] [1] Before Caesar's arrival the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani E. was the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani prior to Caesar's arrival,. In 52 BC, he fell into Roman captivity at Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 67,7).  Alesia;  Haedui;  Sequani Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Young equestrian leader of the Haedui Young equestrian leader of the Haedui, of noble descent. With Caesar's help, E. and Viridomarus had risen to highest office.…

Tasgetius

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Prominent pro-Roman Celt [1. 378] whose ancestors were kings of the  Carnutes. Installed by Caesar in 56 BC as the king of this tribe, he was killed in the third year of his reign by his own people (Caes. B. Gall. 5,25; 5,29,2). Coin minting [2. 442 f.]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu, Les monnaies gauloises au nom des chefs mentionnés dans les Commentaires de César, in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier, vol. 1, 1962, 419-446.

Ducarius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name formed from -caro- ‘dear’. Knight, in a unit of Insubres in Hannibal's army, who in the battle at Lake Trasimene in 217 BC killed the consul C.  Flaminius (Liv. 22,6,3-5; Sil. Pun. 5,644-658).  Hannibal Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Vertiscus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Remian noble and army leader (Remi). In 51 BC, as commander of a tribal contingent fighting on the side of Caesar, which he was leading in spite of his great age, V. fell in a cavalry battle with the  Bellovaci (Caes. Gall. 8,12). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 386.

Vercondaridubnus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Haeduus with a Celtic/Venetian name [1. 291; 2. 280]. C. Iulius V. was the first provincial priest at the Ara Romae et Augusti dedicated by Claudius [II 24] Drusus at Lugdunum/Lyon on 1 August 12 BC (Liv. Per. 139). Haedui; Ruler cult Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt 2 Evans. D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, vol. 1.1, 1987, 97-102.

Viridorix

(63 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name [1. 126]. Chieftain of the Unelli in Venetia, who in 56 BC had a large army assembled from allied tribes and besieged the camp of the Roman legate Q. Titurius Sabinus. By means of a trick, Sabinus managed to defeat and annihilate V.' army (Caes. B Gall. 3,17-19; Cass. Dio 39,45). Caesar (I C); Veneti Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Maelo

(98 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μέλωνος/ Mélōnos; Μαίλος/ Maílos). King of the Sugambri with a Celtic name [1. 374], who is supposed to have started the war against the Romans according to Str. 7,1,4; this probably refers to the defeat of M. Lollius [II 1] in 17/6 BC. After the forced relocation of the Sugambri to the left side of the Rhine (8 BC) he appears to have sought refuge with Augustus (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32). The son of his brother Baetorix, Deidorix, was carried along in the triumphal parade of Germanicus [2]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 2.

Waluburg

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βαλουβουργ; Baloubourg). Semnonian seer ('Sibyl'), mentioned on an AD 2nd-century óstrakon from Elephantine (in Egypt): Βαλουβουργ Σήνονι σιβύλλᾳ (SB III 6221). The inscription contains a list of people on the staff of the praefectus Aegypti ; W. was therefore in Roman service and may have been responsible for interpreting omens and soothsaying. Her name may trace back to Gothic *walus (pilgrim's/traveller's staff or magic wand). Other Germanic women seers probably also had political roles beyond their tribes, e.g. Ganna, a successor to Veled…

Catumelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Catmelus). Celtic name compound ‘ceaseless in battle’ [1. 168]. Gallic prince who commanded a camp of relief troops on the Roman side in the campaign against the Histrians at Lake Timavus in 178 BC (Liv. 41,1,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Duratius

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name: ‘the unfortunate’ [1. 87]. Pro-Roman chieftain of the Pictones, besieged by Dumnacus in 51 BC. His name is attested to on silver coins [2. 431-432].  Dumnacus;  Pictones Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1].

Vercassivellaunus

(62 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name, [1. 120; 2. 291]). Cousin of Vercingetorix and leader of the Arverni. V. was one of the four army leaders who commanded the Gaulish army sent to relieve Alesia in 52 BC. After the defeat of the Gauls he was captured while fleeing (Caes. B Gall. 7,76,3 f.; 7,83,6; 7,85,4; 7,88,4). Commius; Eporedorix [2]; Viridomarus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Dumnovellaunus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnovellaunus; Celtic composite name: ‘he who sees the world’? [1. 196-197; 272-277]). King of some tribes in eastern Kent c. 15 BC ─ c. AD 15 [2. no. 275-291A]. Around the beginning of our era he conquered the territory of the Trinovantes north of the Thames and established himself in Camulodunum. In c. AD 10 he was driven out by Cunobellinus. It is probably this event that caused him to flee to Augustus, who mentions him in his Res Gestae (R. Gest. div. Aug. ch. 32).  Camulodunum;  Cunobellinus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 R. P. Mack, The Coin…

Cingetorix

(169 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name, ‘Warrior King’ [1. 73-74; 2. 172]. [German version] [1] Pro-Roman chief of the Treveri A pro-Roman chief of the  Treveri, who fought for the tribal leadership against his father-in-law  Indutiomarus. Despite initial successes of C. and his followers, Indutiomarus was able to have him declared a public enemy in 54 BC and to confiscate his estates. After the Treveri's defeat and Indutiomarus' death in 53 BC, Caesar rewarded C. for his loyalty by granting him the highest rank in the tribe (Caes. B Gall. 5,3,2-5; 5,4,3; 5,6,3; 5,57,2; 6,8,9). Spickermann, Wolfgang …

Camma

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάμμα; Kámma). Wife of the Galatian tetrarch Sinatus, priestess of Artemis in the 2nd cent. BC. Plutarch notes her as an example of marital love and fidelity because she poisoned the murderer of her husband,  Sinorix, who had forced her to marry him, and herself in the temple (Plut. Mor. 257e-258c; 768b-e; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,39). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Teutomalius

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] ( Toutomotulus). King of the Celtic Salluvii, who fled to the Allobroges in 121 BC. They supported him against his tribe, but were defeated by Cn. Domitius [I 3] Ahenobarbus (Liv. Per. 61). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Cimberius

(77 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic (?) name of a leader of the Suebi who commanded a large tribal army together with his brother  Nasua in 58 BC [1. 438-440]. The attempt to cross the Middle Rhine and to aid  Ariovistus against Caesar failed because Ariovist was defeated in Alsace and subsequently fled across the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 1,37,3; 1,54,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 88-89 G. Walser, Caesar und die Germanen, 1956, 49.

Cotuatus

(57 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name from cot -- ‘old’ (Evans, 340-342). [German version] [1] Leader of an army of Carnutes Leader of an army of Carnutes, who in 52 BC attacked and murdered Roman merchants in Cenabum together with Conconnetodumnus. As a deterrent, Caesar had him cruelly executed (Caes. B. Gall. 7,3; 8,38). Conconnetodumnus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Brogitarus

(143 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρογίταρος; Brogítaros). Celtic compound name from brogi ‘land’ and taros ‘bull’ [1. 276f.; 2. 159]. Tetrarch of the Galatian  Trocmi (OGIS 349), husband of Adobogiona II, daughter of  Deiotarus I. P. In 58 BC, as people's tribune,  Clodius [I 4] Pulcher sold him for a great deal of money the priestly office of Magna Mater of  Pessinus and the title of king, which he had accepted in a plebiscite (Cic. Sest. 26,56; Har. resp. 28-29; Dom. 50,129; Ad Q. fr. 2,7 (9); Str. 12,5,2). The title …

Magalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μάγιλος; Mágilos). Celtic name from maglo-, ‘prince’ [1. 234]. Chief of the Boii who offered himself to Hannibal [4] in 217 BC as an ally and leader for the crossing of the Alps (Pol. 3,44,5; Liv. 21,29,6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Cavarillus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound from cavar ‘powerful, strong’ [1. 331-332]. Noble Aeduan, as a successor of  Litaviccus in 52 BC commander of an infantry contingent of his tribe for Caesar. C. defected to Vercingetorix and was captured in battle together with Cotus and  Eporedorix (Caes. B Gall. 7,67,7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 87-88.

Leonnorius

(231 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Λεωννώριος/ Leōnnṓrios; Λεωννόριος/ Leōnnórios; Latin Lonorius). Galatian tribal prince; his name is Celtic. As leader of the Tolistobogii along with Lutarius, L. led a nomadic group of c. 20,000 people, who had broken away from the army of Brennus [2] in 279/278 and moved through Thrace and the Propontis and pressed Byzantium. The Celts were able to force many of the cities of the Propontis and the Thracian Chersonesus [1] to pay tributes, but were then taken on as mercenaries by Nicomedes I of Bithyni…

Cavarinus

(62 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound (see Cavarillus). King of the Senones, appointed by Caesar as a successor to his brother Moritasgus. In 54 BC, condemned to death by his own tribe, he had to flee. A year later he did, however, again lead a Senonian cavalry contingent on Caesar's side against  Ambiorix (Caes. B Gall. 5,54,2; 6,5,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Self-Romanization

(255 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] SR is the English term for the Romanisation of German scholarship, whereas in its original sense English Romanization is Romanisierung in German. While the latter emphasizes an active and intentional policy of the Romans in respect of peoples they ruled over, SR describes a dynamic process also implying that socially significant groups in Roman provinces have the desire to adopt the Latin language and the culture, lifestyles and religious practices of the Romans [1. 147 ff.]. The concept of SR refl…

Mariccus

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Boian; in AD 69, as ‘self-styled saviour and divine protector’ of Gaul, he instigated an uprising in the territory of the Haedui; this was put down by Vitellius. M. was executed (Tac. Hist. 2,61). Haedui; Boii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Segovesus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name containing the morpheme sego-, 'power, strength, audacity' (cf. also CIL II 2871: Secovesus [1. 254-255; 2. 1452]). Brother of Bellovesus and son of Ambigatus' sister. According to the Celtic migration legend recorded in Livy (5,34,3-6), it fell to S.' lot to advance with his group eastwards into the Hercynian Forest (Hercynia silva) in about 600 BC. According to ancient tradition, modern southern Germany was as a consequence settled by Celts. The historical content of this legend is highly disputed. Celts Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography…

Litaviccus

(131 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name of a young nobleman of the Haedui [2. 360-362] who was persuaded by the vergobretus Convictolitavis in 52 BC to desert Caesar. Through lies, L. then got a contingent of 10,000 men under his command to join the Arverni. However, Caesar pre-empted L.'s military campaign with four legions and cavalry and was able to drive the rebels back to the Roman camp. L. then fled to Gergovia (Caes. B Gall. 7,37-40; 54,1; 55,4; 67,7; Cass. Dio 40,37,1-3). Coins [1. 436-437]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. R. Colbert de Beaulieu, Les monnaies gauloises au …

Drappes

(73 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Draptes). Celtic or pre-Celtic name; leader of the Senones (Evans, 445-446). Together with the Cadurcian Lucterius, D. tried to invade the Gallic provincia in 51 BC. Pursued by Roman forces, the Gallic troops entrenched themselves at Uxellodunum. In an attempt to resupply the city, D. was blocked and captured by C. Caninius Rebilus. He thereupon committed suicide (Caes. B Gall. 8,30-36; 44,2; Oros. 6,11,20-22).  Senones;  Uxellodunum Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Gaizatorix

(97 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαιζατόριξ, Γεζατόριος; Gaizatórix, Gezatórios). Celtic name, ‘lord of the Gaesati (spear bearers)’ [2. 215]. Leader of the Galates, who in 180 BC together with  Cassignatus approached Eumenes II for help against  Pharnaces of Pontus. Eumenes refused, as the Galates had previously sided with the latter (Pol. 24,14; 25,2). A region in western Paphlagonia may also have been named after G. (Str. 12,3,41). Regarding a forged silver coin of the ‘Boian king’ Gesatorix, see [1. 77-79]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Göbl, Typologie und Chronolo…

Conconnetodumnus

(72 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of unclear meaning, ‘he who strikes deep wounds’? [1. 74-75; 2. 219]. Together with  Cotuatus, C. was the leader of a band of Carnutes who in 52 BC, killed and looted the merchants resident in  Cenabum, including the eques C.  Fufius Cita (Caes. B Gall. 7,3,1). C. is not identical with the Congonnetodubnus attested in Saintes (CIL XIII 1040; 1042-1045) [2. 181]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2  Schmidt.

Nammeius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: ‘with physical deficiencies’ [1. 369]). In 58 BC,  N. and  Verucloetius were the leaders of a Helvetian delegation to  Caesar, which asked permission to march through the  Provincia Narbonensis. (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Helvetii; Narbonensis Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Aneroestes

(48 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀνηροέστης, Ἀνηρόεστος; Anēroéstēs, Anēróestos). Celtic name, perhaps a variant of Anarevisios (‘very wise’). King of the  Gaesates, committed suicide after the defeat of the Celtic army at Telamon (225 BC) (Pol. 2,22,2; 2,26,5; 2,31,2; Flor. 1,20: Ariovisto duce). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Schmidt, 126, 131.

Nasua

(26 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the Suebi in 58 BC, name Germanic (?), brother to Cimberius (Caes. B Gall. 1,37,3). Ariovistus; Suebi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Mallovendus

(50 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name (cf. Mal(l)orix). Prince of the Marsi who had subjugated himself to the Romans and who betrayed to Germanicus [2] in AD 15 the hiding place of the eagle standard of one of the fallen legions of Quinctilius Varus (Tac. Ann. 2,25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Segovellauni

(96 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in the area between the Rhodanus and the Druna (modern département of Drôme). With the founding of the province the S. were absorbed into the civitas Valentinorum or the colonia Valentia founded under Caesar or Augustus (Plin. HN 3,34; Ptol. 2,10,12: Σεγαλλαυνοί). Str. 4,1,11 subsumes them under the name Cavari. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 254-257, 272-277  J. Whatmough, The Dialects of Ancient Gaul, 1970, 80, 185  G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, in…

Ambiorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name (‘rich in land’?) [1. 48-49; 2. 124]. Prince of the  Eburones, freed by Caesar from the rule of the  Aduatuci and at first ally of the Romans. In 54 BC he destroyed together with Catuvolcus 15 newly recruited Roman cohorts under the legates Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta on the march to the encampment of Q. Tullius  Cicero by convincing Sabinus to leave the secure winter encampment in the Eburonian territory (Caes. B Gall. 5,27,2-11). A. therefo…

Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in oppositio…

Ortiagon

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀρτιάγων; Ortiágōn). In 189 BC, he was the prince of the Galatian Tolistobogii tribe and husband of Chiomara (cf. [1. 151]). Together with Comboiomarus and Gaulotus, O. was defeated by Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso on the mountains of Magaba and Olympus [10]. He was able to escape and then clearly aspired to rule over the whole of Galatia in the Hellenistic manner. Polybius (22,21) praises O. as a generous, noble, intelligent and brave man. In 184/3 BC, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon appea…

Dorulatus

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name; prince of the Insubres. In 194 BC, D. led an army over the Po, but then endured a crushing defeat by the proconsul L.  Valerius Flaccus at Mediolanum (Liv. 34,46,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Ollovico

(41 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: 'the one who fights all (enemies)'). King (?) of the Nitiobroges and father of Teutomatus, who had received the title 'friend' from the Roman Senate (Caes. B Gall. 7,31,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 106.

Teutomatus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] ( Toutomatus; Celtic name: 'one who is good for his tribe' [1. 117 f.]). King of the Nitiobroges, son of Ollovico. T. supported Vercingetorix at Gergovia in 52 BC, but was able to escape a surprise attack by the Romans only by fleeing (Caes. Gall. 7,31,5; 7,46,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Divico

(55 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name, see Diviciacus [1]. Commanded the  Helvetii when they defeated L.  Cassius [I 11] Longinus in 107 BC. In 58 BC he was spokesman for the embassy sent to Caesar to make terms for ending the war after the defeat on the Saône (Caes. B Gall. 1,13-14). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nerthus

(319 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Tacitus describes the cult of the mother deity N., adding as his own interpretation: id est terra mater (Tac. Germ. 40,2). He states that N. is venerated by seven tribes (the so-called Nerthus peoples), whom he includes among the Suebi living to the east of the Elbe. They probably lived in western Mecklenburg and were part of the Ingaevones [3. 460]. On an island (probably in the Danish Baltic Sea) he locates a sacred grove containing a cultic wagon concealed by covers. Only one priest ( sacerdos) is allowed to touch it. The goddess’s solemn procession, linked to …

Lutarius

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουτάριος; Loutários also Λουτούριος; Loutoúrios). Galatian tribal prince with a Celtic name, as the leader of the Trocmi he was co-commander with Leonnorius. At the Hellespont the two princes parted. Leonnorius moved back to Byzantium and L. crossed over to Asia Minor with the aid of captured ships. Nicomedes I of Bithynia's offer then led to the reunification of the two Celtic groups (Liv. 38,16,5-9). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography K. Strobel, Die Galater, vol. 1, 1996, 236-257.

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Tinca

(40 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Cicero (Brut. 46,172) mentions a T. from Placentia, who sought to outdo his friend Q. Granius [I 2] with his wit. The cognomen is probably borrowed from the Celtic [1]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 2, 1851 f.

Eposognatus

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐποσόγνατος; Eposógnatos). Celtic name; pro-Roman tetrarch of the Galatian Tolistobogii [1. 155]. E. remained loyal to Eumenes II of Pergamum and did not support Antiochus [5] the Great. For that reason, C.  Manlius Vulso asked him during his campaign against the Galatians in 189 BC to talk the Tolistobogii into voluntary submission, but without success (Pol. 21,37; Liv. 38,18).  Tolistobogii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Vergobretus

(215 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] According to Caes. B Gall. 1,16,5 the highest magistrate of the Haedui, who was elected annually by the nobility and, as the senior judge, held authority over life and death. Caes. B Gall. 7,32,3 characterizes his power as 'royal' ( regia potestas). He was not allowed to leave the tribal territory. If there was an interregnum, the priests presided over the election of the new V., but another member of the same family could not be elected during the lifetime of a V. (Caes. Gall. 7,33,2-3). There was also a council of nob…

Gargoris

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[English version] Name ungeklärter Herkunft mit idg. Wurzel [1. 118-119]. Sagenhafter König der Cureten (?) in Tartessos, der das Sammeln von Honig erfunden haben soll. Seinen von der Tochter nach einem Fehltritt geborenen Enkel Habis versuchte er mehrfach durch Tiere töten zu lassen, die ihn jedoch verschonten oder sogar säugten. Den herangewachsenen Enkel erkannte G. und machte ihn zum Nachfolger (Iust. 44,4,1-14). Aussetzungsmythen Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M.Lourdes Albertos Firmat, La onomastica personal primitiva, 1966. H.J. Rose, Griech. Myth…

Duratius

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[English version] Keltisches Namenskomposit “Pechvogel” [1. 87]. Proröm. Häuptling der Pictones, der 51 v.Chr. von Dumnacus belagert wurde. Sein Name ist auf Silbermünzen bezeugt [2. 431-432]. Dumnacus; Pictones Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B.Colbert de Beaulieu s. Diviciacus [1].

Dumnorix

(218 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnoreix; Celtic composite name: ‘world king’ [1. 85-86]). Prince of the Haedui, brother of Diviciacus and son-in-law of Orgetorix, with whom he is supposed to have planned the conquest of the whole of Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,3). D. was the most powerful man in the tribe; he possessed his own mounted troop, and by means of gifts and matrimonial connections enjoyed great influence among foreign tribes, so that in 58 BC he was able to help the Helvetii to cross the territory of the S…

Albruna

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Albrinia, Aurinia). Germanic compound name (‘the one furnished with the secret knowledge of the albs’?) [1. 553], probably not a personal name, but rather a designation for a visionary woman. According to Tac. Germ. 8, A. was worshipped almost as a god by the Germans together with others even before  Veleda. Several such visionaries are transmitted in literature; thus Ganna,  Waluburg and other women who are not named (Suet. Vit. 14; Cass. Dio 55,1). Their meaning is often overstated; they had sooner a low function in cult and in society [2. 151-162]. Spickermann, Wol…

Boduognatus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound from boduo and -gnatus ‘he who was born of the battle crow’ [1.461; 2.60; 3.152]. Commander-in-chief of the Nervii in the Belgian tribes' battle against Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,23,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 1 2 Evans 3 Schmidt E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 594 Whatmough, 214.

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Cerethrius

(31 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κερέθριος; Keréthrios). Leader of one of the three parts of the Galatian army who plundered Thrace in 280 BC (Paus. 10,19,7).  Belgius;  Brennus [2] Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
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