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(1,604 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
Two brief biblical passages on Melchizedek generated a complex speculative tradition in Jewish and early Christian circles. In Genesis Melchizedek, the “king of Salem” and “priest of God Most High” (Gen 14:18), greets Abraham after his victory over the five kings who had taken captive Abraham’s nephew, Lot. Melchizedek blesses Abraham, who in turn gives him a tithe of his spoils (Gen 14:20). In Ps 110:1 (LXX 109) the psalmist tells of God addressing an Israelite king, telling him to take a seat …
Date: 2021-07-15

Introduction (intro_I_XXII)

(1,228 words)

Contributor(s): Attridge, Harold W.
This volume contains Codex I from the collection of thirteen codices found near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt in December, 1945.1 For a time during the 1950’s and 60’s this codex was in the possession of the Jung Institute in Zürich and hence is also known as the Jung Codex.2 The codex, which is generally well preserved, contains five texts: the brief Prayer of the Apostle Paul (I,1) in the front flyleaf; The Apocryphon of James (I, 2); The Gospel of Truth (I, 3); The Treatise on the Resurrection (I, 4) and The Tripartite Tractate (I, 5). All of these important texts, which have already bee…

Preface (Preface_I_XXII)

(390 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
This volume, like the others in the Coptic Gnostic Library Project, is the result of a collaborative effort by numerous scholars. The individuals who bear primary responsibility for each tractate are indicated on the title page of each section. Several others deserve a special acknowledgement. Dieter Mueller originally held overall editorial responsibility for Codex I. Before his tragic death in 1977 he had completed the edition of The Prayer of Paul and had done preliminary work on the translation of the Tripartite Tractate. The notes and drafts of that work were a useful re…

SIGLA (sigla-I_XXII)

(258 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
A dot placed under a letter in the transcription indicates that the letter is visually uncertain, even though the context may make the reading certain. A dot on the line outside of brackets in the transcription indicates an uncertain letter from which some vestiges of ink remain. [   ] Square brackets in the transcription indicate a lacuna in the MS where writing most probably at one time existed. When the text cannot be reconstructed but the number of missing letters can reasonably be estimated, that number is indicated by a corresponding nu…

The Gospel of Truth - 1,3:16.31 - 43.24 (TGOT)

(55,849 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W. | MacRae, George W.
I. Bibliography 1. Editions, Translations and Commentaries: Søren Giversen, Sandhedens Evangelium, De gnostiske håndskrifter fra Nildalen, Theologiske Studien, Raekke 2, Nr. 2, (Copenhagen, 1957) Gads . Kendrick Grobel, The Gospel of Truth: A Valentinian Meditation on the Gospel: Translation from the Coptic and Commentary, (New York, Nashville, 1960) Abingdon . Rodolphe Kasser et al., Evangelium veritatis: Supplementum Photographicum, (Bern, 1975) Francke See the bibliography to the Tripartite Tractate. Michel Malinine et al., Evangelium Veritatis: Codex Jung f. VIIIV-XV…

Abbreviations and Short Titles (abbr-I_XXII)

(2,029 words)

Contributor(s): Attridge, Harold W.
1. Abbreviations of Biblical Books and Related Texts a. Old Testament Dan Daniel Isa Isaiah Deut Deuteronomy 2 Kgs 2 Kings Eccl Ecclesiastes Num Numbers Exod Exodus Prov Proverbs Ezek Ezekiel Ps Psalms Gen Genesis 1 Sam 1 Samuel b. New Testament Acts Acts of the Apostles 1 Pet 1 Peter Col Colossians 2 Pet 2 Peter 1 Cor 1 Corinthians Phil Philippians 2 Cor 2 Corinthians Rev Revelation Eph Ephesians Rom Romans Gal Galatians 1 Thess 1 Thessalonians Heb Hebrews 2Thess 2 Thessalonians Jas James 1 Tim 1 Timothy Matt Matthew 2 Tim 2 Timothy c. Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha Apoc. Abr. Apocalypse of…

Table of Tractates in the Coptic Gnostic Library (TOTITCGL_I_XXII)

(571 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
Table of Tractates in the Coptic Gnostic Library The following table lists, for the thirteen Nag Hammadi Codices and Papyrus Berolinensis 8502, the codex and tractate numbers, the tractate titles as used in this edition (the titles found in the tractates themselves, sometimes simplified and standardized, or, when the tractate bears no surviving title, one supplied by the editors), and the abbreviations of these titles. I, 1 The Prayer of the Apostle Paul Pr. Paul I, 2 The Apocryphon of James Ap. Jas. I, 3 The Gospel of Truth Gos. Truth I, 4 The Treatise on the Resurrection Treat. Res. I, 5 The T…

Appendix: The Greek Fragments (TGATT_app)

(8,042 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
Introduction Fragments of three different manuscripts of the Greek text of the GTh have survived. These fragments, consisting of P. Oxy. 1, P. Oxy. 654, and P. Oxy. 655, were among the first papyri to be published from the excavations at Oxyrhynchus, appearing in 1897 and 1904 (see below, Bibliography). Publication of the Greek fragments elicited an enormous amount of scholarly discussion, in which the attempt was made to restore missing passages of text, identify the work or works to which the fragments belonged, and assess the place of the f…

The Tripartite Tractate - 1,5:51.1 - 138.27 (TTT)

(151,095 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W. | Pagels, Elaine H.
I. Bibliography Alexander Böhlig, ‛Zum Gottesbegriff des Tractatus Tripartitus, Nag Hammadi C. I,5’ , Kerygma und Logos: Beiträge zu den geistesgeschichtlichen Beziehungen zwischen Antike und Christentum: Festschrift für Carl Andresen zum 70. Geburtstag, A. M. Ritter (ed.), (Göttingen, 1979) Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht 49-67. Carsten Colpe, ‛Heidnische, jüdische und christliche Überlieferung in den Schriften aus Nag Hammadi VIII’ , JAC 22 ( 1979 ) 98-122. D. Devoti, ‛Una summa di teologia gnostica; Il Tractatus Tripartitus’ , Revista di storia e letteratura religiosa


(2,145 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef | Satran, David | Bovon, François | Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. New Testament Apocrypha from Nag Hammadi I. Terminology Etymologically, “apocryphal” means “hidden, secret,” while “pseudepigraphal” indicates that a document has been falsely attributed to an author. In the modern period, the usage of both terms has been burdened by confessional preconceptions, since the extent of the canon (Bib…

John, Gospel of

(5,507 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Introductory Issues – II. Literary Features – III. Religio-historical Parallels – IV. Theology The Fourth Gospel provides a totally independent witness for the theological interpretation of the figure of ¶ Jesus of Nazareth (Jesus Christ: I, 1). Although stylistically homogeneous, it combines distinct perspectives. The most Jewish of the Gospels, it nevertheless contains polemic against “the Jews” as striking as any in the New Testament. Although it cultivates a high Christology (I, 8), it insists on the…

Hebrews, Epistle to the

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Authorship – II. Date – III. Adressees – IV. Genre and Structure – V. Religio-historical Background – VI. Message Among the letters ascribed to Paul, Hebrews stands out for its artful valuation of the person and work of Jesus Christ and its urgent exhortations to remain faithful. The text is a masterpiece of early Christian homiletics, interweaving imaginative interpretation of Scripture with powerful parenesis. ¶ I. Authorship The text does not name its author. A reference to “our brother Timothy” (Heb 13:23) may have led to the assumpti…

Gospel of Truth

(535 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] (NHC I/3; XII/2 Gos. Truth). The Gospel of Truth, a homily on the Christian message by a Valentinian of the 2nd or 3rd century, survives in two copies discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi: a complete text in Lycopolitan Coptic (NHC I/3) and fragments in Sahidic (NHC XII/2), independently translated from the Greek. Irenaeus ( Haer. III 11.9) records a Gospel of Truth “recently composed” by Valentinians (Valentinianism) that differed significantly from the canonical Gospels. He does not quote the text, however, and its relationship to the Gos. Truth, whose title derives f…

Acts of Thomas

(390 words)

Author(s): Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] ( Acts Thom.). The Acts Thom. report the missionary journeys of Thomas Didymus toward and in India. The complete text is preserved in two manuscripts, one Syriac from the 10th century and one Greek from the 12th century. Abbreviated forms exist in the Greek, Syriac, Latin, Armenian, Coptic and Arabic languages. The Syriacisms in the Greek indicate …


(3,604 words)

Author(s): Blum, Erhard | Attridge, Harold W. | Anderson, Gary A. | Dan, Joseph | Nagel, Tilman
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Qur’ān I. Old Testament 1. Name. The name אַבְרָהָם/ 'abrāhām is a by-form of אַבְרָם/ 'abrām or אֲבִירָם/ 'abîrām (Num 16:1, etc.). With the meaning "Father (= God) is exalted," it corresponds to a widely dispersed West-Semitic name pattern and, as a praise or confessional name, belongs in the realm of personal piety. The otherwise unattested extended form is interpreted in Gen 17:4f. in a popular etymology as "Father (אָב/ 'āb) of a multitude (הָמוֹן/ hāmôn) of nations" - in an entirely …