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Witt, Franz Xaver

(112 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (Feb 9, 1834, Walderbach, Bavaria – Dec 2, 1888, Landshut), German church musician. After training in Regensburg, he was ordained to the priesthood in 1856; from 1859 to 1867 he taught Gregorian chant at the Regensburg seminary. He founded the periodicals Fliegende Blätter für katholische Kirchenmusik (1866) and Musica sacra (1868), as well as the Allgemeiner Cäcilien-Verband für Deutschland ¶ (1868). He was a central figure in the movement to reform church music (“Caecilianism”) and championed a strict interpretation of liturgical church music (IV, 4.c.α). Barbar…


(166 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] is a method of learning the individual musical pitches of a piece of vocal music by means of specific solmization syllables; it goes back to Guido of Arezzo, who derived it from the hymn assigned to the feast of John the Baptist ( Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris/ Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum,/ Solve poluti Labii reatum,/Sancte Johannes). The initial pitches of each half-line of the hymn melody (not specifically liturgical in the MA) produce a rising six-tone scale or hexachord (C=ut, D=re, E=mi, F=fa, G=sol, A=la). ¶ Scales from F to D ( hexachordum molle) and from G to E ( hexach…

Senfl, Ludwig

(159 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (c. 1486, Basel – between Dec 2, 1542, and Aug 10, 1543, Munich). In 1496 Senfl became a choirboy at the court of Emperor Maximilian I; after the death of H. Isaac in 1527, Senfl succeeded him as court composer. In 1523 Senfl was appointed director of the court musicians of Duke William IV in Munich. He sympathized with the Reformation and had contacts with Luther and the Protestant duke Albert of Prussia. His reputation rests on both secular Lieder and Masses (ordinaries and propers), Magnificats, psalm settings, hymns, and responsories. In archaic style, h…

Verdi, Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco

(170 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1813, Le Roncole, near Busseto, Duchy of Parma – Jan 27, 1901, Milan), Italian composer. After studying music in Milan with Vincenzo Lavigna, Verdi served as music master in Busseto and then moved to Milan. With his income from opera, he purchased the estate of Sant’ Agata, where he lived after 1851. A masterful composer of operas, he also composed a few pieces of church music, including a requiem mass in memory ¶ of the poet A. Manzoni (1874) and the Quattro pezzi sacri ( Te Deum for double chorus and orchestra, Stabat Mater for chorus and orchestra, Ave Mariasulla sca…

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (Christian name: Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus; Jan 27, 1756, Salzburg – Dec 5, 1791, Vienna). Like his elder sister Maria Anna (called “Nannerl”), Mozart received his musical education from his father Leopold Mozart, a violinist from Augsburg who later became the second conductor of the Salzburg court orchestra. In 1762, Leopold traveled with both children to Munich and Vienna on the first of a series of musical journeys and presented them as “child prodigies” to an amazed, mostly …

Rhau, Georg

(167 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (Rhaw, Rau; 1488, Eisfeld, Franconia – Aug 6, 1548, Wittenberg), German composer, music theorist, and publisher. After studies at Erfurt and Wittenberg, Rhau served as cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig. A supporter of the Reformation, he went to Wittenberg in 1523 and set up a print shop, from which he published mostly collections of polyphonic Protestant church music with Latin and German texts but also the first printings of Luther’s Large Catechism and the Augsburg Confession. Rhau made Wittenberg a publishing center. His Newe deudsche geistliche Gesenge are ¶ a…


(158 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] Tallis, Thomas (um 1505 – 20. oder 23.11.1585 Greenwich bei London), engl. Komponist und Organist. T. war zunächst Organist an der Benediktinerabtei in Dover, in St. Mary-at-Hill in London, an der Augustinerabtei Holy Cross in Waltham (Essex) und an der Kathedrale in Canterbury, bevor er um 1543 Gentleman der Chapel Royal in London wurde und dort den Organistendienst bis zu seinem Tode versah (ab 1572 gemeinsam mit W. Byrd). T. war bes. für sein kontrapunktisches Können berühmt. E…


(99 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] Tunder, Franz (1614 Bannesdorf bei Burg, Fehmarn – 5.11.1667 Lübeck), dt. Organist und Komponist. 1632–1641 Hoforganist in Holstein-Gottorp, ab 1641 Organist an der Marienkirche in Lübeck, wo er die berühmten Abendmusiken initiierte (Kirchenkonzert). Sein Nachfolger und Schwiegersohn war D. Buxtehude. Barbara Boisits Bibliography Werke: Kantaten und Chorwerke, hg. von M. Seiffert (Denkmäler dt. Tonkunst 3, 1920, 21957) Sämtliche Orgelwerke, hg. von K. Beckmann, 1974 Über T.: K. Gudewill, F.T. und die nordelbingische Musikkultur seiner Zeit, 1967 H. Bes…


(176 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] Pachelbel, Johann (getauft 1.9.1653 Nürnberg – bestattet 9.3.1706 ebd.), dt. Organist (Orgel/Orgelmusik) und Komponist. Ausbildung in seiner Heimatstadt bei Heinrich Schwemmer und Georg Kaspar Wecker. 1673 Hilfsorganist in St. Stephan in Wien und möglicherweise Schüler von Johann Kaspar Kerll, 1677 Hoforganist in Eisenach, wo er der Lehrer von J.S. Bachs Bruder Johann Christoph war, 1678 Organist der Predigerkirche in Erfurt, 1690 Hoforganist in Stuttgart, 1692 Stadtorganist in Go…


(84 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] , Franz Xaver (9.2.1834 Walderbach, Bayern – 2.12.1888 Landshut), dt. Kirchenmusiker. Ausbildung in Regensburg, 1856 Priesterweihe, 1859–1867 Chorallehrer am Regensburger Priesterseminar. W. gründete die Zeitschriften »Fliegende Blätter für kath. Kirchenmusik« (1866) und »Musica sacra« (1868) sowie den »Allg. Dt. Caecilienverein« (1868). W. war eine der zentralen Figuren der kirchenmusikalischen Reformbewegung (Caecilianismus) und trat für eine strenge Auslegung liturgischer Kirchenmusik (: IV., 4., c, α) ein. Barbara Boisits Bibliography Vf…


(145 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] Senfl, Ludwig (um 1486 Basel – zw. 2.12.1542 und 10.8.1543 München). S. wurde 1496 als Sängerknabe in die Hofkapelle von Kaiser Maximilian I. aufgenommen und nach H. Isaacs Tod (1517) dessen Nachfolger als Komponist der Hofkapelle. 1523 wurde S. Leiter der Hofkapelle von Herzog Wilhelm IV. in München. S. sympathisierte mit der Reformation und stand mit Luther und dem prot. Herzog Albrecht d. Ä. von Preußen in Verbindung. Seine Bedeutung gründet auf seinen weltl. Liedern und auf se…

Tallis, Thomas

(161 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (c. 1505 – Nov 20 or 23, 1585, Greenwich, near London), English composer and organist. Having served as organist at the Benedictine abbey in Dover, St. Mary-at-Hill in London, the Augustinian Abbey of the Holy Cross in Waltham (Essex), and Canterbury Cathedral, around 1543 he was appointed gentleman of the Chapel Royal in London, where he served as organist until his death (a position shared with W. Byrd after 1572). Tallis was particularly noted for his skill at counterpoint. He …

Notation, Musical

(569 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] Musical notation is the visual representation of the various parameters of music (pitch, duration, loudness, tempo, expression, articulation). The part of real sound that notation cannot completely reproduce remains a matter of musical convention or performance practice. Until early in the 20th century, attempts were made to fix all parameters with increasing precision. Notation was first developed within theory of music, but later also mediated between theory and practice, so tha…

Ockeghem, Jean d’

(185 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] ( Jean de; c. 1410, Saint Ghislain near Mons – Feb 6, 1497, Tours?), Franco-Flemish composer. He sang in the choir of Antwerp Cathedral and in the chapel of Duke Charles I of Bourbon in Moulins. He was the leading singer and choir director at the French court under Charles VII, Louis XI, and Charles VIII. He also held the lucrative office of trésorier of St. Martin’s Abbey in Tours. He traveled to Spain, Flanders, and elsewhere. His main work was in religious compositions (Church music: IV, 2.a.y), particularly masses and motets; his requiem…

Pachelbel, Johann

(204 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (baptized Sep 1, 1653, Nuremberg – buried 3 Sep, 1706, Nuremberg), German organist (Organ) and composer, educated in his home town under Heinrich Schwemmer and Georg Kaspar Wecker. In 1673 Pachelbel became assistant organist at St. Stephen’s Church in Vienna, and may have studied under Johann Kaspar Kerl. In 1677 he became court organist in Eisenach, where he was the teacher of J.S. Bach’s brother, Johann Christoph. In 1678 he became organist of the Predigerkirche in Erfurt, in 16…

Tunder, Franz

(105 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (1614, Bannesdorf bei Burg, Fehmarn – Nov 5, 1667, Lübeck), German organist and composer. From 1632 to 1641 Tunder was court organist in Holstein-Gottorp; in 1641 he was appointed organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck, where he inaugurated the famous evening concerts (Church concert). His successor and son-in-law was D. Buxtehude. Barbara Boisits Bibliography Works: Kantaten und Chorwerke, ed. M. Seiffert, Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst 3, 1920, 21957 Sämtliche Orgelwerke, ed. K. Beckmann, 1974 On Tunder: K. Gudewill, Franz Tunder und die nordelbingische Mu…

Musica enchiriadis

(112 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] (from Gk enchiridion, “handbook”), title of a treatise probably written by abbot Hoger around 900 at Werden abbey near Essen, the first to discuss polyphonic music (organum). It divides the whole range of notes into 4½ tetrachords (four-note series) with a semitone in the middle of each. It uses the so-called dasia signs for song notation, derived from a basic sign similar to F (Notation, musical). Most sources continue the treatise with the Scolica enchiriadis de musica. Barbara Boisits Bibliography Source: Musica et Scolica enchiriadis, ed. H. Schmid, 1981 Bibl.: N.…


(508 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] . Unter N. versteht man die visuelle Darstellung der verschiedenen Parameter von Musik (Tonhöhe, -dauer, -stärke, Tempo, Ausdruck, Artikulation). Was sie an klingender Wirklichkeit nicht vollständig wiedergeben kann, bleibt Sache musikalischer Konvention bzw. der Aufführungspraxis. Bis ins frühe 20.Jh. wurde versucht, alle Parameter zunehmend genauer zu fixieren. Zunächst innerhalb der Musiktheorie entwickelt, vermittelte die N. auch später zw. Theorie und Praxis, so daß ein Wech…


(167 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] (R[h]au), Georg (1488 Eisfeld, Franken – 6.8.1548 Wittenberg), dt. Komponist, Musiktheoretiker und -drucker. Studium in Erfurt und Wittenberg; 1518 Kantor an der Thomasschule in Leipzig. Als Anhänger der Reformation ging er 1523 nach Wittenberg, wo er eine Druckerei errichtete, in der er v.a. Sammelwerke mehrstimmiger prot. Kirchenmusik mit lat. und dt. Text, aber auch – als erster – Luthers »Großen Katechismus« und die »Augsburger Konfession« herausgab. Durch Rh. wurde Wittenberg…


(154 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[English Version] . Unter S. versteht man die auf Guido von Arezzo zurückgehende Methode, die einzelnen Tonstufen eines Gesangs mittels bestimmter S.-Silben zu erlernen, die Guido dem Hymnus zum Fest Johannes' des Täufers entnahm ( Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris / Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum, / Solve poluti Labii reatum, / Sancte Johannes). Die Anfangstöne jeder Halbzeile der im MA nicht-liturgischen Hymnus-Melodie ergeben eine aufsteigende Sechstonreihe bzw. ein Hexachord (c=ut, d=re, e=mi, f=fa, g=sol, a=la). Analog zur Reihe c–a (Hexachor…
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