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Flesh and Spirit

(2,268 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian | Reinmuth, Eckart | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics I. Old Testament In the writings of the OT, flesh and spirit are fundamental anthropological concepts, far more complementary than antithetical. The groundwork for a flesh/spirit dualism (IV) is partially laid in the OT, but it is not developed. The dualism gradually began to intensify in the intertestamental period under Hellenistic influence. 1. Flesh (usually Heb. בָּשָׂר/ bāśar, less often שְׁאֵר/ še'er) denotes the essential components making up human and animal bodies, often limited to th…

Eichhorn, Karl Albert August Ludwig

(212 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1856, Garlstorf near Lüneburg – Aug 3, 1926, Braunschweig), Protestant theologian. He studied in Leipzig, Erlangen and Gottingen, from 1875 to 1878, served as pastor from 1881 to 1884, gained his Habilitation in Halle in 1886, becoming professor of church history there in 1888. He moved to Kiel for health reasons in 1901, received an honorary doctorate fr…

Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried

(267 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1752, Dörrenzimmern, Württemberg – Jun 25, 1827, Göttingen), Protestant theologian. After a brief period as rector in Ohrdruf in 1774, he earned his doctorate in Jena in 1775 and soon after became professor of oriental languages there. In 1788, he became professor of philosophy in Göttingen. He attempted to combine a historical approach following J.D. …

City Cult

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Rüpke, Jörg | Frevel, Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. History – III. Archaeology I. Terminology The term “city cult” can be understood as a concretization of the veneration of “local gods” (cf. Stolz). There is evidence from the earliest times of municipal settlements with their complex social forms, rites, and feasts concentrated on the local deities' protection and promotion of community (cf. the gods of Sumerian and Babylonian cities described as “king of the city” or “lord/lady of…” or …