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ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊

(48,745 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Köprülü, M. Fuad | Et al.
, nom d’une dynastie turque, d’origine og̲h̲uze [voir G̲h̲uzz], qui figure dans les sources européennes sous les formes Ottomans (angl. et fr.), Osmanlis (fr.), Osmanen (all.), etc. ¶ I. L’histoire politique et dynastique. II. L’histoire sociale et économique. III. La littérature. IV. La vie religieuse. V. L’architecture. VI. Les tapis et étoffes. VII. La céramique, le travail des métaux et les arts mineurs. VIII. La peinture. IX. La numismatique. I. L’histoire politique et dynastique, —1. Vue générale et chronologie de la dynastie. L’empire ottoman a été l’État islamique le …

Afs̲h̲ār

(1,426 words)

Author(s): Köprülü, M. Fuad
(ou Aws̲h̲ār), tribu Og̲h̲uz (G̲h̲uzz [ q.v.]), mentionnée pour la première fois par al-Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk, I, 56; cf. aussi Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲ (Bérézine), I, 32, selon lequel Aws̲h̲ār était le petit-fils de Yiʾldiʾz Ḵh̲ān, troisième fils d’Og̲h̲uz Ḵh̲ān (de là Yaziʾd̲j̲iʾ-og̲h̲lu, Sald̲j̲ūḳnāma, en ms.; Abū l-G̲h̲āzī, S̲h̲ed̲j̲ere-yi Turkī (Desmaisons), 27; le même, S̲h̲ed̲j̲ere-yi Terākime, Istanbul 1937, 42). Ils semblent avoir émigré vers l’Ouest en même temps que les autres tribus G̲h̲uzz. Un chef Afs̲h̲ār,…

Bād̲j̲

(48 words)

Author(s): Köprülü, M. Fuad
, the birthplace of Firdawsī, a small village in the vicinity of Ṭūs. The name is not found in any of the Arab geographers, and is mentioned only by ʿArūḍī-i Samarḳandī ( Čahār Maḳāla , ed. Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḳazwīnī, GMS i, 47, 190). (M. Fuad Köprülü)

Afs̲h̲ār

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Köprülü, M. Fuad
(or aws̲h̲ār ), Og̲h̲uz (G̲h̲uzz [ q.v.]) tribe, first mentioned by al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , i, 56; cf. also Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲ (Bérézine), i, 32, according to whom Aws̲h̲ār was the grandson of Yildiz Ḵh̲ān, the third son of Og̲h̲uz Ḵh̲ān (whence Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊-og̲h̲lu, Sald̲j̲ūk-nāma , in MS; Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī. S̲h̲ed̲j̲ere-yi Turkī (Desmaisons), 27; idem, S̲h̲edjere-yi Terākime , Istanbul 1937, 42). They seem to have migrated westwards with the other G̲h̲uzz tribes. An Afs̲h̲ār chieftain, Aydog̲h̲…

ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊

(47,838 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Zachariadou, E.A. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Et al.
, the name of a Turkish dynasty, ultimately of Og̲h̲uz origin [see g̲h̲uzz ], whose name appears in European sources as ottomans (Eng.), ottomanes (Fr.), osmanen (Ger.), etc. I. political and dynastic history 1. General survey and chronology of the dynasty The Ottoman empire was the territorially most extensive and most enduring Islamic state since the break-up of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and the greatest one to be founded by Turkish-speaking peoples. It arose in the Islamic world after the devastations over much of the eastern and central lands of the Dār al-Islām

Bād̲j̲

(1,964 words)

Author(s): Köprülü, M. Fuad
, the Arabicised form given to the Persian bāz̲h̲ in the Islamic period (al-Sayyid Addī S̲h̲īr, Kitāb al-Alfāẓ al-Fārisiyya al-Muʿarraba , Beirut 1908). From the ioth to the 14th century bāz̲h̲ is more common; thus it is the usual form in the S̲h̲āh-nāma (though bad̲j̲ occurs too), and the phrase baz̲h̲ u sāw is not infrequent, while the expression bāz̲h̲-i rūm is used there with reference to the tribute and indemnity paid to the victorious Persians by the rulers of the Eastern Roman empire (Fritz Wolff, Glossar zu Firdosis Schahname , Berlin 1935). The G̲h̲aznawid poet Bahrāmī uses baz̲h̲, …