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Ecclesiastical law

(5,792 words)

Author(s): Weitzel, Jürgen | Klippel, Diethelm | Synek, Eva
1. Foundations of Catholic and Protestant ecclesiastical lawThe ecclesiastical law of the early modern period is characterized by the loss of the religious unity that shaped the Middle Ages. In a revolutionary departure [2. 503] following the Lutheran Reformation in 1517, alongside the law of the Roman Catholic Church, summarized in the  Corpus Iuris Canonici, there now stood a different basic understanding of the role of law in the church. The recognition of Protestant teaching as having equal rights (in the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, 1555) and the…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,188 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Walther, Gerrit | Klein, Birgit E.
1. General 1.1. OverviewThe term emancipation, which exists in all European languages, comes from Roman private law (Latin emancipatio), and originally meant release from the patria potestas (Parental rights and obligations). The concept had an extraordinary career from the dawn of the early modern period, though the original family law sense survived in jurisdiction long into the 19th century in Europe. While outside legal usage it initially had an overtone of moral egoism, it increasingly became a subject of reflection…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ius Germanicum privatum (German private law)

(1,970 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. DefinitionBeginning around the early 18th century, ius Germanicum privatum (“German private law”) was regarded as the indigenous German or Germanic parts of private law. The concept thus had a deliberately narrower scope than private law, as the general meaning of the words – the totality of all German private law norms – suggests. It presumed the existence of private law norms that had arisen independently of ius commune or which remained uninfluenced by or contained in it. In particular, though,  ius Germanicum privatum designated the area of early modern jurisprudenc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Legal history

(1,280 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. DefinitionThe history of law, on the one hand, may be understood as the history of culturally influenced legal norms and their application; on the other hand, the history of law (or legal history) designates the subdiscipline of jurisprudence and history (intellectual discipline) dedicated to the history of these norms, including their cultural, political, economic, and social contexts. The history of law in the latter sense can be subdivided according to areas of law (e.g. the history of priv…
Date: 2019-10-14

Human rights

(8,548 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. Definition and overviewHuman and civil rights (French, droits de l'homme et du citoyen; German,  Menschenrechte und Bürgerrechte) - often collectively called “basic rights” or “basic freedoms” - are considered to be the fundamental subjective rights of individuals; such rights are more valuable than simple subjective rights and protect specific freedoms, especially from state interference. Since the end of the 18th century, basic rights generally have been guaranteed by written constitutions. Human rights app…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,678 words)

Author(s): Brauneder, Wilhelm | Klippel, Diethelm
1. Historical development 1.1. DefinitionLegislation (legislature) is one of the three classical functions of the state in addition to government and jurisdiction. This trio is the basis of the doctrine of the separation of powers (Powers, separation of) and so is of even earlier date. Since the Middle Ages, legislation as the creation of an entire legal order has differed from the application of law in individual cases by means of judgment and specific (administrative) measures enacted by authoriti…
Date: 2019-10-14

Military law

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. Definition and scope Military law, disregarding the various contemporary usages of the term, may be understood as all law that pertains to the military, especially the legal norms that govern its inner composition, administration, and conflicts, as well as its external relations with the population and state and its conduct in military confrontations with other states. With respect to the history of the term, military law (German:  Militärrecht) was increasingly used after 1800 to translate the Latin term ius militare. Previously, the general term was the “law of war” (German:  K…
Date: 2020-04-06

Natural law

(9,871 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. Introduction 1.1. TerminologyPhilosophy of law (Latin  philosophia iuris; French  philosophie du droit; German  Rechtsphilosophie) is understood to be a subdiscipline of jurisprudence and philosophy that is dedicated to fundamental philosophical questions about law and the state and the investigation of certain legal problems from a philosophical perspective. The term natural law (Latin  ius naturae or  naturale; French  droit de la nature; German  Naturrecht) designates a complex of legal norms that are presumed to be valid independent of positive…
Date: 2020-04-06


(2,742 words)

Author(s): Hensel, Roman | Klippel, Diethelm
1. Definition The term juridification (alternatively, “judicialisation”; German Verrechtlichung) has been used since the early 20th century to describe the process of the expansion of legal structures to areas of life that had not previously been regulated by law, or the intensification and increasingly detailed nature of existing law; it further refers in a general sense to the growing importance of legal structures. The term Verrechtlichung was coined by Hugo Sinzheimer in 1919 and introduced to scholarly discourse by the dissertation of Otto Kirchheimer in 1928 [22. 354]; [8. 5…
Date: 2019-10-14

Asylum, right of

(968 words)

Author(s): Andersch, Ulrike | Klippel, Diethelm
Since antiquity “asylum” (Greek ásylon) has meant a place of refuge where refugees could find protection. Under the influence of medieval legal theory, in the course of the early modern period today’s understanding of the right of asylum developed; it distinguishes between the right of asylum as the sum of legal norms that regulate the field of law and the subjective right of asylum of a  refugee. In the early modern period, the development of an ecclesiastical right of asylum, a secular right, and an international right overlapped. 1. Ecclesiastical right of asylum The ecclesiastical r…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,149 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Übler, Rebekka
1. Definition and contextsThe concept of justice and what it means is one of the fundamental problems of the philosophy of law and of conceptions of law in every age; this question is also closely tied to the religious or theological notion of the justice of the gods or God (God, concepts of; Theodicy). The number of answers is correspondingly endless, particularly in the early modern period. The question of historical change in the concept of justice seems even more difficult to answer. Only a few…
Date: 2019-10-14

Freedom of migration

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Liebner, Katrin | Klippel, Diethelm
Freedom of migration is understood to be the right to leave, initially, the territory of a ruler and then - after the formation of states over the course of the early modern period - a national territory for the purpose of establishing permanent residency in a different area. Only after the rise of the modern sovereign state (Sovereignty) with clearly defined national boundaries can one draw a clear distinction between freedom of emigration and freedom of movement. The history of freedom of migr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Freedom of movement

(909 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Dehmer, Gregor
1. DefinitionFreedom of movement is the right to stay (temporarily) and reside (permanently) freely and unimpeded by the state anywhere within its territory. Freedom of movement thus represents the inner-state counterpart to freedom of migration. A clear distinction between these two types of freedom developed over the course of the emergence of the modern sovereign state (Sovereignty) with precisely delimited national borders (Boundary). Much of the history of freedom of movement thus coincides …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law and ethics

(966 words)

Author(s): Habermeyer, Helen | Klippel, Diethelm
Both law and ethics formulate cultural behavioral norms. The differentiation or distinction between these areas is thus a fundamental problem of juristic and philosophical thought. Usually, the view is taken that pre-state societies had not yet separated legal, ethical, and religious norms from one another; this did not happen until after the Enlightenment [9. 2 f.].Although the question of the distinction between natural law, ethics, and state law had already been raised in the Middle Ages (by Thomas Aquinas among others), it took on new and, in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Human dignity

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Paulus, Maria Elena
1. DefinitionThe concept of human dignity (Latin, dignitas hominis; French,  dignité de l'homme; German, Menschenwürde) is considered difficult to grasp; it is said to be beset by “problems and paradoxes” [7], by ambiguity, and by “notorious indefiniteness” [14. 17]. Beyond the claim that it is a quality of humankind that warrants recognition, its definition and historical development have depended on prevailing conceptions of what it is to be human (Humanity) and the concept of dignity. Although a comprehensive monograph on the his…
Date: 2019-10-14

Habeas corpus

(961 words)

Author(s): Demmer, Margarete | Klippel, Diethelm
1. Concept and definitionThe Latin phrase habeas corpus (“you may/should have the body,” meaning “to secure the body”) is understood in a narrow sense as the constitutional protection from illegal imprisonment as a fundamental judicial right. In a broader sense, habeas corpus has evolved into protection from arbitrary prosecution, incarceration, and punishment. Even more comprehensive definitions may be given: habeas corpus thus is occasionally described as the “great writ of liberty” [3] or the “classic fundamental right of human dignity” and as such viewed as…
Date: 2019-10-14