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Human dignity

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Paulus, Maria Elena
1. DefinitionThe concept of human dignity (Latin, dignitas hominis; French,  dignité de l'homme; German, Menschenwürde) is considered difficult to grasp; it is said to be beset by “problems and paradoxes” [7], by ambiguity, and by “notorious indefiniteness” [14. 17]. Beyond the claim that it is a quality of humankind that warrants recognition, its definition and historical development have depended on prevailing conceptions of what it is to be human (Humanity) and the concept of dignity. Although a comprehensive monograph on the his…
Date: 2019-10-14

Habeas corpus

(961 words)

Author(s): Demmer, Margarete | Klippel, Diethelm
1. Concept and definitionThe Latin phrase habeas corpus (“you may/should have the body,” meaning “to secure the body”) is understood in a narrow sense as the constitutional protection from illegal imprisonment as a fundamental judicial right. In a broader sense, habeas corpus has evolved into protection from arbitrary prosecution, incarceration, and punishment. Even more comprehensive definitions may be given: habeas corpus thus is occasionally described as the “great writ of liberty” [3] or the “classic fundamental right of human dignity” and as such viewed as…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ius Germanicum privatum (German private law)

(1,970 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm
1. DefinitionBeginning around the early 18th century, ius Germanicum privatum (“German private law”) was regarded as the indigenous German or Germanic parts of private law. The concept thus had a deliberately narrower scope than private law, as the general meaning of the words – the totality of all German private law norms – suggests. It presumed the existence of private law norms that had arisen independently of ius commune or which remained uninfluenced by or contained in it. In particular, though,  ius Germanicum privatum designated the area of early modern jurisprudenc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ecclesiastical law

(5,792 words)

Author(s): Weitzel, Jürgen | Klippel, Diethelm | Synek, Eva
1. Foundations of Catholic and Protestant ecclesiastical lawThe ecclesiastical law of the early modern period is characterized by the loss of the religious unity that shaped the Middle Ages. In a revolutionary departure [2. 503] following the Lutheran Reformation in 1517, alongside the law of the Roman Catholic Church, summarized in the  Corpus Iuris Canonici, there now stood a different basic understanding of the role of law in the church. The recognition of Protestant teaching as having equal rights (in the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, 1555) and the…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,188 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Walther, Gerrit | Klein, Birgit E.
1. General 1.1. OverviewThe term emancipation, which exists in all European languages, comes from Roman private law (Latin emancipatio), and originally meant release from the patria potestas (Parental rights and obligations). The concept had an extraordinary career from the dawn of the early modern period, though the original family law sense survived in jurisdiction long into the 19th century in Europe. While outside legal usage it initially had an overtone of moral egoism, it increasingly became a subject of reflection…
Date: 2019-10-14
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