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Calvinismus

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | Pfister, Ulrich
1. Konfession 1.1. Begriff und VerbreitungDer durch den Hamburger Pastor und Lutherschüler J. Westphal ursprünglich in abwertendem Sinne geprägte Begriff C. bezeichnet neben Werk und Wirkung des Genfer Reformators Johannes Calvin (1509–1564) auch die Wirkungsgeschichte der von Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531) und seinen Schülern getragenen Zürcher Reformationsbewegung. »Calvinistisch« kann also Synonym zu »reformiert« sein, so z. B. im reichsrechtlichen Sprachgebrauch seit dem Westfälischen Frieden (1648).Einfluss gewann der C. seit dem 16./17. Jh. außer in der Schweiz v.…
Date: 2019-11-19

Irenik

(671 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
Der theologische Begriff der I. (»friedliche Haltung/Praxis«, von griech. eirēnikós, »friedlich«), in der Polemik »Synkretismus« genannt, reicht bis zur Wende zum 17. Jh. zurück und bezeichnet eine auf Ausgleich und Frieden bedachte Gesinnung, die um Kooperation der christl. Konfessionen bemüht ist [3]; [4]. Mit ihrem humanistischen Hintergrund, v. a. dem auf Einheit drängenden Kirchenideal des Erasmus von Rotterdam, fand sie im 16. Jh. – zuerst meist bikonfessionell auf Calvinismus und Luthertum orientiert – Unterstützung durch den dt. Reformator Martin Bucer. Sie ver…
Date: 2019-11-19

Irenicism

(723 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
The theological term irenicism (“peaceful attitude/behavior,” from Greek  eirenikós, “peaceful”), called “syncretism” by its opponents, goes back to the end of the 17th century and denotes a stance oriented toward balance and peace and aimed at bringing about cooperation among the Christian denominations [3]; [4].The background for this movement was Humanist; Erasmus of Rotterdam, especially, idealized unity within the Church. In the 16th century, it received early support from the German reformer Martin Bucer, initially focused on th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Calvinism

(2,733 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | Pfister, Ulrich
1. Theology 1.1. Terminology and geographical spreadThe term Calvinism was originally coined in a pejorative sense by J. Westphal, a Hamburg pastor and disciple of Luther. Besides the work and impact of the Geneva Reformer John Calvin (1509-1564), he extended it to include the influence of the Zürich Reformation movement led by Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) and his followers. Thus Calvinist can be used as a synonym of Reformed, for example in the legal language of the Empire after the Peace of Westphalia (1648).Outside Switzerland, Calvinism became influential during the 16t…
Date: 2019-10-14

Fischer, Christoph

(191 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1518, Joachimsthal [Jáchymov] – Sep 11, 1598, Celle). Christoph Fischer (or Vischer) began his studies at Wittenberg in 1537, and received his baccalaureate in 1540 and his M.A. in 1543. In 1544, he was appointed preacher and provost in Jüterbog. Forced to flee in 1547, he became pastor in Benesov, Bohemia. In October 1552, he was called to Schmalkalden as pastor of the collegiate church and superintendent. In 1555, he was appointed general ¶ superintendent, in November 1571 superintendent in Meiningen, in 1574 adjunct to the general superintende…

Vockerodt, Gottfried

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1665, Mühlhausen, Thuringia – Oct 10, 1727, Gotha) began his studies at Jena in 1683, receiving his M.A. in 1685; in 1689 he received calls to both Mühlhausen and Halle. He served as deputy rector in Halle, where he began teaching in 1693. From 1694 to 1727 he served as rector of the Gymnasium in Gotha. His call to Gotha may have involved strategic considerations. There Vockerodt, a highly cultivated educator, played a key role in the early history of the Pietist movement…

Gnesio-Lutherans

(327 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] This movement, whose adherents were already called Gnesio-Lutherans during its heyday, originated as a consequence of the Interim of 1548 because of differences in political ethics among the Wittenberg theologians (Resistance, Right of). Its proponents (including N. v. Amsdorf, M.Flacius, N.Gallus, and J.Westphal), among them also laypersons, some students of P.Melanchthon, appealed in support of their positions in anthropology (doctrine of original sin), eucharistic theology, ecc…

Buddeus, Johann Franz

(297 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jun 25, 1667, Anklam – Nov 19, 1729, Gotha) studied in Wittenberg from 1685 to 1689, took his master's degree there in 1687, became adjunct to the philosophical faculty, and began teaching in Jena in 1689. After teaching for one year at the Gymnasium in Coburg, he became professor of moral philosophy in 1693, professor of theology at Halle in …

Wibel, Johann Christian

(185 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 3, 1711, Ernsbach, Odenwald – May 10, 1772, Langenburg, Württemberg). After being tutored and attending the Gymnasium in Öhringen, he studied at Jena from 1729 to 1732, where also engaged in his earliest researches into church history. In 1732 he served as a locum tenens in Kupferzell and from 1732 to 1746 as deacon and consistorial councilor in Wilhermsdorf. In 1739 he received his M.A. from Erlangen. In 1746 he was appointed deputy rector and clerical adjunct in Öhringen, and in 1749 court chaplain and consistorial co…

Antinomian Controversy

(143 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The umbrella term,“Antinomian Controversies,” encompasses disputes with a variety of motivations within Wittenbergian theology between 1527 and roughly 1567. They involved the denial of the importance of the law of God for a person's path to salvation (Antinomism) and were associated with the names of J. Agricola (the so-called first Antinomia…

Agricola, Johann

(292 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Schneyder, Sneider, Schnitter) (Apr 20, 1492 or 1494 or 1495, Eisleben – Sep 22, 1566, Berlin). He attended school in Braunschweig, matriculated in Leipzig in 1509, in Wittenberg in 1550; there, he attained his Magister on Feb 11, 1518, and Baccalaureus biblicus on Sep 19, 1519. Close personal relations with Luther in the years from 1516 were…

Judex (Richter), Matthäus

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1528, Dippoldiswalde – May 16, 1564, Wismar). Judex attended school in Dresden and Magdeburg, began his studies of law and theology in Wittenberg in 1546, received the M.A. in 1549 and in the same year became the co-rector of the Gymnasium in the old city of Magdeburg, in 1554 deacon at St. Ulrich with J. Wigand. In April 1560, he was appointed professor in Jena, and was dismissed on Oct 1, 1561 because of his public criticism of the Lutheran leadership's willingness to c…

Adiaphorist Controversy

(234 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] Adiaphoron ἀδιάφορον, in the context of the Adiaphorist Controversy, indicates the assessment of the requirements laid upon the Protestants after their defeat in the Schmalkaldic War by the Augsburg Interim: the reintroduction of organizational elements from liturgy and church law that had fallen by the wayside or come under …

Eucharist/Communion

(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…

Peucer, Kaspar

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1525, Bautzen – Sep 25, 1602, Dessau). From 1540 to 1548, Peucer studied in Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; he gained his M.A. in Wittenberg in 1545. From 1548 he taught mathematics, and in 1554 became professor of mathematics. He lived in the house of the Wittenberg scholar, Melanchthon, from 1540, and was his son-in-law from 1550; he was a close and trusted friend. He edited and continued Melanchthon’s Chronicon Carionis, and a collection of his works and letters. In 1560 he became a doctor of medicine, and in 1566 was raised to the imp…

Neumark, Georg

(212 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1621, Bad Langensalza – Jul 8, 1681, Weimar). After 1624 Neumark grew up in Mühlhausen, Thuringia, where he attended the Gymnasium. ¶ He also studied at the Gymnasiums of Schleusingen (1632) and Gotha (1641), and possibly the Latin school in Osterode am Harz (from 1636). Several years of travel included stays in Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Hamburg (1641/1642), and Kiel (1642/1644). In 1648/1649 he studied in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad). Years spent in Thorn (today Torun; 1649/1651), Danzig (today Gd…

Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…

Baier, Johann Wilhelm, the Elder

(260 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1647, Nürnberg – Oct 19, 1695, Weimar) began studying philosophy and (Near Eastern) philology at Altdorf in 1664 followed by Jena in 1669. He received his Dr. theol. in 1674 and was appointed professor in 1675. In 1694 he received an appointment at Halle. In 1695 he sat on the consistory and the church council, and was chief court pre…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…
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