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Genealogy

(962 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
In early societies, largely based on family organizations, genealogy as a derivation of a person's descent in the form of a pedigree is often used as a means of legitimation and (pseudo-historical) memory, which was always also directed at publicity (genealogy from Greek γενεαλογεῖν; genealogeîn, ‘to talk about [one's] origin’). [German version] I. Near East and Egypt The purpose of lineage, transmitted in the form of a genealogy (generally patrilineal; exceptions in the case of Egyptian rulers), was to legitimate a claim to rulership, to tenure of a …

Cadmus

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κάδμος; Kádmos, Lat. Cadmus). [German version] [1] Son of Agenor and Telephassa Son of  Agenor [1] (or Phoenix) and  Telephassa (or Argiope or Tyro), brother (or half-brother) of  Phoenix,  Cilix and others, uncle (or brother) of  Europa [2], husband of  Harmonia, father of  Agave,  Autonoe, Ino,  Semele and of  Polydorus (first mentioned in Hom. Od. 5.333; Kadmeíoi Kadmeíōnes already mentioned in Hom. Il. 4.385 and passim; Hes. Theog. 937; 975-978; at least since Bacchyl. 19.46-51 descendant of Io). In his search for Europa, C. leaves Tyre (Hdt. 2.49.3; Eur. Phoen. 639)…

Craterus

(667 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κράτερος, Κρατερός; Kráteros, Kraterós). [German version] [1] Son of Alexander of Orestis, commander under Alexander the Great Son of Alexander of Orestis. Under Alexander [4], he commanded a   táxis of the   pezétairoi at the  Granicus (334 BC), and near  Issus (333) and  Gaugamela (331), he commanded the entire regiment. C. held a leading command against the  Uxii and the Ariobarzanes [2], as he also did in the wars in  Hyrcania and Areia [1] after Darius' death [3]. He played an important role in the …

Silenus

(365 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σιληνός; Silēnós). [German version] [1] S. from Caleacte Greek historian, 2nd cent. BC Greek historian, like Sosylus in the retinue of Hannibal [4], 'as long as fate allowed it' (FGrH 175 T 2 in Nep. Hann. 13,3). Author of an 'official' history of Hannibal (F 1-2) and of Sikeliká in 4 books (F 3-9). S. was used by Coelius [I 1] Antipater (F 2); perhaps Polybius's criticism (3,47,6-48,12) of 'a number of' Hannibal historians concerning Hannibal's crossing the Alps is aimed at S., in whose work dreams, omens etc. play an important role (F 2). …

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Menaechmus

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέναιχμος/ Ménaichmos). [German version] [1] M. of Sicyon Greek historian and antiquary, 4th cent. BC Greek historian and antiquary of the 4th cent. BC. Author of a Pythian history ( Pythikós), which was superseded by a list of victors of the Pythian Games at Delphi composed by Aristotle (T 3) and therefore must have existed in the early 330s (cf. Syll.3 275). A history of Alexander, ( Historía hē katá ton Makedóna Aléxandron) is entirely lost (T 1), while only fragments remain of a local history of Sicyon ( Sikyōniká). Fragments of a treatise ‘On Artists ( Perí technítōn, F 3-6; 9) deal pr…

Hieron

(898 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱέρων; Hiérōn). [German version] [1] H. I. Tyrant of Syracuse around 500 BC from Gela,  Deinomenid, brother of Gelon [1], born c. 540/530 BC. Married first a daughter of Nicocles of Syracuse (before 485), then of Anaxilaus of Rhegium ( c. 480) and finally of Xenocrates, a brother of Theron of Acragas ( c. 475). He was many times a victor in horse and chariot races in Delphi (482, 478, 470) and Olympia (476, 472, 468) [1. 208ff.]. Entrusted with the rulership of Gela by Gelon in 485, he succeeded the latter in 478 as tyrant of Syracuse. H. operat…

Demochares

(472 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δημοχάρης; Dēmochárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian delegate to Philip II, mocked by Seneca Mentioned by Seneca as an Athenian delegate to Philip II and compared to the Homeric  Thersites because of his open and bold style of speech (cf. Il. 2,212ff.) (Sen. De ira 3,23,2f.). Possibly identical with D. [3] PA 3716. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Relative of Demosthenes the orator The son of Demon of the Paeania deme, a relative of  Demosthenes, possibly as commander of the cavalry, he was Athenian delegate and witness of the oath of symmachia with Amyntas (IG II2 102,19?…

Aristonous

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ἀριστόνους; Aristónous). [German version] [1] Founder of Acragas about 580 BC A. of Gela, one of the founders of Acragas about 580 BC (Thuc. 6,4,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse (1st half of 5th cent. BC) Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse and one of the guardians of his son Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 21). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [3] Macedonian officer (died 315 BC) Served as a   somatophylax (after 328 BC?) under  Alexander [4] and was  trierarch of the Hydaspes f…

Deinocrates

(705 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Δεινοκράτης; Deinokrátēs). [German version] [1] Of Syracuse. Took part in the battle against Agathocles [2] shortly after 316 BC Of Syracuse. Spared as a friend of  Agathocles [2] at the latter's seizure of power in 316 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,8,6), he soon became the leader of the exiles and of all opponents of Agathocles, took many towns in Sicily and fought with the Carthaginians against the tyrant (19,103f.). In 309 he marched with Hamilcar against Syracuse (20,29,5), and after the death of Hamilcar he was elected strategos by the exiles and the rest of the Greeks (20,31,2); when …

Ctesicles

(245 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κτησικλῆς; Ktēsiklês). [German version] [1] Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period, quoted only by Athenaeus (6, 272c: census in Athens under Demetrius [4] of Phalerum 317/6 BC; 10, 445c-d: death of Eumenes [2] I. in 241). wilamowitz [1] and jacoby (comm. on FGrH 245) argue for his identification with Stesicleides of Athens, author of an Anagraphḕ tōn archóntōn kai Olympioníkōn (‘Listing of officials and Olympic winners’) quoted in Diogenes Laertius (2,56). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography…

Teucer

(617 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Τεῦκρος/ Teûkros, Latin Teucer). [German version] [1] Mythical king in the Troad Oldest mythical king in the Troad, son of Scamander and Idaea [2]; he gave both his daughters, Neso and Bat(i)eia (Arisbe), in marriage to Dardanus [1] (Dardanidae). Bat(i)eia bore Dardanus a son, Erichthonius, who fathered Tros, the father of Ilos [1], who in turn was the father of Laomedon [1]. The latter’s daughter, Hesione [4], bore a son T. [2] to Telamon [1] (Apollod. 3,139f.; Diod. Sic. 4,75). He is considered to be an …

Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…

Phintias

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Town on the southern coast of Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Φιντιάς; Phintiás). Town on the southern coast of Sicily, modern Licata, founded in c. 280 BC by P., the tyrant of Acragas and settled by the residents of Gela driven out by the Mamertini (Diod. Sic. 22,2,2; 22,7,1); the inhabitants of P. therefore also continued to call themselves Gelṓioi (Γελῷοι, IG XIV 256-261; [1. 711 no. 588f.]). In 249 BC a Roman fleet was defeated at P. by the Carthaginians in connection with the 1st Punic War (Diod. Sic. 24,1,7…

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Logos

(3,385 words)

Author(s): Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) | Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[1] Philosophical [German version] A. Term The Greek noun lógos (λόγος) is derived from the verb légein, ‘say’. Greek philosophers made extensive use of it in a wide range of meanings: what has been said, word, assertion, definition, interpretation, explanation, reason, criterion, proportion, relation, argument, rational discourse. Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) [German version] B. Pre-Socratics Attempts to trace the use of the word in detail have proved to be unsuccessful. It is, however, evident that logos was already being used by the Pre-Socratics, chiefly in re…

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Duris

(851 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δοῦρις; Doûris) [German version] [1] Poet of epigrams Epigrammatic poet from Elea (in Aeolis); author of a remarkable poem on the flood that destroyed Ephesus c. 300 BC (Anth. Pal. 9,424, cf. Steph. Byz. 289,3-16), in all probability from the ‘Garland’ of Meleager. The city was rebuilt shortly afterwards by Lysimachos, who renamed it Arsinoeia after his wife: this happened before 289/8 (cf. Syll.3 368, 24), after the epigram had been written. Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography GA I,1, 97; 2, 280f. [German version] [2] Painter of Attic red-figure bowls, c. 505-465 BC One of the most p…

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…
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