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Amphion

(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he go…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Alcamenes

(438 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀλκαμένης; Alkaménēs). [German version] [1] of Abydus Greek physician Greek physician of the 5th and 4th cents. BC. According to Aristotle or his student Meno, A. blamed illnesses on the residue of undigested food: presumably, it rises to the head where it accumulates only to be distributed throughout the body as a harmful substance (Anon. Londiniensis 7,42). A. assumed a position contrary to the opinions of Euryphon of Cnidus, who ascertained that the head is less involved in the origin of illnesses. It is not certain whether A. was his student.  Anonymus Londiniensis Nutton, Vivian (…

Timarchides

(227 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
(Τιμαρχίδης/ Timarchídēs). [German version] [1] Name in an Attic family of sculptors, 2nd cent. BC Frequently occurring name in a 2nd-cent. BC Attic family of sculptors. A T. created an Apollo Kitharoidus in Rome in c. 179 BC, of which copies exist. After 156 BC in Elatea [1], a younger T. and Timocles, sons of Polycles [3], worked on cult images of Asclepius and Athena, of which fragments survive, and a victor statue at Olympia. After 130 BC the same T. and Dionysius [48] created a surviving portrait statue of Ofellius Ferus in …

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Sculpting, technique of

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East The oldest examples of a developed sculptural technique in stone from the Ancient Near East are from the later 4th millennium BC (Uruk). The most important genres of monuments are free-standing sculpture and relief (stele, rock reliefs, orthostats, obelisks). The material was worked with metal tools and probably hard stone tools. Traces of tools are rarely preserved due to smoothing and polishing of the surface with abrasives. Surfaces could be shaped through the incisio…

Wood

(2,502 words)

Author(s): Herz, Peter (Regensburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] A. General points In Antiquity, as in pre-industrial societies in general, wood was a universally worked material, used even as a substitute for metal and for expendable parts, and beside animal and human muscle power was also the most important source of energy. The tree species and their economic and technical uses are summarized by Theophrastos (H. plant. 5), Vitruvius (2,8,20; 2,9f.) and Pliny (HN. 16). Herz, Peter (Regensburg) [German version] B. Agriculture, crafts, house building Agriculture and industry were to a great extent oriented towards wood…

Thrasymedes

(296 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Θρασυμήδης/ Thrasymḗdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Nestor and Anaxibia Son of Nestor [1] and Anaxibia (daughter of Cratieus), brother e.g. of Echephron [1] and Peisistratus [1] (Hom. Od. 3,412-415; Apollod. 1,94; Dictys 1,13), father of Sillus and hence grandfather of Alcmaeon [2] (Paus. 2,18,8). T. and his brother Antilochus, who is later killed by Memnon [1] (cf. Q. Smyrn. 2,267-344), set off with 15 ships (Hyg. Fab. 97,5) for Troy (Hom. Il. 9,81; 10,255-259; 14,9-11 et passim; Philostr. Heroicus 26…

Antenor

(470 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντήνωρ; Antḗnōr). [German version] [1] Son of Hicetaon or Aisyetes Son of Hicetaon or Aesyetes, Trojan noble. His sons, together with  Aeneas, are leaders of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,822). A. is married to the Athena priestess Theano (Hom. Il. 6,299). Because of his justice and wisdom in council he is compared with Nestor; he advises that Helena should be returned (Hom. Il. 7,347 ff.) and observes the law of hospitality with respect to the Greek envoys, Odysseus and Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,207). From Lycoph…

Pyrrhus

(1,260 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πύρρος/ Pýrr(h)os). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia See Neoptolemus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Athens, c. 430 BC Bronze sculptor from Athens. A base bearing P.' signature of a larger than life-size statue on the Athenian Acropolis is dated to c. 430-420 BC and connected with a record of an Athena Hygieia constructed by order of Pericles [1]. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 904-906; 869  A. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 166  L. Guerrini, s.v. Pyrrhos (3), EAA 6, …

Doedalses

(269 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Sculptor whose existence is contested Sculptor whose existence is contested. Pliny (HN 36,35) mentions a work in marble in Rome Venerem lavantem †sesededalsa† stantem, from which the Bithynian name D. is gleaned, an emendation which is largely accepted. This D. is then identified with Daedalus, who according to a Byzantine source created a Zeus Stratios for the Bithynian King Nicomedes. The statue type of that Zeus has not been established with any certainty. The statue of the standing Venus that Pli…

Lysistratus

(146 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λυσίστρατος; Lysístratos). [German version] [1] Tragedian from Chalcis, 1st cent. BC from Chalcis. Tragedian, after 85 BC he was victorious at the Amphiaraia ( Amphiaraus) and Romaia in Oropus. His works are not extant. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, brother and collaborator of Lysippus [2]. By making plaster casts of living people, L. is said to have improved the similarity of portraits to their subjects, to have based his work on clay models and to have made…

Aristias

(150 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Sculptor from Aphrodisias, early 2nd cent. AD (Aristeas). Sculptor from  Aphrodisias [1], who worked in the early 2nd cent. AD. Together with Papias, he signed the dark marble statues of an old and of a young centaur, copies of Hellenistic bronze sculptures, from Hadrian's villa near Tivoli. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography H. von Steuben, in: Helbig II, no. 1398 J. Raeder, Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli, 1983, 236-238 M. Squarciapino, La Scuola di Afrodisia, 1943, 32-34. [German version] [2] of Phlius Tragedian Tragic poet…

Aristander

(169 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Visionary from  Telmessus (4th cent. BC) Visionary from  Telmessus, in the service first of  Philippus, then of  Alexander [4] the Great; hero of many anecdotes which only report on successful predictions; no further references after the death of  Cleitus. Prophecies of the future success of some of the  Diadochi have turned out to be fabrications. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 117. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor from Paros, c. 405 BC Bronze sculptor from Paros. To the tripod which the Spartans dedicated in Amyclae fol…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Evenor

(217 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Athenian sculptor, c. 490-470 BC (Eύήνωρ; Euḗnōr). Athenian sculptor. Three bases on the Acropolis bear his signature, dating from around 490-470 BC. One of these is linked, not without controversy, to the so-called Angelitus' Athena (Athens, AM Inv. no. 140). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 14, 22, 23. B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture, 1970, 29-30, fig. 39. [German version] [2] Greek physician Greek physician from Argos in Acarnania; he lived in Athens, a…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Polyeuctus

(609 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολύευκτος/ Polýeuktos). [German version] [1] Son of the Athenian Themistocles Third son of Themistocles and his first wife Archippe, daughter of Lysander of Alopece (who adopted the second son, Diocles); nothing is known of his life. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 6669  R. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles. A Historical Commentary, 1980, ad 32,1  Traill, PAA, 778325. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Son of Sostratus of the Sphettus deme, Athenian rhetor of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, in the circle of Demost…
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