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Pfarramt

(1,951 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. Begriff und geschichtliche Entwicklung bis zum 15. Jh.P. bezeichnet zum einen das Amt des Pfarrers, zum anderen das Pfarrhaus als Verwaltungszentrum einer Pfarrei, die entweder die Gläubigen eines bestimmten Bezirks (Territorialgemeinde) oder einer bestimmten Gruppe (Personalgemeinde) umfasst (zur Etymologie der dt. Worte Pfarrei und Pfarrer vgl. [4. 153]).Die christl. Gemeinden der Antike, deren Territorium mit dem einer Stadt identisch war, wurden von einem Bischof unter Mithilfe weiterer Kleriker geleitet. Als das Christentum sich auch…
Date: 2019-11-19

Ukraine

(2,557 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] I. Term The term “Ukraine” with the meaning of “borderland” appears in the chronicles of the 12th and 13th centuries as a designation of the border areas lying between the sedentary and the nomadic civilization of the Kievan Rus. From the 16th century onward, Polish sources refer to the middle reach of the Dnieper River as the Ukraine. In the 17th century, the term was used to designate the domain of the Dnieper Cossacks. The territory that has been defined as the Ukraine since World War II and to which…

Alexander II, Tsar

(160 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1818, Moscow – Mar 1, 1881, St. Petersburg), Tsar of Russia (1855–1881). In domestic policy, the epoch of the “reform tsar” is rightly considered a turning-point. As the core of the reforms, the law abolishing serfdom was issued on Feb 19, 1861, the reform of the justice system, among other things, in 1864. Cultural institutions recei…

Brotherhoods

(2,906 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Dörfler-Dierken, Angelika | Oswalt, Julia | Daiber, Karl-Fritz
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Church History – III. Current Situation I. History of Religions Brotherhoods are a special form of community, not constituted by traditional forms of relationship (Covenant). They are mono-gendered groupings (also “sisterhoods”) distinguished by certain homogeneous characteristics. Initiation groups are often the origin of brotherhoods in cul…

Kurbsky, Andrey Michajlovič

(176 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1528 – May 23, 1583, Kovelʾ, Wolhynia). Descended from the dynasty of Smolensk/Yaroslav princes, Kurbsky is first mentioned in 1549 as a participant in Ivan the Terrible's campaign against Kazan. He served Ivan as a successful military leader during the Livonian War. Having fallen out of favor, Kurbsky changed allegiance in 1564 and entered the service of King Sigismun…

Golubinsky, Evgeny Evsigneyevich

(147 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1834, Kostroma, Russia – Jan 7, 1912, Sergiyev Posad, Russia). Golubinsky's magum opus is the still indispensable Istoriia russkoi tserkvi [History of the Russian Church]. It covers the 10th–16th centuries and was published in two double volumes (1880–1881, 21900; fragments of vol. II/2 appeared posthumously in 1917). He divides Russian church history into two eras: the age of “scribalism” prior to Peter the Great, and the age of “Enlightenment” after Peter, which Golubinsky hails as progress. His source-critic…

Polotsky, Simeon

(274 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Samuil Emelianovich Petrovskii-Sintianovich; 1629, Polotsk [?] – 1680, Moscow), active as a theologian, educator, poet, and dramatist in Moscow, where he acquired enormous cultural and poli…

Poty, Ipaty

(171 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Hypatius, secular name Adam; Aug 12, 1581, Rozhanka, Grand Duchy of Lithuania – Jul 18, 1613, Vilnius) is considered the most learned Ruthenian church dignitary in the era of confessionalization. After attending the Calvinistic school of Prince Nicholas Radziwiłł (“the Black”), he left the Orthodox Church but returned to it in 1574. Before he became a monk and was appointed bishop of Volodymyr-Volynskyi (1593) by Sigismund III, he served as a senator and held the office of castel…

Constantine of Ostrog

(170 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1524/1525 – Feb 13/23, 1608 Ostrog, Volhynia [Ukraine]), voivode of Kiev and marshal of Volhynia, played an important role in the public life of Poland-Lithuania in the age of confessionalization. He was concerned at times with reaching an agreement with representatives of the Reformation, as well as an understanding with Rome. He rejected the union of an Eastern Orthodox state church with Rome without the participation of all patriarchs of the East, as well as the Union of Brest (1596) pursued by King Sigismund III Wasa of Sweden. Constantine's church politics was based on solidarity with his Catholic and Protestant colleagues, who viewed the coexistence of denominations a…

Kiev

(935 words)

Author(s): vom Orde, Klaus | Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] I. City and Metropolitan See – II. Theological Academy I. City and Metropolitan See According to legend, Kiev (Ukrainian: Kyiv) was founded by the brothers Kij, Šček, and Choriv on the west bank of the river Dnieper ( Dnepr). Owing to its favorable location on the trade route “from the Varagians to the Greeks,” Kiev developed into a political center of the ¶ medieval Rus', which was characterized by the integration of Slavic and Scandinavian elements. Kiev owed its growing prosperity above all to its economic-political and church-cultural r…

Golitsyn, Alexandr Nikolayevich

(181 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Dec 19, 1773, Moscow – Dec 4, 1844, Feodosiya, Crimea) dictated the religious and educational policies of Russia during the reign of Alexander I. Appointed procurator general of the Senate in 1802 and procurator general of the Holy Synod in 1803, Golitsyn carried out a reform of the church school system in 1808. He supported the Russian Bible Society (Bible Societies: I, 3), which had been founded in 1813. In 1817 he became head of …

Tikhon of Zadonsk, Saint

(293 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1724, Korotsk, Novgo­rod region – Aug 13, 1783, Zadonsk), one of the most important 18th-century Russian hierarchs. The son of a church sexton, he was baptized Timofey. He attended the seminary at the court of the bishop in Novgorod, and after being tonsured as a monk in 1758 he took the name Tikhon and served as the bishop’s prefect. In ¶ 1759 he was called to the seminary in Tver as professor of theology; soon he was made its rector. Consecrated “bishop of Keksholm and Ladoga” in 1761, he served as suffragan bishop of Novgorod. In 1763 be became bishop of Veronezh. In that office he wrote a number of works promoting pastoral care in his eparchy, which he found in a somewhat rundown state. In his cathedral, he instituted Sunday seminary instruction for the clergy of his diocese, for which he invited theologians from the Slavic-Gr…

Pochaev Monastery

(186 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] According to tradition, the Holy Dormition Pochaev Laura, 120 km east of Lviv (Ukraine), had its beginning when monks from Kiev, destroyed by the Mongols in 1240, settled on Mount Pochaev, where a footprint of the Theotokos is venerated. The earliest document of the monastery, from 1595, records a generous gift from Anna Goys-…

Rutsky, Josef

(292 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1574, Ruta, near Vilnius – 1637, Ruta), third metropolitan of the Uniate church (since 1596; Unions with Rome) of the Kiev (II) metropolitanate. His career in the church reflected the situation in the nobles’ republic in the age of confessionalization. After attending the Calvinist school in Vilnius, Rutsky studied at the universities of Cracow, Prague, and Würzburg and at the Greek College in Rome. Pope Clement VIII (1592–1605) won him to the side of the Eastern Rite. In 1606 he…

Skovoroda, Hryhory

(261 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1722, Chornukhy, Poltava Oblast – 1794, Ivanivka, near Kharkiv), is considered …

Mohilev

(186 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] After the Union of Brest in 1596, Orthodox laity, supported by the church brotherhoods, opposed a union with Rome (Unions with Rome) and called for the restoration of the Eastern church hierarchy. The election of Vladislav IV (1632–1648) enabled the Orthodox nobility to obtain the decree for the “Establishment of peace for the Russian people of ¶ Greek religion in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Latvia,” and in 1632 achieved the foundation of the Mohilev archbishopric for the Eastern church in the Grand Duchy, within whose …

Rohoza, Mykhailo

(182 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Mikhail Ragoza; c. 1540? – 1599, Kiev?), metropolitan of Kiev and Halič. In Rohoza’…

Parish

(1,237 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth | Oswalt, Julia | Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Catholicism – II. Orthodoxy – III. Protestantism The term parish comes from the Greek παροικία/ paroikía (“resident alien’s dwelling”), which in early Christianity expressed the foreignness of Christians in society. Resulting from this basic feeling, individual congregations were called παροικίαι/ paroikíai

Ostrog

(167 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (250 km northeast of Lviv [Lemberg], Ukraine), chosen seat of the Ruthenian Udel princes of Ostrog; from the mid-14th century steadily built up as a defensive fortress against Tartar attack. With the rise of the princes of Ostrog to the highest rank of the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic, Ostrog gained particular importance as a political and cultural center for the defence of Ruthenian interests, and the strengthening of the position of the Eastern Church in the process o…
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