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Lyon, Councils of

(650 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] I. The first Council of Lyon was the renewed attempt of Pope Gregory IX to oppose Emperor Frederick Hohenstaufen after the emperor had forestalled a council convoked in Rome by Gregory in 1241. His successor ¶ Innocent IV succeeded in evading the power of the emperor and on Jan 3, 1245, convoked a council in Lyon to clarify the relationship between pope and emperor, take measures against the Tartars, and find help for the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Land. The council held three sessions from …

Guitmund of Aversa

(90 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (d. 1090/1095 in Aversa) was a monk in La-Croix-St-Leufroy who studied under Lanfranc of Bec. He declined appointments to bishoprics in England and Rouen, but agreed to become bishop in Aversa in 1088. As an opponent of Berengar of Tours, he did preliminary work on the doctrine of transsubstantiation with the concept of the mutatio substantiva. Reinhold Rieger Bibliography PL 149, 1427–1512 G. Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period, 1984 M. Dell'Omo, “Ricerche biografiche su Guitmondo,” Ben. 40, 1993, 9–34.

Chartres

(553 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold | Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] I. Bishopric and Cathedral School – II. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame I. Bishopric and Cathedral School The bishopric of Chartres probably goes back to the 4th century. The first documented bishop is Adventinus (511). The bishops Fulbert of Chartres (1006–1028), Ivo of Chartres (1090–1116), John of Salisbury (1177–1180), and Peter of Celle (1180–1183) engaged in scholarly activities. The see of Chartres was suffragan to Sens and, from 1622, to Paris. The cathedral sch…

Roscelin (Roscellin) of Compiègne

(167 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1050 Compiègne – 1120/1125) studied at Soissons and Reims; among the places he taught was Loches, where Abelard studied with him. His application of dialectics and semantics to theology made his teaching regarding the Trinity as a unity of the divine essence in three persons appear as tritheism, although his aim was to avoid Sabellianism and Arianism. He was forced to recant at a synod in Soissons (1090/1093). His critics, including Abelard in his Theologia summi boni, did not understand his concerns but objected that his writings did not use concepts …

Universals Controversy in the Middle Ages

(2,466 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] I. The Philosophical Problem The universals controversy concerns the nature of the general and its relationship to the particular (General/Particular). The fundamental ontological assumption that the world consists of objects with attributes is reflected in the subject-predicate structure of declarative sentences, based on the logical relationship of singular to general terms, elements to sets, individuals to general concepts. Can this logical and ontological dualism, governed by the …

Berengar of Tours

(181 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1000, Tours – Jan 6, 1088, St. Côme near Tours) studied with Fulbert in Chartres, and became the head and chancellor of the school of Tours, where he taught the Trivium ( Artes liberales ). He advised the count of Anjou and was archdeacon of Angers. His eucharistic doctrine, over which he became embroiled in a fierce dispute with Lanfranc of Pavia, was condemned in 1050 at synods in Rome and Vercelli…

Nicholas of Autrecourt

(218 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1298/1299, Autrécourt – Jun 17, 1369, Metz). After studying law in Orleans (?) and theology in Paris, in 1335/1336 he received his first degree in theology and in 1339/1340 his licentiate. In 1340 he was appointed dean of the cathedral chapter of Metz. In 1340 Benedict XII summoned him to Avignon to stand trial for false teaching; in 1346 he was finally condemned by Pope Clement VI and had to recant. In his writings and correspondence (e.g. with the Franciscan Bernard of Arezzo),…

Hervaeus Natalis

(187 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (after 1250 – Aug 7, 1323, Narbonne). A Dominican friar who joined the order in Morlaix (1276), Hervaeus Natalis lectured in Paris from 1302 to 1309, was appointed Dominican provincial in 1309, and superior general in 1318. He defended Thomas Aquinas against Henry of Ghent, J. Duns Scotus, Peter Aureol, Jakob of Metz, and Durandus ¶ de Sancto Porciano. However, he criticized the assumption of a real difference between being and essence as well as Aquinas's psychological doctrine of Trinity. Reinhold Rieger Bibliography Works include: Quodlibeta XI, Tractatus, 1513, …

Simon, Richard

(236 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (May 13, 1638, Dieppe – Apr 11, 1712, Dieppe), studied at the Oratorian College in Dieppe and in 1657 at the Jesuit College in Rouen. In 1670 he became a priest of the Oratory. His Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1678; ET: A Critical History of the Old Testament, 1682) was confiscated at the instigation of J.B. Bossuet but was published in a new edition in Amsterdam and Rotterdam in 1680. In it he attempted to counter the attacks of B. Spinoza on the authority of the Old Testament with the principle of the historical grow…

Gilbert of Poitiers

(259 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (de la Porrée, de Poitiers; c. 1080, Poitiers, France – Sep 4, 1154, Poitiers) studied with Hilary of Poitiers, Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon. After canonries in Poitiers and Chartres, he taught in Paris and became bishop of Poitiers in 1142. In his commentaries on Boethius, Gilbert distinguished between speculative (physics, ethics, logic) and practical sciences (e.g. medicine). He divided physics into natural science, mathematics and theology. In order to understand the…

Adelard of Bath

(165 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] This English translator and natural philosopher was a Benedict, who lived between 1070 and 1160 and was probably from Bath, to which he returned in 1130; he studied in Tours, probably taught in Laon, and undertook extensive journeys in the Mediterranean region, where he became acquainted with Arab science. His chief merit consists in his mediation of ancient and Arab natural philosophy of Antiquity to the West. He translated Euclid's Elements, the introduction to astrology by Abu Mashar, and the astronomical tables of al-…

Albert von Sachsen

(158 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1316, Helmstedt – Aug 8, 1390, Halberstadt), natural philosopher and logician. Albert studied at the University of Paris, where he became Master of Arts in 1351 and Rector in 1353. In 1362, he entered the service of Urban V; in 1365, he became the first rector of the University of Vienna and in 1366 bishop of Halberstadt. While in Paris, he wrote a commentary on the physical and logical works of Aristotle and a compendium of logic, Perutilis Logica, influenced by William of Occam, as well as the Sophismata. In natural philosophy and logic, his …

Anselm of Laon

(169 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1050 – Jul 15, 1117, Laon) was a student of Anselm of Canterbury in Bec, then canon and dean in Laon. From c. 1080, he and his brother Radulph led the cathedral school of Laon, which also included William of Champeaux. Under Anselm's leadership, the Glossa ordinaria, as they were later called, originated on the whole Bible based on statements by the Fathers and more recent theologians. The glosses on the Psalms, John and the letters of Paul…

Ailly, Pierre d'

(234 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1351, Compiègne - Aug 9, 1420, Avignon) studied in Paris, took the M.A. in 1368 and the Mag. theol. in 1381; in 1375, he became canon in Soissons, in 1381 in Noyon, later also in Meaux, Amiens, Cambrai, Compiègne, Rouen and Paris; he was rector of the Collège de Navarre from 1384 to 1389 and became father-confessor to Charles VI in 1389. From…

Peckham, John

(291 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1230, Patcham, Sussex – Dec 8, 1292, Mortlake, Surrey). After joining the Franciscans in 1250, Peckham studied in Paris and Oxford. From 1269 to 1271 he taught as magister regens in Paris, lecturing on the Sentences of Peter Lombard; from 1272 to 1275 he taught at Oxford, where he introduced the disputatio de quolibet (Disputation: II). He defended the Franciscan ideal of poverty (IV) against the Dominican R. Kilwardby. In 1275 he was made provincial of the Franciscan order in England; in 1276 he attended the general chapter in P…

Ratramnus

(172 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (died c. 870), monk at Corbie Abbey. He intervened in the first Eucharistic controversy with his writing De corpore et sanguine Domini (843), directed against Paschasius Radbertus; using dialectical method he opposed a sensory understanding of the Lord’s Supper, showing that the sacrament was always hidden as a mystery beneath a figura, and rejecting identification of the historical with the sacramental body of Christ. In this he influenced Berengar of Tours. In the books De praedestinatione (849/850), also commissioned by Charles the Bald, he opposed Hi…

Peter of Bruis

(181 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (died c. 1133, abbey of St. Gilles-les-Boucheries) was initially a priest in the French Alps but was removed from office in 1119. As an itinerant preacher in southern France, he criticized the church, rejected infant baptism, rebaptized adults, denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and rejected the mass, along with veneration of the cross and building churches. He acknowledged the authority of the Gospels alone, not other biblical books or the church fathers. During…

Duns Scotus, John

(1,682 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (“Doctor subtilis”; 1265/66 Duns?, Scotland – Nov 8, 1308, Cologne). There is great uncertainty on the biography of Duns Scotus. He came from Scotland, entered the Franciscan Order (Franciscans), and studied at Oxford and possibly Paris. He was ordained a priest in 1291. Whether he first taught at Cambridge is under dispute. Around 1300, he lectured ¶ at Oxford on the Sentences of Peter Lombard; likewise in Paris beginning in 1302. He was expelled from the country in 1303 for …

Amalrich von Bena

(117 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Amaury; born Bène, near Chartres, died 1206, Paris) studied and taught the artes liberales in Paris. He also was engaged in theology and developed a pantheistic Gnostic interpretation of history, inspired by Neoplatonism, based on John Scotus Eriugena and the natural philosophy of Aristotle. Our knowledge of his system depends entirely on works written by his opponents. His teachings were condemned in 1210 by a synod in Paris, along with the teachings of David, and in 1215 by the 4th Lateran Council. His followers were persecuted as heretics. Reinhold Rieger Bibliogra…

Allegory

(3,568 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Most, Glenn W. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Rieger, Reinhold | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Classical Antiquity – III. Bible– IV. Church History – V. Systematics – VI. Practical Exegesis– VII. Religious Art I. History of Religions Allegory (from Gk ἀλληγορέω/ allēgoreō, “say something other [than the literal meaning]”), is a hermeneutical technique (Hermeneutics). The moment a religious message becomes fixed (esp. in writing), a need for interpretation arises. One way to meet this need is t…
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