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Ordination

(8,047 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Sänger, Dieter | Peters, Christian | Brandt, Reinhard | Meßner, Reinhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Liturgy – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Law and Legal History – VIII. Judaism I. Old Testament The search, mainly from a Protestant perspective, for antecedents of ordination in the Old Testament does not seem very promising, since no direct equivalent to Christian ordination as public commissioning of office-bearers by the community is to be found in the Hebrew Bible. Relevant research is mainly limited to the OT Jewish background of early Christian ordination (Lohse). New Testament accounts of appointment to offices in the community (Acts 6:1–6; 13:1–3; 2 Tim 1:6f.; see II below) and rabbinic texts on early Jewish ordination of scholars (Lohse 25ff.) relate to the OT descriptions of a transfer of official authority by the laying-on of hands in Num 27:12–23* and Deut 34:9. These two texts were long assigned to the priestly source, but they belong rather to the final literary phase of the Pentateuch (Otto 211–233). They reflect the succession from Moses to Joshua. In Num 27:12–23 Moses asks YHWH to choose a successor (v. 16f.). YHWH thereupon names Joshua, “a man in whom is the Spirit” (v. 18), and subjects him to Moses’ authority, in that Moses is to “press…

Grace

(9,133 words)

Author(s): Filoramo, Giovanni | Spiekermann, Hermann | Sänger, Dieter | Rieger, Reinhold | Saarinen, Risto | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. The use of the term grace has been influenced strongly by the historically innovative Pauline conception. For Paul, grace is a gift, a unique fruit of God's salvific purpose and redemptive action. After the analogy of other redemptive religions, Paul employed this term to denote a fundamental aspect of the salvific action of the deity. In other religion…

Decalogue

(5,698 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Sänger, Dieter | Strohm, Christoph | Andersen, Svend | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics and Ethics – VI. Practical Theology I. Old Testament The designation Decalogue (“ten words”) for the series of ten commandments derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew