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Süskind, Friedrich Gottlieb

(184 words)

Author(s): Kirn, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1767, Neuenstadt am Kocher – Nov 12, 1829, Stuttgart). In 1795 Gottlieb was appointed deacon in Urach, in 1798 professor of theology in Tübingen. In 1805 he succeeded G.C. Storr as senior court chaplain and consistorial councilor in Stuttgart. As a student of Storr, Süskind together with J.F. and K.C. Flatt were among the preeminent representatives of the early Tübingen School. He intensified the school’s apologetic conflict with the philosophy of I. Kant, J.G. Fichte, an…

Walaeus, Antonius

(322 words)

Author(s): Kirn, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Antoine de Waele; Oct 2, 1573, Ghent – Jul 9, 1639, Leiden), Dutch Reformed theologian. He began studies in theology in 1596 at Leiden; his teachers included F. Junius and F. Gomarus. ¶ After a study tour through France, Switzerland, and Germany, he was appointed pastor in Koudekerke in 1602 and in Middelburg in 1605. In 1619 he became professor of theology at Leiden. On many occasions, he served as theological adviser to Maurice of Orange. In the debate over the Calvinistic confessionalization of society, Walae…


(548 words)

Author(s): Kirn, Hans-Martin | König, Christopher
[German Version] 1. Willem (Jan 4, 1579, Zierikzee – Apr 8, 1629, Middelburg), Dutch Reformed theologian and devotional writer; the most important representative of the early Nadere Reformatie. After studying law at St. Andrews and Poitiers, he took up theology at Leiden in 1604. In 1606 he was appointed pastor in Haamstede and Burg and in 1613 in Middelburg, where initially F. Gomarus and A. Walaeus were among his colleagues. His decision to study theology was immediately due to his encounters with English Puritans in Br…


(451 words)

Author(s): Hurst, Matthias | Kirn, Hans-Martin
[German Version] 1. Johann Christian ( Jun 3, 1712, Heilbronn – May 8, 1773, Stuttgart). In 1744 he was appointed deacon at the Leonhardskirche in Stuttgart and also court chaplain. In 1759 he was appointed preacher at the collegiate church and consistorial councilor; in 1765 he was appointed prelate of Herrenalb, in 1772 prelate of Alpirsbach. Storr was an independent representative of early Württemberg Pietism in the school of J.A. Bengel. He was critical, however, of Bengel’s interpretation of the…


(573 words)

Author(s): Kirn, Hans-Martin | Solberg, Winton U.
[German Version] I. Europe Sabbatarians is a collective designation for various Christian groups in the context of Bible-oriented reform and revival movements; their common characteristic is observance of the Sabbath on the seventh day of the week (“Saturday Sabbatarians”). In English Puritanism (Puritans), advocates of strict Sunday observance could also be called Sabbatarians (“Sunday Sabbatarians”). Besides small medieval groups like the 12th-century Passagini in northern Italy, Sabbatarians in t…