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Freedom of migration

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Liebner, Katrin | Klippel, Diethelm
Freedom of migration is understood to be the right to leave, initially, the territory of a ruler and then - after the formation of states over the course of the early modern period - a national territory for the purpose of establishing permanent residency in a different area. Only after the rise of the modern sovereign state (Sovereignty) with clearly defined national boundaries can one draw a clear distinction between freedom of emigration and freedom of movement. The history of freedom of migr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Freedom of movement

(909 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Dehmer, Gregor
1. DefinitionFreedom of movement is the right to stay (temporarily) and reside (permanently) freely and unimpeded by the state anywhere within its territory. Freedom of movement thus represents the inner-state counterpart to freedom of migration. A clear distinction between these two types of freedom developed over the course of the emergence of the modern sovereign state (Sovereignty) with precisely delimited national borders (Boundary). Much of the history of freedom of movement thus coincides …
Date: 2019-10-14

Law and ethics

(966 words)

Author(s): Habermeyer, Helen | Klippel, Diethelm
Both law and ethics formulate cultural behavioral norms. The differentiation or distinction between these areas is thus a fundamental problem of juristic and philosophical thought. Usually, the view is taken that pre-state societies had not yet separated legal, ethical, and religious norms from one another; this did not happen until after the Enlightenment [9. 2 f.].Although the question of the distinction between natural law, ethics, and state law had already been raised in the Middle Ages (by Thomas Aquinas among others), it took on new and, in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Human dignity

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Klippel, Diethelm | Paulus, Maria Elena
1. DefinitionThe concept of human dignity (Latin, dignitas hominis; French,  dignité de l'homme; German, Menschenwürde) is considered difficult to grasp; it is said to be beset by “problems and paradoxes” [7], by ambiguity, and by “notorious indefiniteness” [14. 17]. Beyond the claim that it is a quality of humankind that warrants recognition, its definition and historical development have depended on prevailing conceptions of what it is to be human (Humanity) and the concept of dignity. Although a comprehensive monograph on the his…
Date: 2019-10-14

Habeas corpus

(961 words)

Author(s): Demmer, Margarete | Klippel, Diethelm
1. Concept and definitionThe Latin phrase habeas corpus (“you may/should have the body,” meaning “to secure the body”) is understood in a narrow sense as the constitutional protection from illegal imprisonment as a fundamental judicial right. In a broader sense, habeas corpus has evolved into protection from arbitrary prosecution, incarceration, and punishment. Even more comprehensive definitions may be given: habeas corpus thus is occasionally described as the “great writ of liberty” [3] or the “classic fundamental right of human dignity” and as such viewed as…
Date: 2019-10-14
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