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(7,082 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard | Hennigfeld, Jochem | Tietz, Christiane | Schroeter-Wittke, Harald | Sørensen, Jørgen Skov | Et al.
[German Version] I. Linguistics and Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Ethics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Liturgics I. Linguistics and Religious Studies 1. Linguistics As studied by linguistics (Philology), language is an inventory of audible signs combined ¶ according to specific rules to facilitate interpersonal communication. There is a general distinction between language as a transindividual system of signs ( langue) and its actualization by an individual speaker ( parole). Within …

Celtic Religion

(952 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
[German Version] is a collective term commonly used for the myths, rituals, and cults of the Celts before they were christianized. The criteria for defining what falls under the generic term “Celtic religion” are in part linguistic, in part archaeological, and in part historical; however, distinct regional variations and chronological ¶ differentiations, not a fundamental inner unity of the respective phenomena, are to be assumed. Our knowledge derives primarily from archaeological finds from the pre-Roman and Roman periods, accoun…

Religious Wars

(1,363 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
[German Version] The term “religious war” or “war of religion” first came into use during the intra-Christian armed conflicts of the 16th/17th centuries, in connection with the formation of the early modern European territorial states. As indicated by the alternative designations “faith war” and “confessional war,” its usage is frequently still restricted to this period and area, although it may also be applied in an unspecific sense to all armed conflicts in which religion played, or plays, an im…


(517 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
[German Version] The name “Celts” (Gk Keltoí and Galátai, Lat. Galli) has its origins in ancient ethnography and historiography, where it denotes numerous different peoples of Central and Western Europe. In modern usage, it refers either to peoples who already bore the name in antiquity, or to the speakers of languages belonging to the Celtic branch of Indo-European, including both ancient Continental Celtic (Gaulish and Celtiberian on the Iberian Peninsula, Lepontic in …

Tylor, Edward Burnett

(151 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
[German Version] (Oct 2, 1832, London – Jan 2, 1917, Wellington), early theorist of ethnology and comparative religion, who began teaching anthropology at Oxford University in 1884. Under the influence of contemporary biological theories and philosophy of history, his Primitive Culture, a major work published in 1871, suggested that the history of religion also displays an evolution from simple to increasingly complex forms. He reconstructed this development on the basis of “survivals,” isolated cultural elements belonging originally …

Dreams/Interpretation of Dreams

(5,513 words)

Author(s): Bierbaumer, Niels | Maier, Bernhard | Albani, Matthias | Rösel, Martin | Wandrey, Irina | Et al.
[German Version] I. Neurobiology and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. Early Judaism – V. Greco-Roman Antiquity – VI. New Testament – VII. Church History – VIII. Fundamental Theology – IX. Practical Theology – X. Missiology – XI. Art History I. Neurobiology and Psychology Dreams are hallucinatory experiences that generally occur during sleep. Unlike real experiences, they involve associations that are temporally, spatially, and emot…


(9,630 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard | Berlejung, Angelika | Steimle, Christopher | Bieberstein, Klaus | Zellentin, Holger | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The English word temple derives from Latin templum. In the technical vocabulary of religious studies, it is more specialized than sanctuary, shrine, cult site, or place of worship. The usage of the originally Latin term beyond the sphere of classical antiquity is well established, particularly for structures that appear comparable in regard to their architectural form (monumentality, stone construction) or religious function (dwelling place of a god or goddess). But this usage does not reflect a precise defi-¶ nition it is based primarily …

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich

(1,485 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
German classical philologist and religious scholar. Born Marburg 10. 3. 1771, died Heidelberg 16. 2. 1858. 1789–1790 studied Protestant theology, philosophy and philology at Marburg and Jena. Private teacher at Marburg from 1791. Study trip to Leipzig 1798. 1799 habil. at Univ. of Marburg. 1800 prof. ext., 1802 prof. ord. there; 1804–1845 prof. of classical philology and ancient history at Heidelberg (with one interruption for a three-month visit to Leiden 1809). Background C., the son of a bookbinder, began studying theology, but under the influence of Friedrich Ca…

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Religionsforscher. Geb. am 10. 3. 1771 in Marburg, gest. am 16. 2. 1858 in Heidelberg. 1789–1790 Studium der evang. Theologie, Philosophie und Philologie in Marburg und Jena; ab 1791 Privatlehrer in Marburg; 1798 Studienaufenthalt in Leipzig. 1799 Habil. an der Univ. Marburg; 1800 ao.Prof. , 1802 o.Prof. ebda.; 1804–1845 (mit Unterbrechung durch dreimonatigen Aufenthalt in Leiden 1809) Prof. der Klass. Phil. und der Alten Gesch. in Heidelberg. Werdegang C., Sohn eines Buchbinders, wandte sich nach theologischen Studien unter dem Einfluss…

Religious studies

(1,590 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
A. IntroductionReligious studies or religious science in current usage generally denotes an explicitly non-theological field of cultural science, whose practitioners formulate general propositions and theories on the basis mainly of historical philology and social science about the area of culture that has been called ‘religion’ in Europe since the beginning of the early modern period. In this sense, religious science is a product of the Enlightenment, Romanticism, secularization and the institutionalization of modern universities, and accordingly it was not present …
Date: 2021-01-25

Celtic-Germanic Antiquity

(1,547 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
A. IntroductionThe Celts and Germans were still in many respects considered as a single entity in the 18th century, either because they were often believed to be the same people or because the names were thought to be interchangeable. As in the 16th and 17th century, engagement with them was based mainly on Greek and Latin texts. The first archaeological finds and monuments were also coming into consideration (Archaeology) but it was often only in the 19th century that these began to be dated reliably. The view of the Celtic and Germanic peoples in the 18th ce…
Date: 2021-01-25

Keltisch-germanisches Altertum

(1,367 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
A. AllgemeinesIm 18. Jahrhundert bildete die Beschäftigung mit den antiken Kelten und Germanen noch in vieler Hinsicht eine Einheit, da man beide oft als ein und dasselbe betrachtete oder die Namen für austauschbar hielt. Die Grundlage dieser Beschäftigung bildeten, wie schon im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, vor allem griechische und lateinische Texte, daneben auch schon archäologische Funde und Bodendenkmäler (Archäologie), die oft jedoch erst im 19. Jahrhundert richtig datiert werden konnten, sodass das Bild der antiken Kelten und Germanen im 18. Jahrhun…
Date: 2020-07-23


(1,344 words)

Author(s): Maier, Bernhard
A. AllgemeinesIm heutigen Sprachgebrauch versteht man unter Religionswissenschaft im Allgemeinen einen explizit nichttheologischen Teilbereich der Kulturwissenschaften, dessen Vertreter auf der Grundlage vor allem historisch-philologischer und sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschungen allgemeine Aussagen und Theorien über jene Aspekte der Kultur formulieren, die in Europa seit der Frühen Neuzeit mit dem Begriff »Religion« bezeichnet oder umschrieben werden. Religionswissenschaft in diesem Sinne ist ein Produkt der Aufklärung, der Romantik, der Säkularisierung sow…
Date: 2020-07-23