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Abū Sayyāra

(303 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿumayla b. al-aʿzal b. k̲h̲ālīd al-ʿadawanī , a personage of the end of the D̲j̲āhiliyya, said have been the first to fix the diya or pecuniary composition for murder at 100 camels and the last to lead the pilgrims, either at the departure for ʿArafāt ( ifāḍa ) or from al-Muzdalifa to Minā ( id̲j̲āza ), since the sources disagree on this point, and the more careful authors merely use the expression dafaʿa bi ’l-nās . This man, who probably owed his kunya to this function of his, a privilege of the Ḳaysī tribe of ʿAdwān (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 92 …

Ibn Abī K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama

(258 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Zuhayr (= Abū K̲h̲aythama) b. Ḥarb b. S̲h̲addād al-Nasāʾī al-Bag̲h̲dādī , traditionist, genealogist, historian and poet, born at Nasāʾ in 185/801, died at Bag̲h̲dād in 279/892 (the dates 205/820 and 299/911-2 are probably too late). The son of Abū K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama (d. 243/857), who was the author of a K. al-Musnad and a K. al-ʿIlm ( Fihrist , Cairo ed., 321), he was the pupil of Ibn Ḥanbal in ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh , of Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī in genealogy, of al-Madāʾinī in history and of Muḥammad b. Sallām in literature. The Fihrist mentions among his works K. al-Muntamīn (?), K. al-Aʿrā…

Kaʿb b. Ḏj̲uʿayl al-Tag̲h̲labī

(726 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a minor Arab poet of the 1st/7th century whom Ibn Sallām ( Ṭabaḳāt , 485-9) places in the 3rd rank of Islamic poets. His genealogy varies with the different authors (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 165, no doubt provides the most accurate one), and very little is known of his life. Probably born during the earliest years of the Hid̲j̲ra , he made his appearance at the time of the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657) as an intimate of Muʿāwiya, of whom, like most of the Tag̲h̲lib [ q.v.], he was a passionate supporter. The conflict with ʿAlī inspired him to write a number of poems, in particular…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲udʿān

(402 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Ḳurays̲h̲ite notable of the clan of Taym b. Murra, at the end of the 6th c. A.D. He acquired such wealth from the caravan and slave trade that he possessed one of the largest fortunes in Mecca (Ps.-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Maḥāsin (van Vloten), 165; Ibn Rusta, 215; Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , vi, 153 ff.; Lammens, La Mecque à la veille de l’Hégire , index). He surrounded himself with unusual luxury (being nick-named ḥāsī ‘l-d̲h̲ahab , because he used to drink from a golden cup), and was the owner of the two singing-girls called "Locusts of ʿĀd" ( Ḏj̲arādatā ʿĀd ) whom he offered to Umayya b…

al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Ḥilliza

(603 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Yas̲h̲kurī , a pre-Islamic Arab poet to whom is attributed principally a ḳaṣīda which mediaeval critics regarded as the seventh of the muʿallaḳāt [ q.v.]. The information that we possess in respect of his life deserves no credence, and the poem that is the cause of his renown is in itself so suspect that Ṭāhā Ḥusayn considers it to be totally apocryphal (cf. also al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , iii, 449, on the questions of other verses). This ḳaṣīda, in k̲h̲afīf metre and with -āʾū rhyme (with an iḳwāʾ in one verse in -āʾī ), is said by legendary tradition to have been …


(371 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(many possible vocalisations), Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. al-Maʾmūn , ¶ popular poet of Baṣra, who probably died in 327/938. He made rice bread ( k̲h̲ubz aruzz ) in a shop at the Mirbad [ q.v.], where his biographers show him as surrounded by a circle of admirers who were especially attracted by his g̲h̲azal verses on boys, these being his speciality. It does not seem that he should be included in the list of those poets whose belligerence involved them in contests and controversies, nor does he seem to have been inclined, l…

Ayman b. K̲h̲uraym

(242 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. fātik b. al-ak̲h̲ram al-asadī , Arab poet of the Umayyad period, son of the Companion of the Prophet Ḵh̲uraym al-Nāʿim, whose ḥadīt̲h̲s he has handed down. After settling at Kūfa, he composed, like many of the poets of that town g̲h̲azal poems, but also panegyrics on the Umayyad princes ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and Bis̲h̲r, son of Marwān; although he contracted tubercular leprosy ( abraṣ ), his poetry allowed him to enjoy their intimate friendship, and this favour won him the surname of k̲h̲alīl al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ (the friend of caliphs). In some of his poems he touch…

Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr

(986 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿĪsā, son of the famous Companion of the Prophet al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.] and brother of the anti-caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.]. Handsome, chivalrous, generous to the utmost ¶ degree of prodigality, he resembled his older brother and the Zubayrid family only in his courage and outbursts of severity in repression. He began his military career at the outset of the caliphate of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam, with an ill-conceived expedition in Palestine. His name has gone down in history chiefly owing to his campaign, in his capa…

Abū ʿImrān al-Fāsī

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, mūsā b. ʿīsā b. abī ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲/ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ (?), Mālikī faḳīh , probably born between 365/975 and 368/978 at Fās into a Berber family whose nisba is impossible to reconstruct. No doubt to complete his studies, but perhaps also because of other reasons hard to discern, he went to settle in al-Ḳayrawān, where his master was in particular al-Ḳābisī (d. 403/1012 [ q.v.]). He is known to have stayed in Cordova with Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr [ q.v.] and to have profited by the chance to follow the lectures of various scholars there, which his biographers list, without however gi…

Hart̲h̲ama b. Aʿyan

(477 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a general and governor of the ʿAbbāsid period, a native of K̲h̲urāsān. As a supporter of ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.] in the reign of al-Manṣūr, he was brought to Bag̲h̲dād in chains and remained in obscurity throughout the reign of al-Mahdī. He then became the confidential adviser of al-Hādī who is even said to have ordered him to kill Hārūn, and was stopped from doing so only by al-K̲h̲ayzurān’s intervention. However, on the death of al-Hādī, it was he who brought Hārūn out of prison and took part in his enthronement. T…


(868 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a), from ṭamara , which signifies in particular “to hide”, denotes a natural or man-made cavity used for the concealment of victuals ( ṭaʿām ) or of riches ( māl ); such is the definition adopted by the ¶ LA (s.v.), which specifies that it is the plural maṭāmīr which should be applied to underground silos where grain is stored. In fact, the singular currently denotes a silo, and the plural, a group of silos garded by a ṭammār and called mərs in Morocco ( rətba in Takrūna, where the guardian is known as rattāb ; W. Marçais, Glossaire de Takroûna , v, 2408-9, with discussio…

Aḥmad b. Ḥābiṭ

(360 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(rather than Ḥāʾiṭ, if the position in the alphabetical order given to him by al-ʿAsḳalānī is taken into consideration), a theologian ranked among the Muʿtazilites; he was the pupil of al-Naẓẓām [ q.v.], and the teacher, in particular, of al-Faḍl al-Ḥadat̲h̲ī. Nothing is known about his life, and only his "innovations" are partly known to us. His doctrine, evolved before 232/846-7, seems to differ from Muʿtazilite teaching on the following two fundamental dogmas, which are borrowed from systems alien to Islam but which, in the…

Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl

(695 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a famous pact concluded between several Ḳurays̲h̲ī clans a few years before the Prophet’s mission, more precisely, according to certain authorities, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda on the return from the war of Fid̲j̲ār [ q.v.]. The traditions concerning the events which brought it about are divergent, but can be reduced to the following outline: a merchant of Zabīd (or elsewhere, or even the poet al-Ṭamaḥān al-Ḳaysī) sells merchandise to a leading man of the clan of the Banū Sahm who proves to be a bad payer and wants to harm the merchant.…

Badr al-Muʿtaḍidī

(502 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Nad̲j̲m , commander-in-chief of the armies of the caliph al-Muʿtaḍid (279-89/892-902). He was the son of one of al-Mutawakkil’s mawālī , whose name cannot be established with certainty (Ḵh̲urr or Ḵh̲ayr?), and was first in service as an equerry to al-Muwaffaḳ, gaining from that time the favour of the future caliph al-Muʿtaḍid, who, whilst still regent after al-Muwaffaḳ’s death (Ṣafar 278/June 891), made him chief of police in Bag̲h̲dād and then, after his accession, com-mander of all th…

Laḳīṭ b. Zurāra

(830 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUdus b. Zayd b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Dārim , Abu Nahs̲h̲al , poet and sayyid of the second half of the 6th century A.D. His name apparently appears for the first time in a tradition concerning the assassination by his brother-in-law Suwayd b. Rabīʿa b. Zayd (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 60, and Register, ii, 521) of a son (or of a young brother) Mālik, of al-Mund̲h̲ir b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ, who had entrusted him to Zurāra, and the vengeance of ʿAmr b. Hind [ q.v.], in the first place on the seven sons of the murdered man and then on the Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik (Ibn al-Kalbī-Ca…

Ḥisāb al-ʿAḳd

(1,582 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(— al-ʿuḳad , — al-ʿuḳūd , — al-Ḳabḍa bi ’l-yad , — al-yad), dactylonomy, digital computation, the art of expressing numbers by the position of the fingers. Some indications prove that the ancient Arabs not only at times used to show their outstretched hands, bending down one or more fingers when necessary, to indicate some small numbers (see I. Goldziher, in Arabica , viii/3, 272), but also had the ability to express larger numbers by holding their fingers in a given position (see G. Levi Della Vida, in Isl ., x (1920), 243), and ¶ it is not impossible that certain gestures used by the …


(514 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Pellat, Ch.
(or Daḥya ) b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Kalbī , Companion of the Prophet and a somewhat mysterious character. He is traditionally represented as a rich merchant of such outstanding beauty that the Angel Gabriel took his features; and, when he arrived at Medina, all the women ( muʿṣir , see LA, root. ʿṣr ) came out to see him (Ḳurʾān, LXII, n, may be an allusion to this occurrence). There is no reason to accept the suggestion put forward by Lammens ( EI 1, s.v.) of some commercial connexion with Muḥammad; we only know that a sudden death put ¶ a stop to a projected marriage between a niece of Diḥya and …

Ḥafṣa Bint al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(357 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Rukūniyya (al-Rakūniyya), poetess of Granada born after 530/1135, d. 589/1190-1. Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb ( Iḥāṭa , i, 316) and other writers praise the beauty, distinction, literary culture, wit, and poetic gifts of this woman, who was remembered in later ages above all for her love-affair with the poet Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Ibn Saʿīd of the Banū Saʿīd [see ibn saʿīd ] family. Abu D̲j̲aʿfar was the inspiration of most of her poetry which we possess. After the arrival at Granada of Abū Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān, the son of the Almohad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, sh…

K̲h̲ālid b. Sinān

(347 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿayt̲h̲ al-ʿabsī (see his genealogy in Ibn al-Kalbī D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 133), one of the personages of the interval [see fatra ] between Christ and Muḥammad who, in Islamic tradition, was considered as a prophet; he was even regarded as the first prophet to arise amongst the descendants of Ismāʿīl. He is said to have foretold the coming of Muḥammad, and the latter is said to have greeted K̲h̲ālid’s daughter, who had come to him, with these words “Here is the daughter of a prophet whom his people has lost”; popular belief even went as far as to attribute to him knowledge of Sūrat al-Ik̲h̲lāṣ ( T̲h̲im…

Abū ʿĀṣim al-Nabīl

(287 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, al-ḍaḥḥāk b. mak̲h̲lad b. muslim b. al-ḍaḥḥāk al-s̲h̲aybānī al-baṣri , traditionist, born at Mecca in 122/740 but established subsequently at Baṣra, where he transmitted from a host of scholars (notably al-Aṣmaʿī) a large quantity of ḥadīt̲h̲s gathered by himself, and especially from several tābiʿīs or Successors. He was considered as trustworthy, and some of his ḥadīt̲h̲s were included in the great collections; his biographers assert that he never fabricated a single one, although he is said to have declared that pious men never lie so much as in …


(1,202 words)

Author(s): MacDonald, D.B. | Pellat, Ch.
(A., pl. g̲h̲īlān or ag̲h̲wāl ), fabulous being believed by the ancient Arabs to inhabit desert places and, assuming different forms, to lead travellers astray (sometimes, like the Bedouins, lighting fires on the hills the more easily to attract them), to fall upon them unawares and devour them; certain isolated sources (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 315) affirm however that it fled as soon as it was challenged; according to al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ ( Ḥayawān , i, 309), it rode on hares, dogs and ostriches; men could kill it, but only by giving it one singl…

Ibn al-Abbār

(800 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī , historian, traditionist, littérateur, and poet, belonged to a family which had its origin in Onda, the patrimony of the Ḳuḍāʾīs of Spain; he was born in Rabīʿ II 595/February 1199 at Valencia, where he passed his youth studying under the direction of several teachers whom he quotes in his Muʿd̲j̲am . For more than twenty years he was the disciple of the most learned traditionist in Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who persuaded him to complete the Ṣila of Ibn B…

Mūsā S̲h̲ahawātin

(382 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Muḥammad, a poet of Medina considerably less known than his brother Ismāʿīl b. Yasār [ q.v.], with the result that Yāḳūt, who devotes an article to him, calls him Mūsā b. Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār; he gives him the nisba of al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, as the person in question was in fact a mawlā of Ḳurays̲h̲, variously associated with the Banū Taym b. Murra, with the Banū Sahm or even with Sulaymān b. Abī K̲h̲ayt̲h̲ama al-ʿAdawī (of the ʿAdī b. Kaʿb b. Luʾayy). Since the reason for his cognomen has been forgotten, numerous explanations have b…


(2,439 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( or ), the nickname of a personage whom popular imagination made the hero of a few hundred jests, anecdotes and amusing stories. The oldest literary instance of this name goes back to the first half of the 3rd/9th century, in al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, who numbers D̲j̲uḥā among others renowned for their follies ( Risāla fi ’l-Ḥakamayn , ed. Pellat, in Machriq , 1958, 431), and attributes to him futile schemes and an extraordinary tendency to make mistakes and blunders; the same author also quotes ( K. al-Big̲h̲āl , ed. Pellat, Cairo 1955, 36) a story borrowed from Abu ’l…

Kurd ʿAlī

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Muḥammad Farīd , Syrian journalist, scholar and man of letters, was born in Damascus in 1876, of a father of Kurdish origin and a Čerkes mother. From an early age, he showed an interest in nature and in books, and it was reading which, combined with his innate curiosity and gifts of observation, made the greatest contribution to his intellectual development. Already bilingual in Turkish and Arabic, he learnt French from the Lazarist Fathers of Damascus, and this enable him t…


(407 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(Ar.), which in general means a relaxing, and then an interval of time ( e.g., the modern fatrat al-intiḳāl “period of transition”), is applied more particularly to the period separating two prophets or two successive messengers ( rasūl ); al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ ( Rasāʾil , ed. Sandūbī, Cairo 1352/1933, 133-4), in his exposition of prophetic history, uses the term fatra for the end of the period separating two prophets, making it clear that the “slackening” (of observance of the earlier prophet’s teachings) is not a “break” ( ḳaṭʿa ). Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 85) for e…

Ibn Harma

(513 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Salama (b. ʿĀmir) b. Harma al-Fihrī , Abū Isḥāḳ , Arab poet of Medina, born in 90/709, who, if his genealogy is authentic, belonged to the tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲. Little is known of his life. A supporter of the ʿAlids, he attended and panegyrised ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan [ q.v.] and al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [ q.v.], but he is said to have refrained from giving his support to Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh [ q.v.] when the latter revolted against the ʿAbbāsids. The Ag̲h̲ānī names several persons for whom he had occasion to exercise his poetic gifts, but it must…


(754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( Demnate , Demnat ), a small Berber town situated on the edge of the Great Atlas in Morocco, 120 km. east of Marrākush, at an altitude of 960 m., on a small hill overlooking the fertile valley (barley, beans) of the Oued Tassawt, the slopes of which are covered with olive-trees and vines. The town is surrounded by a rectangular wall and includes a məllāḥ (Jewish quarter); in fact almost half the population, which stands at about 4,000, consists of Jews, whose numbers however are diminishing regularly. Local trade on a large scale in oil…


(12,364 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Hanaway, W. L. | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
or mart̲h̲āt (A., pl. marāt̲h̲ī ) “elegy”, a poem composed in Arabic (or in an Islamic language following the Arabic tradition) to lament the passing of a beloved person and to celebrate his ¶ merits; rit̲h̲āʾ , from the same root, denotes both lamentation and the corresponding literary genre. 1. In Arabic literature. The origin of the mart̲h̲iya may be found in the rhymed and rhythmic laments going with the ritual movements performed as a ritual around the funeral cortège by female relatives of the deceased, before this role bec…


(2,089 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), pl. mukaddūn , defined by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ ¶ ( Buk̲h̲alāʾ , ed. Ḥād̲j̲iri, 46) as a man who practices kidāʾ ( ṣāḥib al-kidāʾ ), a term often replaced at a later date by kudya or takdiya and defined as “begging”, in fact denotes a wandering beggar or vagrant who, with the help of a remarkable talent for plausible lying and a knowledge of certain effective dodges, succeeds in opening up the purses of those simple persons who allow themselves to be taken in by his eloquent but mendacious words. The different w…

Ibn Sayḥān

(262 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (b. Sayḥān) b. Arṭāt al-Muḥāribī , a minor poet of Medina who lived in the 1st/7th century, on intimate terms with the governors or members of the Umayyad aristocracy of the town—al-Walīd b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, al-Walīd b. ʿUtba b. Abī Sufyān, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Ḥakam and al-Walīd b. ʿUḳba b. Abī Muʿayṭ; indeed he belonged to a clan which was a ḥalīf of the Banū Ḥarb b. Umayya, a fact which incidentally won him the friendship and protection of Muʿāwiya. Although we possess a number of his verses, which belong to the c…

Fuḳahāʾ al-Madīna al-Sabʿa

(1,764 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the seven “jurists” of Medina, to whom tradition attributes a significant role in the formation of fiḳh . J. Schacht, who was especially interested in these fuḳahāʾ , wrote ( Esquisse d’une histoire du droit musulman , Paris 1952, 28; cf. idem, An introduction to Islamic law, Oxford 1964, 31): “The Medinans ... traced back the origin of their special brand of legal teaching to a number of ancient authorities, who died in the final years of the first and the early years of the second century of the Hegira. In a later p…

Ibn al-Habbāriyya

(957 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Yaʿlā al-S̲h̲arīf Niẓām al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ al-ʿAbbāsī al-Hās̲h̲imī , Arab poet of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid period, a descendant of the ʿAbbāsid prince ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], who is named after his maternal grandfather, a certain Habbār. He was born probably in Bag̲h̲dād (though it is also said that he was born in Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān) before the middle of the 5th/11th century and followed the traditional pattern of study so thoroughly as to be included among the transmitters of ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he could not bring himself to take an interest in the…


(6,078 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn , Arab writer whose activity, in the words of Brockelmann (in EI 1, s.v.) “has been undertaken outside the well-trodden paths of professional scholarship”, with the result that he has been rather neglected by biographers and copyists and that a normally well-informed writer like Ibn al-Nadīm, who has obviously not read his works, takes him ( Fihrist , 154) for a Mag̲h̲ribī and devotes to him only a short, moreover probably truncated, article. In fact, the only reliable account which is available concern…

Ibn ʿĀʾis̲h̲a

(427 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, by-name of several persons, who may be distinguished as follows: I. Muḥammad b. ʿĀʾis̲h̲a , Abū D̲j̲aʿfar , Medinan singer of unknown father. A pupil of Maʿbad and of Malik, he was regarded as the equal if not the superior of his masters, and celebrated for his skill at launching into a performance. He was highly respected at Mecca and at Medina, but, extremely vain, he would become very angry when asked to sing. He was invited to the court of Damascus, probably by al-Walīd b. Yazīd but du…


(3,222 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān ʿAmr b. Baḥr al-Fuḳaymī al-Baṣrī , was a famous Arab prose writer, the author of works of adab , Muʿtazilī theology and politico-religious polemics. Born at Baṣra about 160/776 in an obscure family of mawālī from the Banū Kināna and probably of Abyssinian origin, he owes his sobriquet to a malformation of the eyes ( d̲j̲āḥiẓ = with a projecting cornea). Little is known of his childhood in Baṣra, except that from an early age an invincible desire for learning and a remarkably inquisitive mind urged him towards a life of independence and, m…


(1,904 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a technical term of rhetoric corresponding approximately to “metonymy” and meaning the replacement, under certain conditions, of a word by another word which has a logical connection with it (from cause to effect, from containing to contained, from physical to moral, by apposition etc.). Etymologically, this term implies a sense of dissimulation found also in the word kunya [ q.v.], which is considered by such a grammarian as al-Mubarrad ( Kāmil , 677) to be derived from kināya . Kināya constitutes a particular type of metaphor ( istiʿāra [ q.v.]) and it is distinct from trope ( mad̲j̲…


(415 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, appellation bestowed on the man who, according to tradition, was the first nasīʾ [ q.v.] of the Arabs, Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. ʿAbd b. Fuḳaym b. ʿAdī, of the Banū Mālik b. Kināna; al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 250), however, echoes a tradition according to which al-Ḳalammas al-Akbar was ʿAdī, great-grandfather of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa, and al-Ṭabarī ( Tafsīr , Būlāḳ 1327/1909, x, 2) states that three men were the first to be designated nasīʾ, but he does not mention Ḥud̲h̲ayfa by name. However he does mention him in this respect in Annales , i, 1134. According to al-Masʿūdī (Murūd̲j…

Ibn (al-)Aḥmar

(264 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, byname of several poets, including an Iyādī (see Āmidī, Muʾtalif , 38), a Kinānī ( ibid.), a Bad̲j̲alī ( op. cit., 37; al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , ii, 214) and a Bāhilī, who is the best known. The sources vary considerably with regard to the genealogy of this poet, but he seems to have been called Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb ʿAmr b. (al-) Aḥmar b. ¶ al-ʿAmarrad b. Tamīm b. Rabīʿa b. Ḥirām b. Farrāṣ b. Maʿn b. Aʿṣur al-Bāhilī. He is included among the muk̲h̲aḍramūn [ q.v.], embraced Islam, took part in the conquests in South-west Asia (in the course of which he lost an eye), settled in Syria …

Laʿaḳat al-Dam

(912 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
“lickers of blood”, the name given to a group of clans of Ḳurays̲h̲. According to tradition, Ḳuṣayy [ q.v.] had allocated to the different subdivisions of Ḳurays̲h̲ the quarters which they were to occupy in Mecca and had entrusted to the Banū ʿAbd al-Dār various local offices: administration of the dār al-nadwa and bearing the standard ( liwāʾ ), the furnishing of provisions ( rifāda ) and drink ( siḳāya ) to the pilgrims, and custodianship of the Kaʿba ( ḥid̲j̲āba [see kaʿba ]). However, the Banū ʿAbd Manāf thought themselves more worthy of these privile…


(499 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), chameleon. Triptote with the meaning of “the head of nails joining the links of a coat of mail”, this word, because of its ending, is often treated as diptote and feminine, although it is masculine and for its feminine form has ḥirbāʾa . However, the female chameleon is most often called umm ḥubayn , while the male is referred to by a number of kunya s, of which the most frequent in Muslim Spain, abū barāḳis̲h̲ , often leads translators into error (see E. Lévi-Provencal, En relisant le Collier de la colombe, in al-Andalus , xv/2 (1950), 353). This reptile, which is classified with the aḥnās̲h̲…

al-Naḍr b. S̲h̲umayl

(562 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. K̲h̲aras̲h̲a al-Māzinī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, Arab scholar who, born in Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ in 122/740, was brought up at Baṣra. He led a miserable life there, but was able to derive instruction from the most famous masters of the time (see Pellat, Milieu , passim ), notably al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad [ q.v.], whose K. al-ʿAyn he was to enrich by an introduction. He probably lived for some time (allegedly 40 years, which must be an exaggeration) among the Bedouins, whom he was also able to question at the Mirbad [ q.v.]. He was interested in the various branches of knowledge cultivated in his time …


(568 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-ʿAbbās , Arabic poet and writer (323-83/934-93). Since he alleged that his mother was the sister of the historian al-Ṭabarī, he fabricated for himself the nisba of al-Ṭabark̲h̲azī. He was born in K̲h̲wārazm and spent his youth there, but left it at an early date. It is difficult to trace his peregrinations, but he seems to have sought out, above all, the company of great men in order to live off their munificience. Hence we find him at Aleppo, in the service of Sayf al-Dawla; at Buk̲h̲ārā, with the vizier …


(313 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan , philologist who acted as a tutor to certain of the Buy ids of Iṣfahān and who died in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 421/December 1030. The vizier the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād [ q.v.], whom he had antagonised by neglecting to rise on his entry, nevertheless recognised al-Marzūḳī’s value, at the same time dubbing him (in Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xviii, 215) a weaver ( ḥāʾik ), probably without any pejorative intention, since it is possible that he worked at this trade in his youth. Apart from this, we have hardly any details about his life, and it is merely known that he studied the Kitā…


(1,242 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
cognomen by which two pre-Islamic Arab poets are known, belonging to a family of which several members have made their mark in the history of poetry in the Arabic language. 1. The Elder, al-Akbar , was called either Rabīʿa, or ʿAwf, or even ʿAmr, the uncertainty deriving from the fact that his father, Saʿd b. Malik b. Ḍubayʿa, had eleven sons (see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 155) whom the historians and biographers may have confused; ʿAmr b. Saʿd seems however to be the form that should be retained. The Arab …

al-Nāṭiḳ bi’l-Ḥaḳḳ

(262 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the honorific given by the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Amīn [ q.v.] to his son Mūsā in 194/809, when he designated him as heir presumptive in place of al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.], whereas their father Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd had specified that the inheritance of the caliphate should pass to al-Maʾmūn and had taken the precaution of sending a circular letter on this subject to all the provinces and of attaching to the kisāʾ of the Kaʿba a copy of this, for the tearing-down of which al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʾ [ q.v.] sent a ḥād̲j̲ib . It was in effect this vizier of al-Amīn’s who led the calip…

Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān

(390 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the people of the Interval ( fatra [ q.v.]), regarded as a prophet sent to the Aṣḥāb al-Rass [ q.v.], who maltreated and killed him before being destroyed themselves. The formation of the legend apparently began in the 3rd/9th century (cf. al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ , ed. Pellat, index) but Ibn Ḳutayba does not mention Ḥanẓala among the prophets of the fatra, and al-Maṣʿūdī, in the Murūd̲j̲ (i, 125, iii, 105), devotes only a few lines to him. Later on, the necessity felt by the exegetists to explain the Ḳurʾānic expression Aṣḥāb al-Rass …


(5,193 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Pellat, Ch.
(p.), means a sign, banner, seal (and hence letter of a prince), or order/decoration. As a loanword in Ottoman Turkish, it basically denoted a sign or mark and also designated the sultan’s signature, or ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.] and, by extension, a document bearing it (its scribe was a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.]); the standards of the Janissaries or Yeñi Čeri [ q.v.]; the insignia on military, naval and other uniforms; and, ¶ later, decorations bestowed by the sultan. In 19th and 20th century literary Arabic, nis̲h̲ān ( also nīs̲h̲ān ), similarly a loanword, had essential…

Ibn Muḳbil

(995 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Kaʿb (Abu ’l-Ḥurra in Ibn Durayd’s Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , 12) Tamīm b. Ubayy b. Muḳbil b. al-ʿAd̲j̲lān al-ʿĀmirī (i.e. the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 101), Bedouin poet of the muk̲h̲aḍram , who is said, like many other people of his age, to have lived 120 years (although al-Sid̲j̲istānī does not cite him in his K. al-Muʿammarīn ). He died after the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657), to which he alludes in one of his poems ( Dīwān , 345), probably in Muʿāwiya’s reign and in any case, at a time when al-Ak̲h̲ṭal [ q.v.] had already made himself known to him. Ibn Muḳbil …

ʿĀʾis̲h̲a Bint Ṭalḥa

(287 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the most famous of Arab women. Daughter of a Companion of the Prophet, Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Taymī [ q.v.], who had already won great renown, grand-daughter of Abū Bakr through her mother Umm Kult̲h̲ūm, and niece of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, the Prophet’s favourite wife, she combined nobility of birth with an imperious spirit and a rare beauty, which she was anxious should not go unnoticed. By nature a coquette, she courted the praises of the g̲h̲azal poets (ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa, i, 80; Kut̲h̲ayyir ʿAzza, Ibn Kutayba, S̲h̲iʿr , 322; ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr, Ag̲h̲ānī , x, 60), …

Ibn Abī Laylā

(826 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Schacht, J.
, appellation of two persons who figure in the early history of Islam. I. Abū ʿĪsā ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Laylā (= Yasār or Dāwūd) b. Bilāl b. Uḥayḥa b. al-D̲j̲ulāḥ al-Anṣārī , tābiʿī of Kūfa, who was born in 17/638. He collected traditions which he heard from ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and other Companions, was present, on ʿ Alī’s side, in the battle of the Camel [see al-d̲j̲amal ], and took part in the revolt of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.]. There are varying accounts of how he lost his life. In isnād s, where he figures as one of the first links after the Companions, he is …


(5,016 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a name by which is known a group of Jewish merchants whose origin, identity and activities have been the subject of an endless series of questions, opinions, commentaries and contradictory judgments, none of which have proved finally convincing. These speculations have been inspired by a passage of the Kitāb al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik of Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih [ q.v.] composed between 232 and 272/846-85. This text , which has been copied and summarised, but never genuinely corroborated by contemporary or later authors, Muslim or non-Musli…

Abū S̲h̲urāʿa

(468 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, aḥmad b. muḥammad b. s̲h̲urāʿa al-ḳaysī al-bakrī , minor poet of Baṣra who, during the course of the 3rd/9th century, took part in the social and intellectual life of his native town, and hardly left it, it seems, except to make the Pilgrimage or to visit places very close at hand. For the rest, his life is poorly documented. It seems unlikely that he was able, as Ibn al-Muʿtazz asserts ( Ṭabaḳāt , 177-8), to praise al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85) during the latter’s lifetime, to have reached an advanced age in al-Maʾmūn’s time and to die in the cali…


(559 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Maḥammad b. Aḥmad , Moroccan scholar and teacher, born 15 Ramaḍān 999/7 July 1591 at Fās, where he studied and taught law and ḥadīt̲h̲ until his death in the same town on 3 Ḏj̲umādā II 1071/24 January 1662. He was the author of several commentaries, ¶ notably on the Tuḥfa of Ibn ʿĀṣim [ q.v.], of which a manuscript exists in the Bibl. Générale, Rabat (D 873), and on the theological poem called al-Murs̲h̲id al-muʿīn of his master Ibn ʿĀs̲h̲ir (d. 1040/1631) completed in 1044/1634-5 and called al-Durr al-t̲h̲amīn wa ’l-mawrid al-maʿīn fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Murs̲h̲id al-muʿīn ʿa…


(1,275 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nisba of a S̲h̲īʿī family of which one member, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar aḥmad b. muḥammad b. Ḵh̲ālid b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, enjoys a considerable renown in Imāmī circles. When the ancestor of the family, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, was imprisoned and put to death by Yūsuf b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī (governor of ʿIrāḳ from 120/738 to 126/744 [ q.v.]) following the suppression of the revolt of Zayd b. ʿAlī (122/740 [ q.v.]), his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān escaped and established himself at Barḳa, in the region of Ḳumm, whence the ethnic name al-Barḳī, to which there is sometimes adde…

Naṣr b. Nuṣayr

(294 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥulwānī , Abu ’l-Muḳātil, a blind S̲h̲īʿi poet of the 3rd/9th century who owes the fact of his not having fallen into total obscurity to a maḳṣūra [ q.v.] (of which there are two verses given in al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , § 3462) and a nūniyya , both composed in praise of the dāʿī Muḥammad b. Zayd (d. 287/900 [ q.v.]). Thirty-six verses of this last ḳaṣīda (metre ramal , rhyme -ānī ) have been preserved, solely by al-Masʿūdī, it appears ( Murūd̲j̲, § 3518), whilst the maṭlaʿ ( lā taḳul bus̲h̲rā ... al-mihrad̲j̲ānī ): Do not say “One piece of good news”, but “two pieces of good news”: the face of someone …

(al-)Mund̲h̲ir b. Saʿīd

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳurṭubī , Abu ’l-Ḥakam, Andalusian theologian and jurist, born in 273/886 into a family of Berber origin settled in the region of Cordova, at Faḥṣ al-Ballūṭ [ q.v., Los Pedroches], whence his nisba of al-Ballūṭī . He studied in the capital of al-Andalus and set out ¶ to broaden his knowledge in the East on the occasion of a pilgrimage which he made in 308/921. He stayed in various cities, studied under several teachers and achieved renown in Egypt when he publicly corrected the reading of a verse of Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā [ q.v.] by Abū D̲j̲aʿfar al-Naḥḥās, who su…


(378 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
the name generally given to two poets of Sayf al-Dawla’s [ q.v.] entourage, the two inseparable brothers abū ʿut̲h̲mān saʿd / saʿīd (d. 350/961) and abū bakr muḥammad (d. 380/990), sons of Hās̲h̲im b. Saʿīd b. Waʿla. They came originally from a village of the region of al-Mawṣil called al-K̲h̲ālidivva (Yāḳūt, ii, 390), and possibly lived for some time in Baṣra (Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xi, 208 affirms this and attributes to Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān the ethnic designation of al-Baṣrī), but became celebrated above all as the librarians of Sayf al-Dawla, to …

Dukayn al-Rād̲j̲iz

(256 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of two poets who were confused by Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , S̲h̲ākir ed. 592-95) and the authors who copied or utilized him: Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, ʿIḳd , 1346/1928 ed., 202-3; Ag̲h̲ānī , viii, 155—Beirut ed., ix, 252-3; C. A. Nallino, Litt ., (with a note of correction by M. Nallino). 1.—Dukayn b. Rad̲j̲āʾ al-Fuḳaymī (d. 105/723-24); a panegyric in rad̲j̲az composed by him on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr; and an urd̲j̲ūza upon his horse who won a race organized by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (see Yāḳūt, xi, 113-17; Ibn ʿAsākir, v, 274-9), have been preserved. 2.—Dukayn b. Saʿīd al-Dārimī (d. 109/72…


(1,478 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of a celebrated public place in al-Baṣra [ q.v.] which, although situated outside the metropolis of southern ʿIrāḳ, played an outstanding role in the economic life of that town as well as in the shaping of the specifically Arabic culture. Etymologically, the term could be a noun of place anomalously formed from the root r-b-d which implies, amongst other things, the meaning of “to halt, make a stop” and could thus designate a spot where nomads encamp, and then, by extension, where camels and sheep are penned up. The various denotations of t…

al-D̲j̲idd wa ’l-Hazl

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
“seriousness and joking”, a common combination of antithetical terms which have a certain resonance in Muslim ethics and the Arabic literary genre known as adab . Although only the second of these words occurs in the Ḳurʾān, without implication of any kind, while its antonym d̲j̲idd and its synonym muzāḥ do not appear there at all, and although the Ḳurʾān does not explicitly prescribe either serious behaviour or the avoidance of jocularity, Islam without necessarily inspiring sadness and tears in spite of its pessimistic …


(705 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ , Mālikī faḳīh and biographer, originally from K̲h̲us̲h̲an near Ḳayrawān. After studying fiḳh at the latter place and at Tunis, he left his homeland ca. 311/923, passing through Ceuta, where he was held back some time by teaching (he is said also to have corrected the orientation of the mosque there), and travelling to Spain. He resided in the Marches, and completed his legal training, especially from Ḳāsim b. Aṣbag̲h̲ [ q.v.], and ended up by enjoying the favour of the heir to the throne, prince ¶ al-Ḥakam, who procured for him the job of ḳāḍī


(2,249 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.) pl. nawādir , literally “rare thing, rarity”, denotes a pleasing anecdote containing wit, humour, jocularity and lively repartee, ( nukta , pl. nukat ; mulḥa , pl. mulaḥ ; fukāha , etc.) of the type which has never ceased to be an integral feature of all social gatherings, whether intimate or official. A taste for this variety of entertainment seems to have developed in the lst/7th century in the Holy Cities of Islam, especially at Medina, where instruction in the art of composing and delivering anecdotes [see al-d̲j̲idd wa ’l-hazl ] began at a very early st…

al-Ag̲h̲lab al-ʿId̲j̲lī

(183 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( al-ag̲h̲lab b. ʿamr b. ʿubayda b. ḥārit̲h̲a b. dulaf b. ḏj̲us̲h̲am ), Arab poet, born in the pre-Islamic era and converted to Islam, who later settled at al-Kūfa, and was killed at the battle of Nihāwand (21/642) at the reputed age of 90. He is not regarded as one of the Companions of the Prophet. Al-Ag̲h̲lab is considered to be the first to have employed the rad̲j̲az metre in lengthy poems constructed on the pattern of the ḳaṣīda , but very few traces of his works remain. Critics praise particularly a poem on the prophetess Sad̲j̲āḥ [ q.v.], and quote an anecdote which suggests that Islam…

Ibn Munād̲h̲ir

(337 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Muḥammad , satirical poet, a native of ʿAdan, who went to Baṣra for his education, settled there and posed as a mawlā of the Banū Ṣubayr b. Yarbūʿ (Tamīm). He spent a devout and studious youth, following the courses of the best teachers of Baṣra, from whom he learnt grammar, Ḳurʾānic “readings”, lexicography, ḥadīt̲h̲ , etc., but on the death of his friend ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-T̲h̲aḳafī (for whom he wrote a much-admired funeral oration), his attitude changed completely; applying their point of doctrine concerning the tag̲h̲yīr al-munkar , the Muʿtazilīs ¶ were obliged t…

Mawlāy Maḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(2,436 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, name of three Moroccan sultans belonging to the dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.]. I. The first, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, who also bore the title of al-Mahdī and is sometimes known as al-Imām, is generally counted second or third in the list of members of the dynasty, but he may to a certain extent be considered its true founder, since it was he who put an end to that of the Marīnids [ q.v.]. Born probably at Tagmaddart (a district of the Darʿa) in 896/1490-1, he was the younger son of Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳāʾim bi-amr Allāh, who was proclaimed sultan in 916/1510 and d…


(649 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the Arabic name of the small port on the Mediterranean coast of al-Andalus, Almunecar, which made its entry into the history of Islam on 1 Rabīʿ I 138/14 August 755, when the Umayyad prince ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ q.v.] b. Muʿāwiya al-Dāk̲h̲il trod there “for the first time the soil of his future kingdom” (Lévi-Provençal, Hist. Esp. Mus. , i, 101) before setting out to defeat the governor Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Fihrī. As it still is today, Almuñecar was part of the province of which the regional capital was Granada [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], 40 miles away; the fate of the t…

Ibn al-Ḳirriyya

(258 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Sulaymān Ayyūb b. Zayd , of the Zayd Manāt (al-Ḳirriyya was probably the name of his mother or of one of his grandmothers), is presented as an illiterate Bedouin whose eloquence, however, became proverbial to the extent of eclipsing the fame of Saḥbān Wāʾil [ q.v.]. Tradition relates that he lived in the entourage of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and adab books contain discourses, generally rhymed, which he is said to have given on various occasions or in reply to questions from his master. He is reported however to have joined the party of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.], drawing up his lett…

ʿAmr b. ʿAdī

(342 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. naṣr b. rabīʿa , first Lak̲h̲mid King of al-Ḥīra. His father ʿAdī employed a ruse (which frequently appears in Arab legend, cf. the story of ʿAbbāsa bint al-Mahdī) to win the hand of Raḳās̲h̲, sister of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma al-Abras̲h̲ [ q.v.], whose favourite he was; ʿAmr, the offspring of this union, succeeded in winning the favour of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. but was then carried off by the d̲j̲inn , was considered lost, and was finally restored to his uncle. After al-Zabbāʾ (identified with Zenobia, queen of Palmyra) had seduced and killed Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. …

Ibn Dirham

(1,825 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, seldom-used patronym of an eminent family of Mālikī jurists and ḳāḍī s, originally of Baṣra, who bear the ethnic name al-Azdī in some sources; but since the members of this family are most often cited under their personal name or simply by their kunya , and since the line of parentage which connects them is consequently ¶ difficult to determine, it has been judged expedient to assemble them here under this somewhat artificial appellation, following the example of F. al-Bustānī who, in the Dāʾirat al-maʿārif (iii, 61), adopted it for one of them, the tenth of those listed below. These ḳāḍīs, w…

al-Ḥakam b. Muḥammad b. Ḳanbar

(316 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Māzinī , a minor poet of Baṣra, of whose work there remain only some lines of g̲h̲azal [ q.v.] that are entirely proper and for the most part set to music, and also a small number of invectives against Muslim b. al-Walīd [ q.v.]. The date of his birth, which must have taken place in about 110/728-9, is not precisely known, and the only indications concerning him that we possess are two anecdotes: the first tells of the female slaves of Sulaymān b. ʿAlī (d. 142/759 [ q.v.]) maltreating Ibn Ḳanbar, even stripping him in the street, because they were astonished to find so ugly a m…

al-Masḥ ʿAlā ’l-K̲h̲uffayn

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), literally: “act of passing the hand over the boots”, designates the right whereby Sunnī Muslims may, in certain circumstances, pass the hand over their shoes instead of washing their feet as a means of preparing themselves for the saying of the ritual prayer. Al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī ( Taʿrīfāt , ed. Tunis 1971, 112) proposes a definition of the masḥ : “passing the moistened hand without making (water) flow” ( imrār al-yad al-mubtalla bi-lā tasyīl ), which justifies the translation by “wetting of the shoes” which is adopted by L. Bercher and G. H.…

Ḥamza b. Ḥabīb

(350 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUmāra b. Ismāʿīl , Abū ʿUmāra al-Taymī al-Kūfī al-Zayyāt , one of the “Seven Readers” of the Ḳurʾān. A mawlā of the family of ʿIkrima b. Ribʿī al-Taymī, he was born in Ḥulwān in 80/699 and became a merchant; his surname al-Zayyāt arises from the fact that he transported oil from Kūfa to Ḥulwān, whence he brought cheese and nuts. Having settled at Kūfa, he became interested in ḥadīt̲h̲ and the farāʾīḍ , on which he left a Kitāb al-Farāʾīḍ which was probably collected by his pupils ( Fihrist , 44). His fame, however, rests particularly upon his “reading”. A pupil, in this field, of al-Aʿmas̲h̲ [ q.v…

Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Dīnār

(400 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’lʿAbbās, better known as Ibn Dinar al-Aḥwal, rāwī of Bag̲h̲dād who lived in the 3rd/9th century and who died after 250/864. He followed the profession of bookseller ( warrāḳ ) and above all that of copyist ( nāsik̲h̲ ). Earning 20 dirhams per 100 leaves, he copied the translations and personal compositions of Ḥunayn b. Isḥāḳ [ q.v.] as well as the writings of al-Yazīdī [ q.v.], whose courses he had more or less followed, as those also of Nifṭawayh [ q.v.], since he had an interest in philology. He himself wrote in turn a series of works of which a list has been preserved by the biographers: K. al…


(465 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, M. | Pellat, Ch.
, abū sālim ʿabd allāh b. muḥammad , man of letters, traditionist, lawyer and Sūfī scholar, born in the Berber tribe of the Aït (Ayt) ʿAyyās̲h̲ of the Middle Moroccan Atlas at the end of S̲h̲aʿbān 1037/April-May 1628, died of plague in Morocco on 10 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1090/13 December 1679. After having travelled through Morocco “in search of knowledge” and obtained an id̲j̲āza from ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Fāsī [ q.v.], in 1059/1649 he made his first pilgrimage to Mecca going via Touat, Ouargla and Tripoli; then, in 1064/1653-4 he made a second pilgrimage, on returning from which he wrote his Riḥla


(1,358 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), pl. of ḥawrāʾ and its masc. aḥwar , adjective from the root ḥ.w.r ., with the general idea of ‘whiteness’ (the root ḥ.y.r ., signifying ‘perplexity’ or ‘astonishment’, which has occasionally been suggested, is to be rejected); ḥawrāʾ is applied more particularly to the very large eye of the gazelle or the oryx, the clear whiteness of which arises from the contrast with the blackness of the pupil and the iris; by extension, ḥawrāʾ signifies a woman whose big black eyes are in contrast to their ‘whites’ and to the whiteness of the skin. The plural ḥūr is a substant…

Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā

(5,623 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A.
, “the Madman of Laylā”, or Mad̲j̲nūn Banī ʿĀmir, the name given to the hero of a romantic love story, the original form of which could date back as far as the second half of the 1st/7th Century. 1. In Arabic literature This imaginary character (acknowledged as such even by some Arab critics; see Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, ii, 6, 11) has been furnished by the ruwāt with an ism and with a complete genealogy; Ḳays b. al-Mulawwaḥ b. Muzāḥim b. Ḳays b. ʿUdas b. Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rābīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, but according to the evidence, …

Ibn Lad̲j̲aʾ

(191 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿUmar b. Lad̲j̲aʾ b. Ḥudayr al-Taymī , of the Taym b. ʿAbd Manāt, an Arab poet of the 1st/7th century. Al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ emphasizes his skill in composing poems in rad̲j̲az and ḳaṣīdas , and Ibn Sallām places him in the fourth “class” of Islamic poets, but he has escaped oblivion chiefly owing to the invectives that he exchanged with Ḏj̲arīr [ q.v.]; these fragments of hid̲j̲āʾ are in part preserved in the Naḳāʾiḍ and in various anthologies, which for the most part ignore his other compositions; his rivalry with Ḏj̲arīr appears basically to have be…


(207 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nickname of a satirical poet of Baṣra named Ḵh̲idās̲h̲ b. Bis̲h̲r al-Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿī. Though held to be the greatest orator of the Tamīm, Ibn Sallām places him in the second class of the great Islamic poets. The critics, however, consider that his relative obscurity was only due to the renown of Ḏj̲arīr; al-Baʿīt̲h̲’s activity is in fact associated with that of the two rivals Ḏj̲arīr and al-Farazdaḳ: for many years he exchanged invectives with the former, but was obliged to call the latter to h…

Abu ’l-S̲h̲īṣ

(283 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A. | Pellat, Ch.
Muḥammad ( b. ʿAbd Allāh ) b. Razīn al Ḵh̲uzāʿī , Arab poet, died about 200/915. Like his relative Diʿbil [ q.v.], he lived at the court of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd for whom he wrote panegyrics, and afterwards dirges. He then went to al-Raḳḳa and obtained the favours of the amīr ʿUḳba b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, remaining his boon-companion and court poet until 196/811.—To judge by the rare fragments of his work that have been preserved, Abu ’l-S̲h̲īṣ does not appear as an orginal poet in his panegyrics, hunting poe…


(290 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(not al-Ḥuṣayn) b. al-Mund̲h̲ir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Waʿla al-Raḳās̲h̲ī al-Bakrī , Abū sāsān , a notable and poet of Baṣra ranking among the leading Tābiʿūn (d. ca. 100/718-9). His family was well-known even before Islam; some at least of its members had a reputation for avarice, which al-Ḥuḍayn seems to have justified, if we may judge by the words attributed to him by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, which leave no doubt as to his love of riches. While still quite young, he took part in the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] and fought bravely; he carried the standard of the Rabīʿa in the army of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāl…

His̲h̲ām b. ʿAmr al-Fuwaṭī

(494 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(or al-Fawṭī ), a Muʿtazilī of Baṣra, where he was the pupil of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl [ q.v.]. After having probably been a wandering propagator of Iʿtizāl (Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist , ed. Fück, in Prof. Muḥ. S̲h̲afīʿ presentation volume, Lahore 1955, 68-9), he went to Bag̲h̲dād during the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn and died there at a date not known exactly, but probably before 218/833. His personal doctrine, which had a certain influence on al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], differs appreciably, accoiding to Ibn al-Nadīm ( op. cit.), from the teachings of the other Muʿtazila, but the data given by th…

Abu ’l-Dunyā

(322 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-Hasan ʿAli b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb (or ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲.), one of those to whom preternatural longevity has been ascribed ( muʿammarun , q.v.); he is also called al-Muʿammar al-Mag̲h̲ribī or al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muʿammar. He is said to have been born about 600 A.D. and to have died in 316/928, 327/938-9 or even 476/1083-4. Of the tribe of Hamdān, he drank in his youth from the source of life in the presence of al-Ḵh̲aḍir [ q.v.], then joined ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib, with whom he fought at Ṣiffīn and from whom he received the name of Abu ’l-Dunyā, after his hors…

Ibn S̲h̲uhayd

(1,998 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿĀmir Aḥmad b. Abī Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Abī ʿUmar Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd al-As̲h̲d̲j̲aʿī , Andalusian poet, man of letters and vizier, born at Cordova, in 382/992, of an Arab family whose ancestor S̲h̲uhayd had settled in Spain before 162/778 and whose members included important officials in the Umayyad government. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd had been a minister during the reign of Muḥammad I (238-73/852-86); Abū ʿĀmir’s great-grandfather had been appointed …

Ibn al-Zubayr

(399 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Zubayr b. Muḥammad al-T̲h̲aḳafī al-ʿĀṣimī , Andalusian traditionist, reader of the Ḳurʾān, man of letters and historian, born at Jaén (Ḏj̲ayyān) in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 627/September-October 1230, d. Granada on 8 Rabīʿ I 708/26 August 1308. He seems to have been particularly interested in Ḳurʾānic ‘readings’, but his biographers speak very highly of his knowledge of the Arabic language and describe him as “the muḥaddit̲h̲ of al-Andalus and of the Mag̲h̲rib”. His propensity for redressing wrongs got him into tro…


(317 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Ṭālib ʿAzīz al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad ... b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, a Ḥusaynī who seems to have devoted himself to the study of genealogies, although he is also credited with knowledge of astronomy and, like so many others, he was a composer of verse. His ancestors had left Medina and settled first in Bag̲h̲dād, then in Ḳum(m) and finally in Marw, where he was born on 22 D̲j̲umādā 572/26 December 1176. He embarked on traditional studies in his nat…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(907 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿḤusayn b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad , a S̲h̲īʿī Arab poet in the time of the Būyids [ q.v.]. Born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 330/941-2, of a family of government officials and secretaries, he completed the traditional studies and was partly trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ (313-84/925-94 [see al-ṣābiʾ ]) who made him take up an administrative career, but he very quickly perceived that his poetic talents could prove more profitable and resigned his post. At first he was connected with the vizier al-Muhallabī [ q.v.] for whom he wrote a panegyric and …


(2,754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
is the Arabic word in use at the present time to denote “sex”, the adjective d̲j̲insī corresponding to “sexual” and the abstract d̲j̲insiyya to “sexuality” as well as “nationality”. The juridical aspect of sexual relations has already been examined in the article bāh , and is to be the subject of further articles, nikāḥ and zinā ; the present review will be limited to general considerations on the sexual life of the Muslims and the place that it occupies in literature. Pre-Islamic poetry, in so far as it is authentic, indicates that a certain laxity of behaviour was prevalen…

Aḥmad b. Abī Duʾād

(548 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Pellat, Ch.
al-īyādī , abū ʿabd allāh , Muʿtazilite ḳāḍī born at Baṣra about 160/776. Through his own merit and also, it is said, through the good offices of Yaḥyā b. Akt̲h̲am [ q.v.], who introduced him to the Court at Bag̲h̲dād, he reached a position of great honour under the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, soon becoming one of the Caliph’s closest friends. Shortly before his death, the Caliph recommended his brother and successor al-Muʿtaṣim to admit Aḥmad, a fervent follower of the Muʿtazilite doctrine, to the circle of his advisers, and as a resu…


(441 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī , a learned Moroccan scholar and teacher, from a family originally from Meknès, born in Fās 926/1520 and died there 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda/18 October 1587. Endowed with vast learning and a great power of verbal expressiveness, he spent his life teaching, with the methods in use at the time, various Islamic topics, in particular, theology and law, and was considered one of the greatest masters of his age at the Karawiyyīn [ q.v.]. Between 987 and 993/1579-85, he stayed frequently for periods in Marrakesh, where his most eminent disc…


(1,676 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, abū ʿubāda al-walīd b. ʿubayd ( allāh ), Arab poet and anthologist of 3rd/9th century (206-284/821-897), born at Manbid̲j̲ (some state his birthplace to be the neighbouring village of Ḥurdufna), into a family belonging to the Buḥtur, a branch of the Ṭayyiʾ; not only did he never completely sever connexions with his native town, where the fortune amassed during his long career as court poet allowed him to acquire property, but he took advantage of his tribal origin to make useful connexions for himself. After having dedicated his first poetic efforts (223-6/837-40) to the prais…

Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUyayna

(447 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( = Abu ’l-Minhāl) ¶ b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra , Abū Ḥarb al-Muhallabī, ʿAbbāsid official who was governor of Rayy under the caliphate of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75); it is also known that the latter imprisoned him and imposed a fine on him ( Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, xx, 23). This obscure individual merits attention only on account of the confusion created in the minds of authors and editors or commentators, on the one hand by the name (or surname, but not kunya ) of Abū ʿUyayna born by two descendants of al-Muhallab [ q.v.], sc. his son, who was the father of this Muḥammad, and his great…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Aḥmar

(375 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the usual name of a philologist of Baṣra called ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan/al-Mubārak, who was taught by al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], whose eager pupil he was; after his master, he became tutor to the future caliphs al-Amīn and al-Maʾmūn. The biographical sources record that al-Aḥmar was originally a member of al-Ras̲h̲īd’s guard, so that, being very attracted to the study of philology, he was unable to attend al-Kisāʾī’s teaching sessions except when he was not on duty in the palace. When the master came to give lessons to the you…


(387 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn al-Ḥasan b. Ahmad , Arab geographer, about whom it is only known that he died in 380/990 after having dedicated to the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi’llāh (365-86/975-96) [ q.v.] a work which came within the category of those called al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik [ q.v.] and which actually bore this title but which is generally cited under that of al-ʿAzīzī . Although this work has not yet been rediscovered, it was already possible to get an idea of its contents thanks to several later authors who utilised it and took from it items of information, usu…

Ismāʿīl b. Yasār

(398 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Nisāʾī , Medinan poet, who died at a very advanced age some years before the end of the Umayyad dynasty (132/750). The descendant of an Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ānī prisoner, he was a mawlā of the Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and it is said that he owed his nisba to the fact that his father prepared meals—or sold carpets—for weddings, but this interpretation should be treated with caution. At Medina, where he lived, he had become a supporter of the Zubayrids, but his friendly relations with ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] (in whose company he went to the court of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān after the…

al-Namir (Namr) b. Tawlab al-ʿUklī

(621 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Rabīʿa, a muk̲h̲aḍram [ q.v.] Arabie poet, who probably died before 23/644 at an extremely advanced age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, Muʿammarīn , 70, makes him live 200 years, and cites six verses in which he speaks of his great age; other authors refer equally to his senility). The generosity of which he seems to have given proof on various occasions makes one think that he was rich and powerful within his tribe, which he represented in heading a delegation to the Prophet at Medina. The oldest sources (Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , 137, in the first place) reproduce a lette…

Laḥn al-ʿĀmma

(5,487 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, “errors of language made by the common people”, is an expression which characterises a branch of lexicography designed to correct deviations by reference to the contemporary linguistic norm, as determined by the purists. The treatises which could be classed under this heading, correspond, broadly speaking, to our “do not say... but say...”, the incorrect form generally being introduced by “you say” or “they say = one says” ( taḳūl , yaḳūlūn ) and the correct form by wa ’l-ṣawāb ... “whereas the norm is...”; they are most often intitled Kitāb Laḥn al-ʿāmma or Kitāb mā talḥan/yalḥan fīhi…


(1,860 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a complex and delicate notion which includes a certain number of qualities of character or moral attitudes, ranging from serene justice and moderation to forbearance and leniency, with self-mastery and dignity of bearing standing between these extremes. The term, which is sometimes linked with ʿilm , more however from stylistic considerations and a taste for paronomasia than from any conceptual association, is basically contrasted with d̲j̲ahl [see d̲j̲āhiliyya ] and safah or safāha ; a derivative from the latter root appears in the expression saffahal-aḥlām

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(528 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl al-Ṭarābulusī , Arab philologist from a family originally stemming from Ad̲j̲dābiya (Libya); he himself lived at Tripoli, where he died at an uncertain date, probably in the first half of the 7th/13th century. Hardly anything further is known about his life, and the biographers limit themselves to emphasising the breadth of his knowledge and his contribution to the technical literature of scholars of his time. They attribute to him some eight works, whose titles show that he was interested in lexicography, metrics, the anwāʾ [ q.v.] and genealogies (he i…

Ḥamza b. Bīḍ

(453 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥanafī al-Kūfī (the spelling Bīḍ is attested by a verse where this name rhymes with tanbīḍ al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Bayān , ed. Hārūn, iv, 47), is one of those Arab poets, full of wit and verve, ¶ whom the great men of the day did not take seriously but loaded with riches to gain their eulogies and escape their sarcasms, for they were quick to get the laugh on their side and, free of all scruples, did not hesitate to use blackmail. Ḥamza b. Bīḍ, who is treated by his biographers with indulgence and sympathy, is said to have succeeded in extracting from the great men whose company he frequented a million dirhams
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